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People and organizations
Corporate body

University of Toronto. Faculty of Medicine

  • Corporate body
  • 1843-current

The University of Toronto's Faculty of Medicine was originally founded in 1843, but dissolved in 1853 in favour of 3 separate medical schools; Trinity Medical College, the Toronto School of Medicine and Woman's Medical College. In 1887, the Faculty of Medicine was re-established and absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine.

Science for Peace (Toronto, Ont.)

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/142148972
  • Corporate body
  • 1981-

Science for Peace is a registered charity concerned with issues relating to human security, including world peace, environmental and social justice. The national office is based at the University of Toronto’s University College with local chapters across Canada. For further information, see the Science for Peace website.

Science for Peace was founded in 1981 by University of Toronto faculty members led by professor of physics, Eric Fawcett. The founding group also included mathematical psychologist Anatol Rapoport, nuclear physicist Derek Paul, chemistry Nobel Laureate John Polanyi, and mathematician, L. Terrell Gardner, amongst others. Motivated by the threat of nuclear war and the arms race, their objective was to “encourage scientific activities directed towards peace, and to urge the publication and dissemination of the findings of peace research.”[1] Science for Peace traces its origins to a committee created by Fawcett in 1980 called “The Committee for Directing Science Toward Peace.”[2] The objective of this committee was to prepare a paper for presentation at the American Association for the Advancement of Science’s first Canadian conference, held in Toronto in 1981. Following the conference, the committee continued to meet and became Science for Peace, achieving charitable status in 1984. Membership grew rapidly.
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One goal of Science for Peace in its early years was the establishment of peace studies as a field of study at the University of Toronto. As a result of their efforts, a Chair of Peace Studies was established at University College. Anatol Rapoport was appointed the first professor of peace studies in 1984 initiating what became an interdisciplinary four-year degree program, coordinated by L. Terrell Gardner. The program evolved into the Peace, Conflict and Justice program at the Trudeau Centre for Peace, Conflict and Justice. Rapoport was elected president of Science for Peace in 1984 and remained on its executive until 1998. His wife, Gwen Rapoport, did administrative work for the organization and edited its newsletter. Other notable Science for Peace members over the years include Lynn Trainor, George Ignatieff, Ian Hacking, Hanna Newcombe, Ursula Franklin, David Suzuki, John E. Dove, John P. Valleau, E.J. Barbeau, Brydon Gombay and John Tuzo Wilson, amongst many others.

Other educational activities of Science for Peace include the Science for Peace Seminars organized by Eric Fawcett and Myriam Fernandez in fall 1981. The seminars provided education about peace-related topics by local experts. In 1982, George Ignatieff (then Chancellor of the University) established a series of free lectures: the University College Lectures in Peace Studies. These were later combined with the seminars to form the Science for Peace Public Lectures, supported by other peace-related groups and reaching a wider audience, both in person and via broadcast on CIUT-FM’s “Peacetide” and excerpts in “Peace” magazine, edited since 1985 by University of Toronto sociologist and Science for Peace executive member Metta Spencer.

While the initial focus of Science for Peace was on the nuclear threat, by the late 1980s it had broadened to include the environmental crisis and the potential harms attendant on the move towards corporate globalisation. Membership expanded beyond University of Toronto faculty to include students and members of the public in all disciplines and professions across Canada.

Additional activities of Science for Peace and its membership since its formation in 1981 include the following: various teaching activities; publication of academic research and regular bulletins; organization of working groups, petitions, workshops and conferences in Canada; attendance at national and international peace conferences and events, including the Pugwash Conferences and events related to the Science for Peace International Network (SPIN). On occasion, members of the organization have acted in a consultative capacity to the Canadian government in matters relating to peace and disarmament and have been recognized both nationally and internationally for their contributions to world peace.


Notes
[1] Alton, Janis, Eric Fawcett and L. Terrell Gardner. “The Objectives of Science for Peace” in The Name of the Chamber was Peace: A selection of the Science for Peace public lectures and University College lectures in peace studies Toronto, 1986. Toronto and Fort Myers: Samuel Stevens and Company, 1988.
[2] Paul, Derek. “Reflections on the Origins of SfP by one of its founders: Derek Paul interview 2020.” Audio interview, 2020, accessed at the Science for Peace "About Us" page.

Skydiggers

  • Corporate body
  • 1988-

Skydiggers was formed in Toronto in 1988 by Andy Maize and Josh Finlayson. Maize and Finlayson were childhood friends and had previously performed as West Montrose. Peter Cash, Wayne Stokes, and Ron Macey filled out the initial lineup. With support from Peter’s brother Andrew, who also suggested their name, they began performing regularly at the Spadina Hotel.

Skydiggers were the first Canadian band to sign with Enigma Records and released their debut album in 1990. Enigma folded in 1991, and the band moved to FRE Records. There, Skydiggers released Restless in 1992. Stokes then left the band and was replaced by Mike Sloski, Steve Pitkin, and then Joel Anderson. Just Over This Mountain was released in 1993, earning the band a Juno Award for “most promising group.” Peter von Althen replaced Anderson after this album.

In 1995, Skydiggers signed with Warner Canada and put out Road Radio. After touring, Cash left the band and was replaced by Paul MacLeod. When the group left Warner, von Althen also exited. In 1997, the band signed with DROG Records and released Desmond’s Hip City. They subsequently toured with Blue Rodeo and Sarah Harmer. In 1999, they re-recorded Restless as Still Restless: The Lost Tapes, and in 2000, released the live album, There and Back.

In the following years, Skydiggers recorded Bittersweet Harmony (2003), Skydiggers/Cash Brothers (2006), City of Sirens (2009), The Truth About Us (2009), Northern Shore (2012), All Of Our Dreaming (2013), No. 1 Northern (2013), She Comes Into The Room (2013), Angels (2014), Here Without You (2014), Warmth Of The Sun (2017), Let’s Get Friendship Right
(2019), and the EPs Hide Your Light and Bide Your Time (both 2023).

Finlayson and Maize have produced a side project, Dark Hollow (2006), and in 2010, Maize released a solo album, A History Of Forgetting.

Eloísa Cartonera

  • Corporate body

Eloísa Cartonera is a graphic arts and independent publishing cooperative founded in 2003 in Buenos Aires by Fernanda Laguna, Washington Cucurto (Santiago Vega), and Javier Barilaro. Eloísa Cartonera publishes illustrated and handmade books of poetry, novels, short stories, and essays. The texts are created and donated by established and emerging Latin American authors, poets, artists, and activists. The Eloísa Cartonera team works with cartoneros, or cardboard collectors, to source material used for the covers of their illustrated handmade books. The small-scale, independent collective model of production and the use of inexpensive and recyclable materials creates publications that support social solidarity and sustainability efforts and make books accessible to a wider public.

University of Toronto. Dynamic Graphics Project

  • Corporate body
  • 1967-

The Dynamic Graphics Project was founded in 1967 by Professor Leslie Mezei. He was joined by Professor Ron Baecker in 1972, who coined the name Dynamic Graphics Project in 1974. The lab’s name was intended to imply the spirit of the place, and to encompass both Computer Graphics and Dynamic Interaction Techniques, which was subsumed by the new field of Human Computer Interaction in the early 1980’s. The lab is now home to several faculty members and dozens of post-docs, visiting researchers, graduate students, undergraduate research assistants, and staff. The lab’s alumni are now on faculty at top universities throughout the world and at major industrial research labs, and have also won academy awards for their groundbreaking work.

Janis Cole & Holly Dale

  • Corporate body
  • 1975-Present

Janis Cole (b. 1954, Chatham, Ontario) and Holly Dale (b. 1953, Toronto, Ontario) are a filmmaking duo who have produced and directed works together, and separately. They first met in 1975 at Sheridan College, in Oakville, in the film studies program. At the time, the pair both lived near Toronto’s Yonge Street strip, which was known for its sex shops, massage parlours, and sex workers. Cole and Dale took to documenting the people and scenes around them in their signature direct cinema style, relying mostly on interviews with their subjects, and minimal to no voiceover narration. Their first documentary films together, “Cream Soda” (1976) and “Minimum Charge, No Cover” (1976) both dealt frankly with sex trade workers and entertainers. Their next film, “Thin Line” (1977) also explored the lives of those on the social margins – this time focusing on the inmates at the Penetang Hospital for the Criminally Insane.
The pair launched their film production company, Spectrum Films, in the early 1980s, and continued to explore themes of social marginality. Their first feature and breakthrough film, “P4W: Prison For Women” (1981) focused on the stories, experiences, and relationships of five inmates at Kingston’s Prison for Women, Canada’s only female prison at the time. “P4W” was groundbreaking in terms of its largely positive portrayal of a lesbian relationship onscreen. It was also incredibly successful, earning over half a million dollars in Canadian sales against its modest $32,000 budget, and garnering Cole and Dale a Genie Award for Best Theatrical Documentary.
Cole and Dale followed up the success of “P4W” with “Hookers on Davie” (1984), which examined the lives of cis and transgender sex workers on Davie Street in the West End of Vancouver, set in the context of mayor Mike Harcourt’s efforts to “clean up” Vancouver’s streets, as well as the federal government’s Fraser Commission investigations into prostitution and pornography. In gaining the trust of their subjects, Cole and Dale produced a remarkably fierce and candid work that earned the duo their second Genie Award nomination for Best Theatrical Documentary.
The pair’s next film dealt with the world of filmmaking itself. “Calling the Shots” (1988) was a feature-length documentary about the lives of women in the film industry, with interviews of Jeanne Moreau, Anne Wheeler, Sandy Wilson, Margot Kidder, Penelope Spheeris, and Lizzie Borden among others. The film premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival in 1988 and was nominated for Best Theatrical Documentary at the Genie Awards in 1989.
Cole and Dale also collaborated on projects for television. In 1992, Cole wrote, and Dale directed a Canadian Heritage minute about Agnes MacPhail, the first woman to be elected to the Canadian House of Commons, and her battle for penal reform. And in 1996, Cole wrote, and Dale directed the television film “Dangerous Offender” (also known as “Dangerous Offender: The Marlene Moore Story”) for CBC. The film centered on Marlene Moore, one of the women Cole and Dale had originally profiled in “P4W,” and the first woman in Canada to be designated as a dangerous offender. The wrenching portrayal of Moore’s life behind bars earned the film seven Gemini Award nominations and two wins: one for Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role in a Dramatic Program or Mini-Series, for Brooke Johnson’s performance as Marlene, and one for Best Performance by an Actress in a Featured Supporting Role in a Dramatic Program or Mini-Series, for Jayne Eastwood’s performance as Marlene’s mother.
Cole and Dale also collaborated on a book version of their film “Calling the Shots”, which was released by Quarry Press in 1994. Together, they also received the 1994 Toronto Arts Award. Their films have appeared in countless international festivals, including Toronto, Chicago, Paris, Berlin, Tel Aviv, Syndey, and Tokyo.
Outside of her collaboration with Dale, Janis Cole continued her own work in film and television. In 1990, she directed the documentary short “Shaggie: Letters from Prison”, a segment in the Canadian film anthology “Five Feminist Minutes.” This film also explored the life of Marlene Moore through letters she wrote from prison, until her suicide in 1988. Cole also directed the short film “Bowie: One in a Million” (2001), which was a tribute to her friend Cathie Bowie, who was murdered by her husband. Cole also wrote for the television series ”Bliss” as well as “Exhibit A: Secrets of Forensic Science.” Additionally, Cole was also a contributing writer and editor of “POV Magazine” and a writer and film reviewer for “NOW Magazine.” Cole has taught several filmmaking, writing, and documentary workshops at the Winnipeg Film Group, Charles Street Video, and Trinity Square Video. She was also a professor in the Integrated Media program at OCAD University for 30 years and is now a Professor Emerita. Cole holds a Master of Fine Arts in Documentary Media from Toronto Metropolitan University.
Outside of her collaboration with Cole, Dale also continued to work in film and television. Dale attended the inaugural Canadian Film Center program in 1995, resulting in her first narrative feature film – the vampire romp “Blood and Donuts” (1995). Dale then largely focused on directing for television, starting in the mid-90s on series such as “Traders”, ”Bliss” and “Exhibit A: Secrets of Forensic Science.” In the early 2000s, her credits included several episodes of “Twice in a Lifetime”, “The Collector” and “Sue Thomas: F.B.Eye.” Dale also directed several episodes of “Durham County”, the first of which earned her both the Gemini Award for Best Direction in Dramatic Series and the DGC Craft Award for Direction in a Television Series. Dale also directed episodes of hit Canadian shows such as Flashpoint” and “Being Erica.” Dale began to find work south of the border, directing episodes of well-known American programs such as “Law and Order: Special Victims Unit,” “The Americans,” and “Dexter.” She also continued to direct on high-profile Canadian series such as “Mary Kills People” and “Transplant,” the latter of which earned her a Canadian Screen Award for Best Direction in a Drama Series. Her recent directorial credits include “Batwoman” and the Netflix series “FUBAR” starring Arnold Schwartzenegger.

CCMC

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/147681489
  • Corporate body
  • 1974-

The Canadian Creative Music Collective, or CCMC as they were known by 1978, is a "free music orchestra" founded in Toronto in 1974. The group was inspired by free jazz and defined themselves as "a composing ensemble... united by a desire to play music that is fluid, spontaneous, and self-regulating."

By the time of their third album (1978), they had developed several hundred interpretations of the acronym CCMC, including Craven Cowards Muttering Curses, Cries Crashes Murmurs Clanks, Careless Choir Muffling Chord, Completely Canadian Monster Circus, Certified Careless Mush Concept, Clip Clop Manure Crop, and Catchy Canuck Melody Convinces. These names are featured on the cover of their third album Volume Three.

CCMC established the Music Gallery in 1976 where they performed twice-weekly until 1983, and then weekly. They were formally associated with the Gallery until 2000. CCMC has also performed on multiple tours in Canada and Europe and at various national and international festivals, and has recorded 11 albums.

CCMC was made up of: Peter Anson, guitar and synthesizer (1974-1979); Graham Coughtry, trombone (1974-1977); Larry Dubin, percussion (1974-1978); Greg Gallagher, saxophones (1974-1977); Nobuo Kubota, saxophones (1974-1994); Allan "Al" Mattes, bass, bass guitar, electronics (1974-1996); Casey Sokol, piano (1974-1988); Bill Smith, saxophones (1974-1977); and Michael Snow, piano, trumpet, guitar, analogue synthesizer (1976-2023); John Kamevaar, drums, electronics (1981-1996); Paul Dutton, vocals (1989-); Jack Vorvis, drums (1994-1996); and John Oswald, alto saxophone (1996-).

Faculty of Music Anti-Racism Alliance

  • Local
  • Corporate body
  • 2020-

The Faculty of Music Anti-Racism Alliance (FoMARA) is a student organization which aims to create an equitable and safe environment within the University of Toronto Faculty of Music, empowering the voices of BIPOC members. FoMARA advocates on issues surrounding racism, systemic oppression, and colonialism. Goals of the organization include facilitating student activism, fostering dialogue between students, faculty, and administration, and challenging Eurocentric pedagogy, curriculum content, and performance values within the Faculty of Music.

Conservatory Chamber Music Club

  • Local
  • Corporate body
  • 1937 - ca. 1943

The Conservatory Chamber Music Club of the Toronto Conservatory of Music (TCM) was sponsored by members of the Conservatory Quartet (Elie Spivak, Harold Sumberg, violins; Cecil Figelski, viola; and Leo Smith, cello). They held their first meeting on November 29, 1937 at TCM with William Haehnel, president and Phyllis Parker, secretary. Other members of the initial executive were Molly Sclater, librarian; Emily Baker, rehearsals; and Persis Hebden, convener. The Club aimed to present chamber music rarely heard elsewhere, including a minimum performance a one original Canadian compositions at each meeting. They also formed a Chamber Orchestra of approximately 22-25 members, conducted by a music student (Frank March, 1937-1938; Wilfred Powell, 1938-1939; and Broch McElheran, 1939-1940).

Membership was open to students of TCM and other institutions, and ranged from 65 to 170 people. The Club met monthly throughout the school year (September or October to May), usually at TCM. Meetings included performances and guest lectures and refreshments for informal discussions. In November 1941, after the Musicians' Union decreed that no member could perform at a Club meeting without a fee, the Club turned to "impromptu chamber music," whereby instead of a pre-scheduled program, members would bring their instruments and perform chamber music together ad hoc.

Guest speakers at Club meetings included Leo Smith, Viggo Kihl, Donald Heins, Ettore Mazzoleni, Norman Wilkes, Sir Ernest MacMillan, Frederick Horwood, Hugo Burghauser, and Elie Spivak. Original Canadian compositions included those by Patricia Blomfield, William Haehnel, Robert Manson, C.M. Birkett, Martin Chenhall, Thomas J. Crawford, Walter McNutt, Healey Willan, Godfrey Ridout, Ernest Farmer, John Weinzweig, Godfrey Ridout, Mrs. Piersall, Horace Lapp, George Coutts, Barbara Pentland, Robert Fleming, and Marcus Adeney.

In 1939, Chris Wood took over as president and Elinor K. Doan replaced Phyllis Parker as secretary. Godfrey Ridout was president during the 1942-1943 academic year.

Greater Toronto Chapter of the National Association of Japanese Canadians

  • Corporate body
  • 1947-

The Greater Toronto Chapter of the National Association of Japanese Canadians has its history stemming from the National Japanese Canadian Citizens Association (NJCCA). Founded in 1947 by Roger Obata and other nisei leaders, the NJCCA was the first national organization by Japanese Canadians. Japanese Canadians were still disenfranchised and facing injustice from the unlawful dispossession of the community. In April 1980, the NJCCA changed their name to the NAJC, though many chapters, including the Toronto chapter kept NJCCA in their name.

1977 marked the centennial of the fist issei, Nagano Manzo, arriving in Canada. This large community celebration brought many Japanese Canadians together, and informal discussion of redress began. By the early 80s, friction between members in the Toronto JCCA began and stemmed from whether redress should include individual compensation, representing the huge loss of assets and work during the internment. Many members of the Toronto JCCA felt that the Toronto chapter was not representing the views of the majority, nor aligned with the NAJC on the national level. To protest this, members created the North York Chapter of the NAJC, which later would be renamed to the Greater Toronto NAJC, headed by Wes Fujiwara. Between 1983 and 1984, the nonpartisan group Sodan-Kai helped bring together and facilitate discussions between the Toronto JCCA and those who believed redress should include recognition of individual loss. In their efforts to seek redress, the NAJC had the Price Waterhouse Associates assess the loss endured by the Japanese Canadian community from the internment. This was calculated to income and property losses at not less than $443 million in 1986 dollar. The Greater Toronto NAJC organized and led many demonstrations demanding the Canadian government recognize their racist actions towards the Japanese Canadians and offer redress. These demonstrations include the Ottawa rally in April 1980 where many prominent members of the Japanese Canadian community met with Minister of State for Multiculturalism Gerry Weiner, opening up the discussion for redress.

On September 22, 1988, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney announces a Redress Settlement negotiated between the National Association of Japanese Canadians and the federal government. The Redress Settlement acknowledged injustices against Japanese Canadians during and after World War II, provide a payment of $21,000 to all Japanese Canadians affected by the provisions of the War Measures Act, expunge criminal records of those charged with offenses stemming from violation of provisions of the War Measures Act, re-instate citizenship of those exiled to Japan, establish a $12million community fund to help rebuild community infrastructure, and provide $24million to establish the Canadian Race Relations Foundation

Toronto became the Eastern Regional Office for the Redress Advisory and Assistance Committee, aiding field workers as they intern aided members of the Japanese Canadian community complete their redress forms. The Eastern Regional Office also worked with members of the community re-apply or appeal unsatisfactory decisions regarding their Redress applications.

After winning the battle for Redress, the Greater Toronto chapter of the NAJC continues to seek justice and support marginalized communities who have faced discrimination from the Canadian government and elsewhere.

Blissymbolics Communication Institute Canada

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/153721284
  • Corporate body
  • 1975 - present

Blissymbolics Communication International (BCI) was established in 1975, originally as Blissymbolics Communication Foundation (BCF). BCI is a non-profit organization with the worldwide authority, “to publish, teach and disseminate Blissymbols in any manner whatsoever for use by handicapped persons and persons having communication, language and learning difficulties.” (Legal agreement with C.K. Bliss, 1982).

Blissymbolics is an augmentative communication language, derived from an international semantic language developed in the 1940s by Charles K. Bliss (1897-1985), published in his book Semantography – Blissymbolics (1965). The language uses pictographic and ideographic symbols to convey meaning, with symbols representing specific words or concepts.

In 1971, Shirley McNaughton (1931—) within a clinical team working with children with cerebral palsy at the then Ontario Crippled Children's Centre (OCCC) – now the Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital – discovered the work of Bliss in a book called Signs and Symbols Around the World by Elizabeth Helfman (1967). The team was able to acquire Semantography which detailed the use of Blissymbolics as an international language. Then, the team introduced Blissymbols as a communication method for non-speaking students at the OCCC.

After the successful response to Blissymbolics in OCCC classrooms, the Blissymbol program was formalized as an OCCC service called Blissymbolics Communication Service (BCS) in 1975. This program gained international recognition as a breakthrough for persons who were non-speaking. The BCS was later renamed to Augmentative Communication Service (ACS) in the 1980s with a broader communication mandate, and was supported by the Easter Seal Society (ESS) until 1991, when the ESS program was closed. This augmentative communication service then became a program of Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital.

Blissymbolics programs have had many name changes through the decades. In 1975, BCI was established as the Blissymbolics Communication Foundation in order to separate the international administrative work of Blissymbolics from the services provided by the BCS. In 1980, BCF was renamed to Blissymbolics Communication Institute to clarify that the organization was not a foundation giving out grants. In 1987, the program was renamed to the Easter Seal Communication Institute (ESCI) to recognize the primary financial supporter of Bliss services, the Easter Seal Society. In 1994, the organization was renamed to Blissymbolics Communication International to recognize its primary mandate. In 2009, a process began in order to enable the Sweden Bliss organization to take on the international responsibilities. This agreement was completed in 2011, and the Sweden organization assumed the name, Blissymbolics Communication International, and acquired the worldwide authority to publish, teach and disseminate Blissymbols. The Canadian organization adopted the trade name of Blissymbolics Communication Institute – Canada (BCIC) in 2009, changing from its international mandate to providing resources and support for the Bliss community in Canada. Today, BCIC continues to support Bliss users and alumni.

University of Toronto. Faculty of Information (iSchool)

  • Corporate body
  • 1928-current

The University of Toronto's Faculty of Information (iSchool) was established in 1928 as Ontario's first formal library school with a full-year academic program in Library Science within the Ontario College of Education. In 1965, the department separated from the Ontario College of Education and became the School of Library Science. In 1972 the School of Library Science attained Faculty status, and became the Faculty of Library Science (FLS). In 1982, the Faculty was renamed the Faculty of Library and Information Studies (FLIS) and in 1994 became the Faculty of Information Studies (FIS). Finally, in 2008, FIS became the Faculty of Information, the iSchool at the University of Toronto. The name change reflects its closer alignment with the iSchool movement. Additional information on the Faculty's history, including a timeline, can be found here - https://ischool.utoronto.ca/about-us/legacy-of-excellence/

Taipei Economic & Cultural Office (TECO)

  • Corporate body
  • 1993 -

The Taipei Economic and Cultural Office (TECO) was established in Toronto in 1993. In addition to consular services, its mandate is “to promote exchange and cooperation between Taiwan and Canada within its jurisdiction over Ontario, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island.” A related TECO Culture Centre was established in Toronto in 1989, moving to a Scarborough facility in 1994.

Source: https://www.roc-taiwan.org/cayyz_en/index.html

Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Centre

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/148930761
  • Corporate body
  • 1958-

The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) was the first electronic music studio in the United States. The studio was founded by Otto Luening and Vladimir Ussachevsky at Columbia University. They received a Rockefeller Foundation grant (awarded in 1958) to create the studio, which became operational in 1959. Among the many composers who worked on compositions in this studio are Edgard Varese, Milton Babbitt, Jon Appleton, Bulent Arel, Luciano Berio, Wendy Carlos, Mario Davidovsky, Alfred del Monaco, Charles Dodge, Jacob Druckman, Halim El-Dabh, Paul Lansky, Alcides Lanza, Ilhan Mimaroglu, Pauline Oliveros, Ramon Sender, Alice Shields, Pril Smiley, Harvey Sollberger, Diane Thome, Michiko Toyama, and Barry Vercoe. The studio was renamed in Columbia University Electronic Music Center in the late 1980s, and the Columbia University Computer Music Center in 1996. Ussachevsky served as the studio's director from 1958 until 1980, followed by Mario Davidovsky (1980-1994); Fred Lerdahl and Brad Garton (1994-1996); and Brad Garton (1996-present).

University of Toronto. Electronic Music Studio

  • https://viaf.org/viaf/125774024
  • Corporate body
  • 1959-

By the late 1950s, Electronic Music had become an accepted academic discipline. It opened new areas of musical experience and extended the modern musicians' traditional range of taste. It created an awareness of the perimeters of musical performance and composition to an extent that was impossible until the techniques and equipment of Electronic Music were developed. In order to make available the results and benefits of the research and instruction in this area, Dr. Arnold Walter, in his capacity as Director, established in May of 1959 the Electronic Music Studio (UTEMS) as an integral and permanent division within the Music Faculty of the University of Toronto. Dr. Hugh Le Caine, of the National Research Council of Canada in Ottawa, was the technical advisor who maintained a dominant role in the technical development of new equipment and studio techniques. The original staff consisted of Dr. Arnold Walter, Professor Harvey Olnick, and Professor Myron Schaeffer.

UTEMS was the second university studio in North America. It followed the creation of the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center in 1958. The New York studio was funded by a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. The initial proposal suggested a consortium that was to include the University of Toronto studio, but Rockefeller apparently intervened and rejected the plan.

The Electronic Music Studio of the University of Toronto was initially housed in an old house on Division Street, near Spadina and College—now the site of the CAMH building—pending completion of the new Edward Johnson Memorial Faculty of Music Building.

Myron Schaeffer was hired in 1958 to teach musicology and to develop the Electronic Music Studio. Correspondence from 1957-58 indicates that musicologist Harvey Olnick (an American, coming to the faculty via Columbia-Princeton) made enquiries about equipment purchases for the studio.

Following Schaeffer's death in 1965, Professor Gustav Ciamaga became the director of the studio. While Ciamaga was Dean of the Faculty of Music in the mid 80s, the position was passed to Professor Dennis Patrick. Since 2019, UTEMS has been under the direction of Professor Eliot Britton.

Rush Productions

  • Corporate body
  • 1972-2010

Rush Productions was a corporate subsidiary of SRO/Anthem, specifically concerned with Rush’s touring expenses and coordination within Canada. Over the years, various other corporate entities were set up to handle American and International touring expenses, including ORS Management Corporation, By-Tour Inc., PLD UK, PLD Tourco, and LDP Entertainment. All of these activities were overseen by the creator of these records, Sheila Posner, who was SRO Management’s accountant and office manager.

CinemaVault

  • University of Toronto Media Commons Archives
  • Corporate body
  • 1980-2023

Cinemavault was a Toronto-based motion picture and television distribution company. After graduating from Toronto Metropolitan University’s School of Image Arts in 1978, company Chairman and CEO Nicholas Stiliadis began his career as a writer and film producer. Alongside business partner, Syd Cappe, Stiliadis founded SC Entertainment. The pair produced several industrial and educational films, including the Genie-nominated short Productivity and Performance by Alex K (1984). But Stiliadis and Cappe found their niche as producers of low-budget romps, thrillers, and action-adventure films such as The Pink Chiquitas (1986), Still Life (1990), and Gladiator Cop (1995). These films were often shot in Toronto, with principal photography sometimes starting before financing had even been secured. While widely considered to be B-movies (a 1990 MacLean’s article characterized them as “shlock”), these genre films had broad international appeal, and SC Entertainment found eager buyers on the international marketplace. Some critical successes followed, with the true crime drama Murder One (1988), which garnered some positive attention from American critics. Stiliadis also served as Executive Producer on Pump Up the Volume (1990), a title that was initially developed for SC Entertainment, with New Line Cinema brought on to co-produce and distribute. The darkly comedic teen movie starring Christian Slater was widely praised at the time and continues to enjoy a reputation as a cult classic.
Stiliadis and Cappe parted ways in 1994, and amidst expanding international film markets, the company’s focus gradually shifted from production to distribution. Under the Cinemavault banner, Stiliadis and company worked with both Canadian and international producers, financiers, and independent filmmakers to secure the distribution rights to a substantial catalogue of films. In some cases, Cinemavault would license these films to other companies to handle distribution in individual worldwide markets. In other cases, Cinemavault was brought on by filmmakers as the principal worldwide distributor. While representing international titles, Cinemavault also played a role in promoting Canadian cinema to the world. They were the international distributor of Atanarjuat: The Fast Runner (2001), the first feature film in the Inuktitut language. They also represented the Genie award winner Savage Messiah (2002), as well as the Genie nominated film Histoire de Pen (2002). Cinemavault was a frequent participant in the international film festival circuit, taking their films to Cannes, Berlin, and Venice. Beyond feature film distribution, the company found many new sales avenues in DVD and VHS sales, pay television, free television, video on demand, and streaming video on demand.

Creative Anarchy

  • Corporate body
  • 1997-2008

Creative Anarchy is a Toronto-based film production company. Creative Anarchy co-produced the crime documentary series Exhibit A: Secrets of Forensic Science with Kensington Communications, and co-produced a similar series, 72 Hours: True Crime with Kensington Communications and Meech-Grant Productions.

Ukrainian People's Home (Toronto)

  • Corporate body

In 1910, Ukrainian men living in Toronto founded the Ruthenian National Benevolent Society, which aimed “to unite in brotherly love all Ruthenians” living in Canada by providing “moral and material help” to members, “education in Ruthenian and English,” and care for “social and spiritual wellbeing.” Membership in the society fluctuated, reaching a low of 25 members in 1915 but then expanding to 195 members in 1917. Some of these new members wanted to engage in cultural activities and founded an Amateurs’ Circle in 1916. Building on the activities of the Benevolent Society and Amateurs’ Club, the Taras Shevchenko Prosvita Reading Room was founded in 1917. This educational and cultural organization regularly performed concerts, dances, and plays, held lectures, and had a library. In 1919 it also opened a school with 86 children and four teachers. However, Prosvita did not have its own building, so the society began a fundraising campaign in 1923 and soon purchased three lots at 711-715 Bathurst St. In 1927, Prosvita sold these lots and purchased the Salvation Army Hall, which had been damaged by fire, at 191 Lippincott St. Following some repairs, the building was officially opened on December 15, 1928 as the Ukrainian People’s Home.

The Ukrainian People’s Home had a choir, theatre and dance ensembles, school, and library. During its peak activity in the 1920s-1950s, weekly performances were held at the home, and ensembles regularly performed at other events too. The mixed choir performed for a wide variety of Ukrainian and non-Ukrainian audiences, often performing up to twice a week at concerts, churches, clubs, and on the radio. The choir was also a regular performer at the Canadian National Exhibition. By the early 1950s, the choir had 402 members and had performed 445 times in Toronto and throughout southern Ontario. Theatre was another major aspect of the society’s activities, with weekly performances of plays by prominent Ukrainian playwrights. In 1925, the first North American school for Ukrainian dance opened at the Ukrainian People’s Home under the direction of Vasyl Avramenko. Like the choir, the dance ensemble performed for a wide range of audiences, and its performances at the Canadian National Exhibition, with 200 dancers on stage, were particularly popular. From 1930-1936, the society held an annual four-day-long book and press exhibition in its concert hall, where up to 2,200 volumes by Ukrainian authors were displayed, along with maps and artwork. Educational events run by the Ukrainian People’s Home included English classes, courses on Ukrainian literature, and talks given by speakers from Ukraine and western Europe.

While the Ruthenian National Benevolent Society had been a men’s organization, women were involved in all aspects of the Ukrainian People’s Home. Ukrainian women held an embroidery exhibit at the Canadian National Exhibition from 1921-1951, and in 1927 a women’s group was formed at the Home to organize similar art and embroidery exhibits, as well as parties, teas, and other social events. Children also participated in the Ukrainian People’s Home, where they could attend Ukrainian school, receive music lessons, play in the children’s orchestra, and join the youth group.

Although focused on culture and education, the Ukrainian People’s Home was occasionally involved in political activities. When Queen Maria of Romania was detained in Toronto for a few hours while on a trip to the United States in 1926, members of the society gave her a communique protesting the oppression of Ukrainians by Romanians in Bukovina. Another political protest occurred in January 1934, when Jewish organizations invited Sholom Schwarzbard, who had killed the leader-in-exile of the Ukrainian People’s Republic Symon Petliura in 1924, to speak in Toronto. The society said that it would use whatever means necessary, including force, to prevent his public speaking. Schwarzbard did travel to Toronto but did not give any public talks. The society sought to protect the interests of Ukrainians, but it was not a partisan or religious organization, and it allowed members to join any Canadian political party and encouraged religious tolerance.

As the Ukrainian-Canadian community became more prosperous in the second half of the 20th century and Ukrainians moved to other regions of Toronto, the activities of the Ukrainian People’s Home decreased. Nonetheless, 191 Lippincott St. continued to house a Ukrainian library, student organizations, and dance and music groups through the early 1980s.

The Ukrainian Canadian Advocates’ Society, located at 191 Lippincott St., was incorporated in 1986 and dissolved in 2015.

Sources:
Gregorovich, Andrew. “The Ukrainian Community in Toronto from World War One to 1971.” https://archives.studentscommission.ca/magic/mt54.html.
Hutzuliak, Vera. “The Ukrainian People’s Home: Toronto’s Landmark on Lippincott Street.” Student 15, no. 79 (January 1983), 7.
Marunchak, M. H. The Ukrainian Canadians: A History. Winnipeg and Ottawa: Ukrainian Free Academy of Science, 1970.
Nykoliak, Dmytro A. Korotkyi istorychnyi narys ukrainsʹkoho narodnoho domu v Toronto: z nahody 35-litnoï pratsi tovarystva. Toronto: Nakl. Ukrainsʹkoho Narodnoho domu, 1953.

Rastrick Workhouse

  • Corporate body

Rastrick is a small village in the riding of West Yorkshire in the vicinity of Brighouse. The Overseer of the Poor of Rastrick was a
yearly appointed and unpaid position, usually a landowner or church warden, who was tasked with assisting the poor of the parish.
This included estimating how much poor relief was required and setting the poor rate accordingly, as well as collecting the tax levied
on land and business owners, distributing relief to needy individuals and supervising the poor house. Prior to 1837, the Overseer at
Rastrick facilitated the treatment of the poor through the provisions set by the Gilbert Act (1782). Under this act, only the elderly, sick
and orphaned were removed to the workhouse, all able-bodied poor were eligible for ‘out-relief,’ which included monetary assistance
for food, clothing, schooling and housing. In 1834, the Poor Law Amendment Act emphasized that out-relief should cease and instead
that assistance only be given inside the workhouse. The roll-out of this new amendment was not put into effect in Lancashire and
Yorkshire (including Rastrick) until 1837. The Outdoor Labour Test Order of 1842 did reinstate out-relief to some capacity for the
able-bodied.

Toronto Wagner Society

  • Local
  • Corporate body
  • 1975-

Founded in 1975 by Dorothy Graziani with the support of Dr. Boyd Neel, the Toronto Wagner Society is a non-profit organization of people with a common love of the music dramas of Richard Wagner. The Society's objective is to encourage interest in, study of, and further presentation of the music-drams of Wagner. The Society meets monthly and organizes various events (lectures, interviews, video screenings, roundtable discussions, debates, and reviews). Their newsletter, Wagner News, is issued to members 3-4 times per year and features articles, reviews, and information about Wagner performances worldwide. The Society also maintains a scholarship to support young singers.

Past chairs of the Society are: Dorothy Graziani (1975-1981); Eric Domville (1981-1985); Hans de Groot (1985-1990); Frances Henry (1990-1996, 2007-); Linda and Michael Hutcheon (1996-1999); Wayne Gooding (1999-2001); Helmut Reichenbächer (1999-2003); Richard Rosenman (2001-2005); Jim Fisher (2003-2007); Yvonne Chiu (2005-2009); and Lorne Albaum (2009-2013).

University of Toronto. Opera Division

  • Local
  • Corporate body
  • 1946-

In the Fall of 1946, Arnold M. Walter, started the Opera School under the auspices of the Senior School of the Royal Conservatory of Music. The University of Toronto Faculty of Music assumed administrative and budgetary responsibilities for the Opera School in 1968 and it was officially renamed the "Opera Department of the Faculty of Music" in 1969, overseen by Chairman Ezra Schabas (1969-1978). In 1978, it became the "Opera Division" under Dean Gustav Ciamaga.

In a brief to the Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters and Sciences in 1949, Walter described his initial aims for the Opera School: "...as a school it undertakes to train young singers and to make them familiar with all phases of operatic production; as an operatic company, it presents those artists so trained in productions which depend exclusively on Canadian talent."

The School's first full-length production was Smetana's The Bartered Bride (April 1947) at the Eaton Auditorium, following an opera excerpts concert on December 16, 1946 at Hart House Theatre. The School relocated to the Edward Johnson Building when it opened in 1963, and the Opera School performed Albert Herring's Benjamin Britten as part of the opening ceremonies (March 4, 1964) in the MacMillan Theatre, the new home of Opera School productions.

The new facilities offered further opportunities for training and performance, and in 1964, Wallace A. Russell began a course in theatre technology, offering instruction in technical direction, stage and production management, lighting, scenic and costume design. This program was cut in 1974, with a decision from the Ministry of Colleges and Universities that technical theatre training belonged at Ryerson Polytechnical Institute. In 1969, the university introduced a two-year post-graduate professional diploma in operatic performance, and the University of Toronto Symphony Orchestra started accompanying opera productions.

The opera program produced two fully-staged operas per year until 1985, when budgetary restrictions forced a reduction to one per year, supplemented by staged operatic excerpts with piano accompaniment. Its productions include a number of premiere performances, including Raymond Pannell's Aria da capo (1963); the English-language premiere of Humphrey Searle's Hamlet (1969); stage premiere of Healey Willan's Deirdre (1965); and Canadian premieres of Paisiello's Il Mondo della Luna (1962), Orff's Die Kluge (1961), Cherubini's The Portuguese Inn (1966), Holst's The Wandering Scholar (1966), Rossini's The Turk in Italy (1968), Robert Ward's The Crucible (1976), Richard Rodney Bennett's The Mines of Sulphur (1976), Janacek's Katya Kabanova (1977), Paisiello's The Barber of Seville (1977), Vaughan Williams' Sir John in Love (1984), and Tchaikovsky's Iolanta (1989).

The directors, musical directors, and stage directors of the opera program have included: Arnold Walter (director, 1946-1952), Ettore Mazzoleni (director, 1962-1966), Peter Ebert (director, 1967-1968), Anthony Besch (director, 1968-1969), Georg Philipp (director, 1969-1972), Richard Pearlman (director, 1972-1973), Nicholas Goldschmidt (musical director, 1946-1958), Ernesto Barbini (musical director, 1961-1975), James W. Craig (musical director, 1976-1990), Felix Brentano (stage director, 1946-1948), Herman Geiger-Torel (stage director, 1948-1976), Andrew MacMillan (stage director, 1952-1967), Werner Graf (stage director, 1963-1966), Peter Ebert (stage director, 1967-1968), Anthony Besch (stage director, 1968-1969), Leon Major (stage director), Giuseppe Macina (stage director, 1969-1974), Constance Fisher (stage director 1972-1978, coordinator 1978-1983, associate coordinator 1987-), Michael Albano (stage director 1977-1982, coordinator 1983-1987, associate coordinator 1987-), and Sandra Horst (co-director, director).

Chairman of the Board of Regents of Victoria University

  • Corporate body
  • 1926-

The Chairman of the Board of Regents is appointed by the Board and presides at all meetings. They are to have a general oversight and control of the business of the Board and is a member ex officio of all Committees of the Board.

Past Chairs:
Albert Carman, class of Vic 1883
1884-1914 - Samuel Dwight Chown
1914-1928 - Newton Wesley Rowell
1928-1933 - Alfred Ernest Ames: He first became a member of the Board in 1898 and in 1915 he was appointed as Chairman of the Executive Committee and Vice-Chairman of the Board. He also served on the Finance Committee and the Plans and Buildings Committee. Ames was born in 1866 and died in 1934.
1933-1934 - James Russell Lovett Starr, class of Vic 1887
1934-1942 - Wilfred Crossen James, class of Vic 1916: James was also Bursar at Victoria University, 1951-1962.
1942-1951 - Leopold Macaulay, class of Vic 1911, Osgoode Hall 1914: Won a gold medal at Vic for high academic standing. Named King's Counsel in 1929. Elected as a Member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, representing the riding of York South in 1926 and kept his seat until he was defeated in the 1943 election. Served continuously on the Board from 1932-1972. Also served terms as President of the Victoria College Alumni Association and the University of Toronto Alumni Association. In 1973, he received an Honorary Doctorate from Victoria University in recognition for his outstanding service. The Leopold Macaulay Admissions Scholarship was endowed after his death. Born in Peterborough Nov 25, 1887, died Dec 24 1979.
1951-1958 - Henry Eden Langford, class of Vic 1928
1958-1962 - Ralph Shaw Mills, class of Vic 1925
1962-1971 - Frederick Arthur Wansbrough, class of Vic 1928
1971-1974 - Donald Walker McGibbon, class of Vic 1932
1974-1978 - G. Dennis Lane, class of Vic 1955
1978-1982 - Henry Jonathon Sissons, class of Vic 1937
1982-1985 - David Walter Page Pretty, class of Vic 1947: Also the President of North American Life Insurance. Born August 23, 1925 and died in 2014.
1985-1989 - Ruth Marion Alexander (nee Manning), class of Vic 1950: Born in 1929.
1989-1992 - Paul Wesley Fox, class of Vic 1944
1992-1995 - Richard P.K. Cousland, class of Vic 1954
1995-1998 - Elizabeth (Eastlake) Vosburgh, class of Vic 1968
1998-2001 - David E. Clark, class of Vic 1971
2001-2004 - Frank Mills, class of Vic 1968
2004-2007 - Murray Corlett, class of Vic 1961
2007-2010 - Paul Huyer, class of Vic 1981
2010-2014 - John Field, class of Vic 1978
2014-2021- Lisa Khoo, class of Vic 1989
2021 - present - Cynthia Crysler class of Vic 9T0

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/144201535
  • Corporate body
  • 1936-

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) is Canada's national broadcasting system, created in 1936. It replaced the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission (CRBC), established in 1932.

Primitive Entertainment

  • Corporate body
  • 1990-Present

Primitive Entertainment (formerly, Primitive Features) was formed in January 1990 by brothers Kevin and Michael McMahon. Previously, Michael had worked as an editor for Canadian ‘B’ movie production company SC Entertainment. Kevin had been a journalist at the “St. Catharine’s Standard” but became interested in making feature films, and attended film school in Bristol, England.
Primitive’s feature documentaries and series often focus on the intersections between the environment, human culture, history, and technology. The brothers’ first film with their new company was “The Falls”, a meditation on their hometown of Niagara Falls, Ontario. It debuted at TIFF in 1991 to critical praise and received a Genie for Best Feature Length Documentary that year. Primitive’s next projects were “Deserts,” a massive film project for a multimedia museum exhibition (which unfortunately never came to fruition), “In the Reign of Twilight,” a feature documentary about the militarization of the Arctic and its effects on the Inuit, and “Intelligence,” a documentary film exploring different ideas and meanings of intelligence. “Twilight” received a Gemini Award for Best History Documentary Program, while “Intelligence,” received a Gemini nomination for Best Direction in a Documentary.
Documentary programs and series made for television followed, including “Cod: The Fish That Changed the World,” (hosted by Mary Walsh), “Truth Merchants,” and “Lifting the Shadow.” Primitive’s “Ancestors in the Attic” – a series which featured people exploring their family history through genealogy – aired for four seasons on History Television in Canada, while their “Things That Move” – a series that explored the social and technological histories of all kinds of moving vehicles – aired for four season on The Discovery Channel. Primitive also continued to produce acclaimed feature documentaries, including “McLuhan’s Wake,” a richly layered film about the life and works of Marshall McLuhan. The films “Waterlife” and “Four Wings and Prayer” gave viewers insight into the waters of the Great Lakes and the migration routes of monarch butterflies respectively. “The Face of Victory,” co-produced with Barna-Alper Productions, stitched together thousands of archival photographs and audio, and documented the jubilation and the horror at the end of WWII.
Over their more than 30 years in business, Michael McMahon has overseen the company’s project selection, as well as the financing and distribution of productions, while Kevin McMahon has focused on directing. Their films have been screened at TIFF, Berlin, Hot Docs, and SXSW, while their programs have been broadcast on CBC, TVO, Discovery, NHK, ZDF, and others. The company has received over 50 awards for their work, and they continue to produce thought provoking series and documentaries to this day.

Esprit Orchestra

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/145352993
  • Corporate body
  • 1983-

Founded in 1983 by Music Director and Conductor, Alex Pauk, with financial assistance from Canada Council and Suncor Inc., Esprit Orchestra is Canada's only full-sized, professional orchestra devoted to performing and promoting new orchestral music. It was known as Esprit Contemporain from 1983 to 1986.

They gave their first concert on August 19, 1983 in Kingston, Ontario with the National Youth Orchestra, featuring works by Serge Garant and Alexina Louie, and premiering two commissioned works: Alchemies by John Burke and Vanishing Points by John Rea.

The orchestra, based in Toronto, commissions and premieres new Canadian works and ensures continued public access to this material via repeat performances, audio and film recordings, radio broadcasts, and national and international tours. Their concert programs also regularly feature Canadian premieres of music by leading international composers. As of 2023, the orchestra consists of 65 members. Esprit's annual subscription series consists of three to five concerts per season, held at Toronto's St. Lawrence Centre and at Koerner Hall, University of Toronto.

In addition to their commitment to new music, Esprit is dedicated to working with the next generation of new music professionals, with mentorship and outreach programs, lectures, open rehearsals, and the annual New Wave Composers Festival that celebrates young Canadian artists.

Esprit has received several awards, including three Lieutenant Governor’s Arts Awards (1996, 1998, 2000), the Jean A. Chalmers National Music Award (1995), the Vida Peene Award and the SOCAN Award for Imaginative Orchestral Programming (1990).

Emmanuel College (Toronto, Ont.). Principal’s Office

  • Corporate body
  • 1928-

The Principal's Office was created in 1928 when Emmanuel College was founded. The College was established as a result of the formation of The United Church of Canada in 1925 and formed with the intention of continuing the tradition of theological education established earlier by Canadian Methodists and Presbyterians. The Principal is head of the College, and thus responsible for its academic program, life and work.

List of Principals:
Alfred Gandier (1928-1932)
Richard Davidson (1932-1943)
Frederick Langford (1943-1945)
Alexander Dawson Matheson (1945-1956)
Kenneth Harrington Cousland (1956-1963)
Earl S. Lautenschlager (1963-1971)
William O. Fennell (1971-1981)
Douglas Jay (1981-1990)
John Hoffman (1990-1996)
Roger Hutchinson (1996-2001)
Samuel Peter Wyatt (2001-2008)
Mark G. Toulouse (2009-2017)
Phyllis D. Airhart (Interim - 2017-2018)
Michelle Voss Roberts (2018-2021)
John H. Young (Interim - 2021-2022)
HyeRan Kim-Cragg (2022-present)

The Toronto Film Society

  • 2017.009
  • Corporate body
  • 1948 - Present

The Toronto Film Society (TFS) is one of Canada’s oldest non-profit film organizations. The TFS was established later when in 1934, the National Film Society in Ottawa was founded, prompting many other film societies to come up in cities all over Canada. One of those film societies was the Vancouver Branch of the National Film Society of Canada organized in 1936. Members of the Vancouver branch were Dorothy and Oscar Burritt. Dorothy, Oscar Burritt, and a group of dedicated film enthusiasts established the Toronto Film Study Group (TFSG) in 1948, eventually becoming the TFS. The TFS is an organization meant to preserve, restore, and meet the demand for films from Canadian and international films. Some films incorporated into the TFS vast collection were once banned, independent, fringe sound and silent films. The new TFSG launched with a 1948 summer series that continues today. Now the TFS does various events such as the annual summer series, BUF series and study group. TFS also partners with the Toronto International Film Festival and other international film festivals.

Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer. Office of the Camp Wardens

  • Corporate body

The Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer, also known as the Kipling Ritual, or the Iron Ring Ceremony, is a private ceremony to initiate newly qualified engineers to the social and ethical responsibilities of the profession. The text for the ceremony was written by Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) in 1922, at the request of Professor Herbert Edward Terrick Haultain (1869-1961), and was adapted in consultation with several past-presidents of the Engineering Institute of Canada (EIC) for use in the first ceremonies held in Montreal and Toronto in 1925. Integral to the Ritual is the wearing of the iron ring, which is worn on the little finger of the writing hand, as a reminder of the engineer’s sworn professional obligation.

The issue of creating a graduation ritual for new engineers was first presented at the 36th annual meeting of the EIC, held 25 January 1922, in Montreal, Quebec. As the luncheon speaker at the meeting, Professor Haultain gave a talk entitled “The Romance of Engineering”, after which he suggested the development of an oath, in the form of the Hippocratic Oath, but for engineers. The idea was an extension of Haultain’s involvement with the transformation of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineers into the EIC in 1918, a transformation that sought to formalize the licensing process of engineers, while increasing their professional and public standing.

The difficulty of drafting an appropriate ritual led Haultain to correspond with Kipling for help with authoring a text. Kipling showed considerable interest in the idea and drafted the initial ceremony, which was formalized, after considerable consultation between Haultain and the seven past presidents of the EIC. These seven would ultimately become co-opted as the original Corporation of Seven Wardens by the authority of their seniority in the profession. They were John Morrice Roger Fairbairn (1873-1954), George Herrick Duggan (1862-1946), Phelps Johnson (1849-1926), George Alphonso Mountain (1861-1927), Robert Alexander Ross (d.1936), William Francis Tye (1861-1932) and Henry Hague Vaughan (1868-1942). Fairbairn was the original chairman, or Chief Warden, of this governing body.

The first “ceremony”, also referred to as a “preliminary rehearsal”, was held on 25 April 1925, in Montreal. Ross, acting as the Senior Supervising Engineer (SSE), administered the obligation to himself and Fairbairn, as well as Harold Rolph, Norman M. Lash, Jim M. Robertson and John Chalmers, all graduates of the class of 1893 from the University of Toronto. In Toronto on 1 May 1925, fourteen officers of the University of Toronto Alumni Association were obligated in the Senate Chambers of the University of Toronto by the newly obligated senior engineers from Montreal. This ceremony was followed on the same day by another in which the University’s graduating class of 107 engineering students was obligated.

Kipling envisoned a camp ritual, a gathering in the spirit of camaraderie. The original Wardens of Camp One subsequently established a formal structure to administer the Ritual in Toronto. This was confirmed on 22 February 1926, by correspondence between Fairbairn and Robert John Marshall (1884-1970). The original Camp Wardens were Haultain, Marshall, William D. Black (d.1961), Arthur D’Orr LePan (1885-1976), Charles E. MacDonald, Thomas H. Hogg, and William A. Burke. The full names of the original Wardens of the first nine Camps are listed following the Administrative history.

Camp One’s authority to administer the Ritual was confirmed when it was issued the Book of Authority by Fairbairn in 1927; it included the full text of the Kipling Ritual. Although the Ritual could be said to have originated with Haultain, he took no more than an informal role in the ceremonies because of his conviction that the ceremony should be conducted by working engineers. Students should not associate the ceremonies with the awarding of academic credentials. From its inception, attendance at the Ritual has been voluntary and does not confer any professional qualifications on the wearer of the ring.

The iron rings were initially made from puddled wrought iron, sometimes called cold iron, hand-hammered by convalescing First World War veterans at the Christie Street Military Hospital, under the care of the Military Hospitals Commission which became the Department of Soldiers’ Civil Re-establishment (DSCR). Haultain had a longstanding association with the DSCR; he arranged for the rings to be manufactured and delivered to the various camps. After 1948 the responsibility for their manufacture was taken over by the Corporation of the Seven Wardens, based in Montreal. Camp One continued to manufacture its own rings, considering them to be Ancient Landmarks. While many members still wear a rough iron ring, most of the rings manufactured today are made from stainless steel.

Kipling regarded the ring as a symbol. It is rough, not smoothed, and hammered by hand as, in the words of Kipling, “the young have all their hammering coming to them.” The ring has no beginning or end. Kipling’s use of cold iron as a symbolic metal for the Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer stems from his interest in iron as a metal of power and a symbol of human innovation. Likewise, the Ancient Landmarks upon which the obligation is taken are made of cold iron of “honourable tradition” without inscription. Landmarks have typically included anvils, chains and hammers. A frequently circulated myth about the iron rings is that they were made from the pieces of the collapsed Pont de Quebec Bridge that killed 76 people in 1907. The rings, however, have always been made from commercial sources. While the Ritual is not a secret initiation, tradition has called for the ceremony to be private and has been solemnized by its not being publicized. The ceremony is conducted at each university by obligated engineers for students who are about to graduated from an accredited engineering program. In Camp One only family members and friends who themselves are obligated may attend and participate as ring presenters. Persons with foreign education who are professional engineers in Canada may apply to be obligated at a special ceremony known as the “Seniors Ceremony”.

The Kipling Ritual was registered in Ottawa on 5 June 1926, under copyright number 6831. Obligation certificates have been printed and given out at or after the ceremony since 1927. The “Hymn of Breaking Strain”, a poem written by Rudyard Kipling, was at times recited as a homily at the end of the Ritual to be delivered by the SSE. Kipling had intended the Wardens to own the copyright of the poem but that plan proved legally impractical and instead it was assigned to himself and published in The Engineer in 1935 to secure the rights. Kipling’s poem “The Sons of Martha” was written in 1907 and has also been recited as a homily. The Corporation of the Seven Wardens was incorporated as the custodial organization and administrative body of the Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer, under federal letters patent on 18 March 1938. The Ritual was officially registered in the United States in 1941. Miniature obligation cards were given to obligating engineers as portable keepsakes in 1943, at the suggestion of Harold Johnston, the secretary of Camp Seven in Halifax. The trademark for the ring design was registered in 1961 in Canada and 1965 in the United States.

Attempts have been made to make the Ritual available outside of Canada. Some Wardens felt that the Ritual to be extended to engineers in Commonwealth countries and in the United States. Some wardens have rejected numerous attempts to adapt the ceremony for other jurisdictions outside of Canada. Nonetheless, certain highly distinguished foreign engineers have taken the obligation in Canada, upon the invitation of the Chief Warden.

Kipling was opposed to such extension. He wrote “I did it for the Canadians and with the Canadians I wish it to remain.” Within Canada, the Iron Ring Ceremony has become immensely popular. By 2007 twenty-five camps located in every region of the country serving the needs of thirty-eight university campuses. The text of the Ritual has been translated into French as “L’engagement de l’ingenieur”, as have the poems “The Sons of Martha” and the “Hymn of Breaking Strain”, both of which are included in the French ceremony as in the English. Camp One has expanded its reach beyond the University of Toronto, so that it now serves Ryerson University (added in 1992), York University and the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (both added in 2007).

The Order of the Engineer in the United States has modelled an obligation ceremony on the Canadian Ritual. The U.S. camps are called “Links”. Candidates wear plain stainless steel rings to show that they have been obligated. This programme was approved by the American Society of Civil Engineers in 2003 and has been condoned by the Corporation of the Seven Wardens. Though the ceremony bears little resemblance to the Kipling Ritual, the American ceremony clearly acknowledges its Canadian origin.


LIST OF ORIGINAL WARDENS BY CAMP

  • Camp 1 (1925): William D. Black, William A. Bucke, Herbert E.T. Haultain, Thomas H. Hogg, Arthur D'Orr LePan, Charles A. MacDonald, Robert J. Marshall
  • Camp 2 (1926): DeGaspé Beaubien, F.B. Brown, N.M. Campbell, F.S. Keith, J.C. Kemp, J.J. Ross, F.P. Shearwood
  • Camp 3 (1927): John M. Campbell, William Casey, John Donnelly, Stanley N. Graham, Thomas A. McGinnis, Edward J.C. Schmidlin, Henry L. Sherwood
  • Camp 4 (1928): R.N. Blackburn, H.S. Carpenter, A.C. Garner, A.M. MacGillibray, J.R.C. Macredie, C.J. Mackenzie, L.A. Thornton
  • Camp 5 (1930): E. Carpenter, E.A. Cleveland, Victor Dolmage, A.E. Foreman, W.H. Powell, G.A. Walkem, A.E. Wheatley
  • Camp 6 (1930): R.B. Baxter, L.C. Charlesworth, W.J. Cunningham, J.B. de Hart, A.W. Haddow, S.G. Porter, B.L. Thorne
  • Camp 7 (1930): H.F. Bennett, W.P. Copp, H.W.L. Doane, A.F. Dyer, J.B. Hayes, H.S. Johnston, J.H. Winfield
  • Camp 8 (1930): C.H. Attwood, Donald J. Birse, George E. Cole, J.S. DeLury, H.B. Lumsden, J.W. Sanger, Fred V. Seibert
  • Camp 9 (1934): J.R. Freeman, A. Gray, C.C. Kirby, Gilbert G. Murdock, Geoffrey Stead, G.H. Thurber, G.A. Vandervoort

John Adaskin Project

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/132443180
  • Corporate body
  • 1961-

The John Adaskin Project started in 1961 as the "Graded Educational Music Plan" by John Adaskin, executive secretary to the Canadian Music Centre (CMC). The initiative was underway by 1962 with a committee of music educators grading and evaluating Canadian repertoire in terms of its suitability for student performers. The project was renamed in its founder's memory in 1965, and became the "John Adaskin Project (Canadian Music for Schools)" in 1973 under the direction of Patricia (Pat) Shand, overseen by the Canadian Music Educators' Association (CMEA) and the CMC. The project organizes workshops, demonstrations, and lectures; publishes research guides; and commissions new works by Canadian composers.

University of Toronto. Faculty of Forestry

  • Corporate body
  • 1907-current

The Faculty of Forestry was established in February 14, 1907. The name was changed to the Faculty of Forestry and Landscape Architecture on July 1, 1975 upon the merger of the Faculty of Forestry with the Department of Landscape Architecture. On July 1, 1979, the name of the faculty was changed back to the Faculty of Forestry when the Department of Landscape Architecture attaining independent standing.

SRO Management

  • Corporate body
  • 1973-2015

Ray Danniels was a booker and talent manager in Toronto. Danniels became acquainted with the members of Rush, a Willowdale, Ontario band, when they were all high school students. Danniels began to book the band – then composed of members Geddy Lee, Alex Lifeson, and John Rutsey - for the high school circuit, which included a church basement youth drop-in center called The Coffin. In 1971, Danniels became the band’s full-time agent and manager. There was just one problem: Danniels could not find a single record label in Canada willing to release the band’s music. Undeterred, Danniels sold his booking agency and teamed up with Vic Wilson to start their own management company and record label, SRO and Moon Records, respectively. Under the Moon label, Danniels fronted the money for Rush to start recording. The band released their first single in 1973, a cover of Buddy Holly’s “Not Fade Away.” The single sold a few thousand copies, mainly in Southern Ontario. In the spring of 1974, their self-titled debut album followed. This too received a fair amount of airplay in Southern Ontario, as well as south of the border, when the album was played on a Cleveland area radio station.
With cross-border recognition, Danniels signed Rush with an American talent agent, ATI, and the band also signed a major record deal with Mercury. Rush was set to begin touring extensively, but on the eve of their first big U.S. tour, Rutsey left the band. Auditions for a new drummer were held, and the band chose Neil Peart, who was to become the band’s chief lyricist. By the end of the U.S. tour, Rush had cracked the Billboard charts, and another album, “Fly by Night,” followed in 1975. The album was a hit in Canada, selling 100,000 copies and reaching No. 9 on the charts. It was certified platinum in both the United States and Canada. Through the 1970s, Rush would continue to tour and to release albums, including “Caress of Steel,” “2112” the live album “All the World’s a Stage,” “A Farewell to Kings” and “Hemispheres.”
Meanwhile, Danniels expanded SRO's roster of talent. He signed Toronto-area rock bands such as Max Webster, Liverpool, and A Foot in Coldwater, as well as solo artists Ian Thomas and Moe Koffman. Alongside Vic Wilson, Danniels also continued to expand his business, and SRO quickly became more than simply a management company. Its associated divisions covered a full range of music business activities including recording, songwriting and publishing, and merchandising. In the mid 1970s, Danniels and Wilson created two new record labels, Taurus Records and Anthem Records to showcase their artists. Moon Merchandising was established to handle merchandising rights – which would soon become a major revenue stream. At this time, Pegi Cecconi, a former SRO employee, rejoined the company, and helped to launch the additional divisions, Brandy Publishing, Core Music, and Mark-Cain Music, which handled songwriting and publishing.
Handling artist management, recording, publishing, and merchandising (known in the industry as the 360 deal) gave Danniels and Wilson (who left the company in 1980) the opportunity to sign, record and publish a diverse array of artists. In the 1980s, the company would go on to represent acts as varied as Coney Hatch, Lawrence Gowan, Mendelson Joe, Spoons, and BB Gabor. In addition to music, SRO/Anthem would also make its mark on Canadian comedy, with Anthem Records releasing the Bob and Doug McKenzie comedy album “The Great White North,” as well as “The Wankers’ Guide to Canada,” which featured the talents of SCTV alums Eugene Levy, Martin Short, and Catherine O’Hara.
SRO’s independence also gave Rush a certain measure freedom from major label interference, particularly as the band’s sound became more experimental, synth-driven, and progressive through the late 70s and early 80s. Drummer Neil Peart was once quoted as saying “We just complete a record, do the artwork, master it, and then present [Anthem Records] with a finished work rather than kibitzing [with label executives] all the way along from the demos. We just tell Ray our silly idea, and he makes it work."
A canny negotiator, Danniels excluded Canada as a territory when signing multinational recording contracts. With Anthem as the Canadian record company, Danniels and SRO’s artists had more control over how their music was released. Danniels once noted: “By having Anthem, every time the U.S. label wanted to do things differently than what the band or I wanted, and they told us ‘No,’ we had the ability to have the tail wag the dog instead of the dog wag the tail. It was the ability to say, ‘Fine, if you don’t want to release it until September, we are releasing it in May [in Canada].’” If the American label was reluctant to support a single, Danniels could force their hand, as a successful Canadian single could create a demand in the United States. The exclusion of Canada in multination recording contracts also meant that SRO’s artists could begin earning royalties on records sales in Canada right away, as well as earning royalties from worldwide publishing. Fiercely protective of SRO’s business interests, Danniels retained the worldwide publishing rights to Rush, despite being offered a large sum of money for them by Warner Brothers Publishing in 1981. Touring and merchandising were also sources of artist income – and here too SRO safeguarded their interests by going after bootleggers and counterfeiters. SRO’s legal counsel, Robert Farmer once joined the RCMP in a dramatic raid of counterfeit merchandise operations outside a Rush concert at Maple Leaf Gardens.
With the support of SRO, Rush went on to release over 20 studio albums, went on over 30 tours, won 9 Juno Awards, received a handful of Grammy nominations, and sold an estimated 40 million albums worldwide. They were inducted into the Canadian Music Hall of Fame in 1994 and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2013. SRO went on to manage the careers of other major Canadian musical talents, including The Tea Party, Big Wreck, Molly Johnson, and the Matthew Good Band. In 2015, music rights publishing group Ole acquired several of SRO/Anthem’s divisions, including Core Music Publishing, Mark-Cain Music, and the Anthem Entertainment Group, which included the publishing rights as well as the legacy audio and video release of Rush and other Anthem artists. The records in this collection highlight the growth of SRO/Anthem from its humble beginnings representing the band no one wanted to record, to a major force in the Canadian music industry who managed the career of one of the most successful Canadian bands of all time.

Ontario Registered Music Teachers' Association

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/124253396
  • Corporate body
  • 1936-

Founded in Toronto in 1936, the Ontario Music Teachers' Association (OMTA), later named the Ontario Registered Music Teachers' Association (ORMTA), aims to "encourage and provide the highest calibre of music education possible and to promote exceptional standards of music in each community." The first meeting at the Royal York Hotel in Toronto (October 6-8, 1936), brought together several local teachers' associations, including those from Toronto, Hamilton, Guelph, St. Catherines, Simcoe, London, and Stratford.

Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada

  • Corporate body
  • 1957-2015

The Indian-Eskimo Association (I.E.A.) was first established as a commission for the Canadian Association for Adult Education (CAAE) in 1957 to study issues in Indigenous communities and issues faced by Indigenous individuals living off reserves. In 1960, the commission withdrew from the CAAE and formed the Indian-Eskimo Association with the purpose of providing national services to Indigenous communities and individuals including housing, community, and economic development, as well as fundraising and to provide a forum for research on Indigenous issues by both Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, scholars, activists, organizations, and governmental entities. The I.E.A had a mixed membership and Indigenous individuals formed at least 25% of the membership of the I.E.A, and sat on the Board of Directors. One of the services of the I.E.A was a library, which actively collected books, as well as amassing reports, periodicals, speeches, and pamphlets by or relating to Indigenous communities and issues. The library provided research resources and reproduced speeches, press releases, offprints and reports, and developed and shared bibliographies and booklists. The I.E.A’s headquarters was originally in Toronto, but in 1973, they moved to Ottawa and changed their name to the Canadian Association in Support of Native Peoples. The association dissolved in 2015.

University of Toronto History Society

  • Corporate body
  • 2016-2022

Formed in 2016, the University of Toronto History Society (UTHS) is a club open to all undergraduate students at the University, who share an interest in the University’s history and in presenting a history that focuses on issues of importance to students. The club hosts a website, Facebook page, and Instagram account that curates and shares the history of the University of Toronto.

In March 2022, the Society was renamed the University of Toronto Students' History Collective (UTSHC).

University of Toronto Students' History Collective

  • Corporate body
  • 2022-

Formed in 2016 as the University of Toronto History Society (UTHS), the University of Toronto Students' History Collective (UTSHC) is a club open to all undergraduate students at the University, who share an interest in the University’s history and in presenting a history that focuses on issues of importance to students. The club hosts a website, Facebook page, and Instagram account that curates and shares the history of the University of Toronto.

In March 2022, the University of Toronto History Society was renamed the University of Toronto Students' History Collective.

Victoria College (Cobourg, Ont.). Philalethic Society

  • Corporate body
  • [ca. 1839]-1842

The Society was active from at least ca. 1839 to 1841 as a student society of Upper Canada Academy, and in 1842 of Victoria College. In vol 1 no 1 of Society's publication, "The Philomath." it gives the following summary of the Philalethic Society: "The Philalethic Society as the name clearly signifies, was established for the discovery and promotion of Truth. Its existence is not only antecedent to the Charter of Victoria College but its foundation may almost be said to have been laid with that of the noble edifice; and whilst U.C. Academy was struggling through the vale of obscurity to the attainment of a nobler name, and more conspicuous situation in the literary world; the operations of this first regularly organized literary club were felt and appreciated and known in the public account of the Institution."

The early minutes of the society shows that their primary function was to hold regular debates on various topics.

Kensington Communications Inc.

  • Corporate body
  • 1980-

Kensington Communications is a production company founded in 1980 in Toronto’s Kensington Market that has produced documentary and factual films, television shows, and multimedia projects for more than 40 years. Kensington has produced documentaries and series for the CBC and NFB, and its productions have been broadcast internationally on Discovery Channel, TLC, BBC, ZDF Arte, and other networks.
Early productions in the 1980s focused on social issues such as blended families (Stepdancing, 1986), youth suicide (Childhood’s End, 1981), and addiction (Out of the Past, 1989).
Many of Kensington’s productions have featured Earth’s natural environment and human activities that threaten it: Fragile Harvest (1986, the Nature of Things), Sacred Rhythm (1990), Sacred Balance with David Suzuki (2002), and Port Hope: A Question of Power (2005, The Nature of Things).
Kensington also has a history of producing iconic music documentaries. One Warm Line: The Legacy of Stan Rogers (1990), Mariposa: Under a Stormy Sky (1990), My Beat: The Life & Times of Bruce Cockburn (2001), and the City Sonic App (2009) all highlight Canadian music and musicians.
Kensington Communications worked with Bruce Cockburn over decades from the 1980s to the 2010s to produce short documentaries and advertisements for USC (formerly known as the Unitarian Service Committee of Canada) about their work in Nepal.
Kensington produced two successful crime series that focused on the role of forensics in solving real crimes – Exhibit A: Secrets of Forensic Science, and 72 Hours: True Crime.
Recent TV productions include The Shadow Of Gold (2019), Risk Factor (2017), The Equalizer (2016), and three seasons of the popular international TV series Museum Secrets, which goes behind the scenes at great museums of the world.
Kensington Communications has also been a leader in using multimedia websites to enhance documentary and television content. River of Sand, Sacred Balance, Diamond Road, Raw Opium, and Museum Secrets all included website content. Museum Secrets included a tie-in app called Scopify to help visitors navigate the Royal Ontario Museum, and the documentary Risk Factor was accompanied by the Risk Navigator app.

The Provincial Marine

  • MS Coll. 00022B
  • Corporate body
  • 1788-1792

Traders and merchants based in Quebec and the Thirteen Colonies had been successfully advancing the fur trade in the Great Lakes region since the mid-1760s, largely through the assistance of privately-owned commercial vessels to ship trade merchandise to western posts and retrieve bales of peltries to be sold for handsome profits. The trade had only recently transitioned from the old French structure to a modified system under British management, and was gaining momentum and efficiency. But all that changed with the onset of the American Revolution in 1775. The British government at Quebec responded to the war threat with plans to prevent American incursions into the Great Lakes region and ensure that weapons, ammunition, and provisions were not smuggled to the American side through the fur trade network. To that end, Governor Guy Carleton (1724-1808) outlawed the use of private vessels on the Great Lakes in the spring of 1777.

According to Governor Carleton’s 1777 announcement, vessels taken into the King’s service would be armed and manned by the Crown, be the exclusive carrier of troops and stores for the war effort, and maintain absolute control over the Great Lakes. The service was also the official conveyor of United Empire Loyalists relocating to British territory in the Province of Quebec. The fleet of King’s Ships of the Provincial Marine would be on constant military patrol between British garrisons at Carleton Island and Fort Niagara on Lake Ontario (employing Snow Seneca, Ship Limnade, and Sloop Caldwell), Fort Little Niagara, Fort Schlosser, Fort Erie, and Detroit on Lake Erie (employing Schooner Faith, Snow Rebecca, Schooner Hope, Brig Gage, Schooner Dunmore, Sloop Felicity, and Sloop Wyandot), and Detroit and Mackinac Island on Lake Huron (employing Sloop Felicity, Sloop Wyandot, Sloop Welcome, and Sloop Angelica).

The fur trade was at the heart of the young Canadian economy. Prior to Carleton’s 1777 orders, traders and merchants had their merchandise and peltries shipped over the Great Lakes on private vessels, many of which were owned and operated by the traders and merchants themselves. The new regulations dealt a serious blow to the fur trade when all private vessels on the lakes were effectively taken out of service and purchased or leased by the Crown for the exclusive use of the Provincial Marine. Traders, merchants, and agents were assured of services for the transport of their goods on board the King’s Ships, provided there was sufficient room available and military manoeuvres were not impacted.

The Provincial Marine thus became the sole means of transporting commercial goods on the Great Lakes. When merchandise and peltries were consigned for transport aboard the King’s Ships, promissory freight notes were issued to confirm the nature of the cargo and formalise a commitment to pay freight charges at some later date to Provincial Marine officials at Detroit, Carleton Island, or Quebec. Private transport of goods between Montreal and Carleton Island along the Saint Lawrence River was still permitted, but only in canoes and flat-bottomed cargo boats or bateaux.

Under the British system for managing the fur trade, the transport of trade merchandise to western depots was heavily regulated, and required a license from the governor (of which there was only a limited number issued each year). Ownership, origin, and destination of cargo was heavily scrutinized along the way by garrison commandants and ship masters, who had the authority to seize unauthorized shipments and prohibited goods. Strict supervision ensured that American traders were entirely excluded from the trade.

By the summer of 1778, Frederick Haldimand (1718-1791) had been installed as the new Governor of Quebec, and wasted no time in refining the organisation of the Provincial Marine. According to his General Orders and Regulations for the Better Government of His Majesty’s Armed Vessels Employed on the Different Lakes, issued on 1 July 1778, the fleet of vessels on the Great Lakes was divided into geographic commands: Lake Ontario constituted its own jurisdiction, and Lake Erie and the three upper Great Lakes (being lakes Huron, Superior and Michigan) constituted another, each with its own senior naval officer. In addition to organisational details for manning and operating the King’s Ships, Haldimand’s directive required that the British Articles of War be read on board each vessel at least once every month, to maintain order and discipline. Unfortunately, the chain of command between land- and lake-based officials was poorly defined, and led to quarrels that impacted the ability of the Provincial Marine to assist with the army’s land operations and properly fulfill commercial shipping obligations to those in the fur trade.

At the height of the war in 1779, during a period of particular difficulty for the fur trade, nine trading partnerships strategically combined their assets and resources to form the first consortium that would become the North West Company. The 16-share syndicate, composed of leading traders and merchants operating out of Montreal and Mackinac Island, eventually developed into the principal fur trade concern in Canada in opposition to the Hudson’s Bay Company. Another similar 16-share agreement was made in 1783, which was expanded to a 20-share agreement in 1787. A few of the traders included in the North West Company agreements are represented on promissory freight notes as the shippers and receivers of merchandise and peltries carried by the Provincial Marine, most notably George McBeath and Normand McLeod who were among the first British traders in the Great Lakes region after the British conquest
Forced to conform with the regulations for shipping their merchandise and peltries only on the King’s Ships, traders, merchants, and agents were at the mercy of the fleet’s management, staff, schedules, and performance, the weather and sailing conditions, and the physical state of the vessels. The lack of suitable storage facilities for goods held at garrisons added to the impact on trade, and other serious problems were numerous and widespread. Trade merchandise and peltries were delayed at transfer points for extended periods of time, damaged through improper storage, sodden by transport aboard leaky vessels, lost and misplaced through incompetence, and ransacked by unscrupulous military staff. Delays were particularly injurious to the trade, owing to the inherently tight trade cycle of shipping goods (which were usually obtained on credit from merchant-outfitters) to the interior and receiving furs the following year for sale at Montreal. Goods sometimes lay for months at Carleton Island, Fort Niagara, and Fort Erie, and were sometimes delayed so long that they could not be sent until the following season. Disruptions in the cycle equated to monetary losses through higher interest payments, damage to credit ratings, and strained relations with outfitters and investors. Petitions and Memorials complaining of unfair treatment and exorbitant freight charges were drawn up by traders, merchants, and agents, and sent to the governor and council at Quebec, but were largely ignored.

In the end, a large proportion of freight notes were not voluntarily settled: traders and merchants were summoned to court and sued for full or partial payment, whereas others were pardoned on the basis that negligence by the Provincial Marine caused financial losses that exceeded freight charges.

Alinari, Fratelli

  • https://viaf.org/viaf/122269178/
  • Corporate body
  • 1852-

Queer Peel Oral History Project

  • Corporate body
  • 2020

The Queer Peel Oral History Project was a student-driven initiative that emerged from a third-year history course taught by Prof. Elspeth Brown at the University of Toronto Mississauga in early 2020.

Victoria University (Toronto, Ont.). Bob Revue

  • Corporate body
  • 1874-

The Committee was formed to stage the Bob Revue, an annual presentation in honour of Robert Beare. Bob Beare was a janitor at Victoria and a friend to students. Beginning in 1874 he would invite the freshmen class to meet the rest of the college and out of this evolved the Bob Revue. The Revue was put on by the sophomore class and aimed its barbs at freshmen. It was considered as part of orientation to campus life.

The Bob Revue was traditionally an all male production and in 1949 the Scarlet and Gold revue was created as a co-ed musical revue. Scarlet and Gold co-existed with the Bob for two years (1949 and 1950) before it merged with the Bob in 1951 and the Bob officially became co-ed.

The Bob Revue operates under the Arts and Culture Commission, part of the Victoria University Students' Administrative Council (VUSAC).

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