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People and organizations

Shimizu, Hide

  • Person
  • 1908-1999

Hide Adelaide Shimizu (nee Hyodo) was born on May 11, 1908 in Vancouver, B.C. Her parents were Hideichi Hyodo and Toshiko Hyodo, both of whom had immigrated to Canada from Uwajima, Japan. She was the eldest of eight children.

After graduating John Oliver High School, she attended UBC though transferred to Vancouver Normal School a year later. Shimizu graduated with a teacher’s certificate in 1926. Due to anti-Japanese sentiments, few nisei became teacher. Shimizu was the first Japanese Canadian to teach in the British Columbia school system, taking a job at Lord Byng Elementary School in Steveston, B.C. The students at this school predominantly spoke Japanese, a language Shimizu did not speak. She pushed through the communication issue though, and taught there for 16 years.

Shimizu was very active in the community. She volunteered with the United Church and Japanese Canadian Citizens League (JCCL). She was one of four delegates to travel to Ottawa, sent by the JCCL to advocate for Japanese Canadian’s right to vote in 1936. Though the group were unable to convince the Elections and Franchise Acts Committee to grant voting rights to Japanese Canadians, this advocacy work did make her favorably known within the Japanese Canadian community.

Her passion for teaching continued and brought her to the 1937 World Education Conference held in Toyko. In 1942 when Japanese Canadians began to be sent to Hastings Park in Vancouver, Shimizu turned her attentions there. Concerned that the children now living there were no longer receiving any formal education, she began to travel to Vancouver from Steveston to organize classes led by those who had completed high school or generally a higher education. Throughout internment, the B.C. government was hesitant to set up and provide education to the thousands of children and young adults they had unsettled and moved to the interior. Shimizu was one of the last to leave Hastings Park, and as she made her way to New Denver to join other Japanese Canadians in an internment camp, she made a stop in Tashme to help set up an elementary school for those relocated there. She worked for the British Columbia Securities Commission to help set up classes and train teachers. Teachers were often other Japanese Canadians who had completed high school, not actual teachers. The B.C. government refused to provide support for high school students, so the community turned to the churches (Roman Catholic, United Church, and Anglican) to organize correspondence courses. Shimizu, under the supervision of the British Columbia Securities Commission advocated for supplies, equipment, and better working conditions. She continued her work until 1945 when she moved to Ontario to be with the rest of her family who had also moved there.

Hide married Reverend Kosaburo Shimizu in Toronto in 1948. He was a widower with four children whom Hide became step mother to. Rev. Shimizu had also been very active in advocating for Japanese Canadians during WWII. Now settled in Toronto, she began to spend her time working with the Nisei Church, the Japanese Canadian Cultural Centre (JCCC), Nisei Women’s Club, the National Association of Japanese Canadians (NAJC) and the Momiji Health Care Society.

Hide Shimizu was made a Member of the Order of Canada by the Governor General in 1982. This was in recognition for her work in organizing education for children in the internment camps. In 1983 she was awarded the Order of the Precious Crown by the Japanese Government.

During the 1980s, many Sansei began to learn more about the Issei and Nisei internment of WWII. The Redress movement began to pick up momentum and Hide Shimizu became an active participant. She joined the NAJC in their march to Ottawa to demand redress for the government’s actions towards Japanese Canadians after Pearl Harbor. Hide Shimizu took center stage when she pulled out over 14 000 postcards from Canadians across the country stating their support for redress in the House of Commons. As a Member of the Order of Canada, her presents and support was invaluable to the NAJC and the movement.

Hide Shimizu passed away on 22 August in Nepean, Ontario.

Brown, Elizabeth

  • Person
  • 1902-1990

(Agnes) Elizabeth Brown, the daughter of Newton Harcourt Brown, received a BA from the University of Toronto in 1928 (she was elected vice-president of the 2T8 University College class) and a MA in Personnel and Guidance from Columbia University in 1939. Prior to WWII, she worked for the department stores, Simpson’s and Eatons, and in New York, at Greenwich House. During the war, Elizabeth Brown initiated a program to recruit women into industries for the federal Department of Labour. Brown was the Chief of Mission for the UN Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) in Palestine (1945-1947). She later served as the Regional Officer for the National League of Nursing. When in Germany, she served as Director of Repatriation for the US zone for the International Refugee Organization (IRO) (1948-1952). Brown later became Director of Foster Parents Plan (1963-1969) in Ho Chi Ming City, Vietnam, formerly known as Saigon. She helped establish a Foster Parents Plan in Australia (1971-1972) before retiring. The Elizabeth Brown Travel Award was established in her name to support University College students provide humanitarian aid internationally. Brown died in 1990.

Brown, [Agnes] Elizabeth

  • Person
  • 1902-1990

(Agnes) Elizabeth Brown, the daughter of Newton Harcourt Brown, received a BA from the University of Toronto in 1928 (she was elected vice-president of the 2T8 [1928] University
College class) and a MA in Personnel and Guidance from Columbia University in 1939. Prior to WWII, Elizabeth worked for the department stores, Simpson’s and Eatons, and in New
York, at Greenwich House. During the war, Elizabeth Brown initiated a program to recruit women into industries for the federal Department of Labour. Brown was the Chief
of Mission for the UN Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) in Palestine (1945-1947). She later served as the Regional Officer for the National League of Nursing. When
in Germany, she served as Director of Repatriation for the US zone for the International Refugee Organization (IRO) (1948-1952). Brown later became Director of Foster Parents
Plan (1963-1969) in Ho Chi Ming City, Vietnam, formerly known as Saigon. She helped establish a Foster Parents Plan in Australia (1971-1972) before retiring. The Elizabeth
Brown Travel Award was established in her name to support University College students provide humanitarian aid internationally. Brown died in 1990.

Brown, Egerton

  • Person
  • 1904-1998

(Graham) Egerton Brown was the youngest son of Newtown Harcourt Brown. At the University of Toronto, Brown was the President of the University College Literary and Athletic Society. He received a BA in Political Science from the University of Toronto in 1926. Egerton Brown married Hazel Kingsworthy in 1927. He worked for Sun Life Assurance Company in Montreal for many years beginning as a clerk in 1921 (which he left to attend University of Toronto), returning in 1925, and eventually became Senior Vice-President in 1963. He was also a Fellow and President of the Life Insurance Institute of Canada. He died in 1998.

Angus, Ian

  • Person
  • 1945 -

Scholar and activist Ian Angus has been involved in following Canadian socialism and communism since the late 1970s. Author of Canadian Bolsheviks: The Early Years of the Communist Party of Canada (originally published in 1981), Angus has followed Canadian communism and other solidarity movements for years. Having an established background in ecosocialism, Angus is the editor of the journal Climate & Capitalism as well as a founding member of the Global Ecosocialist Network. Other more recent publications include Facing the Anthropocene: Fossil Capitalism and the Crisis of the Earth System (2016) and A Redder Shade of Green: Intersections of Science and Socialism (2017).

Baines, Andrew D.

  • Person
  • 1934-

Dr. Andrew DeWitt Baines (b. 17 July 1934) is a white Professor Emeritus of Laboratory Medicine at the University of Toronto and former Principal of New College, Vice-Dean of Education at the Faculty of Medicine, and Biochemist-in-Chief at The Toronto Hospital (now part of the University Health Network). Academically, he is best known for his nephrology research and for developing the Stowe-Gullen Stream of the Vic One Program at Victoria College. Dr. Baines was also involved in the development of health-related educational programs and culturally relevant services for Indigenous students at the University of Toronto.

Raised in Toronto, Dr. Baines attended high school at Lawrence Park Collegiate Institute. In 1953, he enrolled in the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine’s pre-medicine program. While in medical school, he was rugby player and team captain for the Varsity Blues. Dr. Baines received his M.D. in 1959, where he was awarded the Cody Silver Medal for achieving the second highest cumulative average grade in his graduating class. In 1960, Dr. Baines returned to U of T as doctoral student under the supervision of Dr. T. F. Nicholson and Dr. James A. Dauphinee. He achieved a Ph.D. (1965) in Pathological Chemistry and a Starr Medal for his research on the relationship between the structure and function of the kidney. Afterwards, he completed postgraduate fellowships at the University of North Carolina Department of Medicine (1965 – 1967) and the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre Department of Physiology in Paris, France (1967 – 1968).

University of Toronto Appointments
Upon completing his postgraduate research, Dr. Baines returned to the University of Toronto as an Associate Professor at the Department of Pathological Chemistry in July 1968. He was later appointed as Professor of Clinical Biochemistry and Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology between 1973 – 2005. Afterwards, Dr. Baines developed the Augusta Stowe-Gullen Stream of the Vic One Program at Victoria College which he coordinated and co-taught from 2005 to 2018. In 2013, he was appointed the first James and Anne Nethercott Professor at Victoria College.

Dr. Baines has also held several additional administrative appointments, including: Assistant to the Dean of Undergraduate Affairs, Faculty of Medicine (1973 – 1974); Principal of New College (1974 – 1979); Chairman of the Department of Clinical Biochemistry (1988 – 1994); Vice-Dean of Education, Faculty of Medicine (1994 – 1999); and Acting Program Director of the University of Toronto Sioux Lookout Program (1997 – 1998).

Likewise, he has chaired numerous committees at the University of Toronto, including the Undergraduate Education Committee for the Department of Clinical Biochemistry (1968 – 1972) and the Faculty of Medicine (1972 – 1974); Advisory Committee on the Hannah Chair for the History of Medicine (1982 – 1984); Presidential Committee on Professional Faculty Education for Native Students (1983 – 1986); Advisory Committee (1986 – 1991) and Management Committee (1991 – 1993) for the Aboriginal Health Professions Program; as well as the Clinical Long Range Planning Committee (1991).

Hospital Appointments
Beginning in the early 1970s, Dr. Baines concurrently practiced as an Associate Physician at the Toronto General Hospital (TGH). He was later appointed as Biochemist-in-Chief at TGH and The Toronto Hospital (after the merger between the Toronto General and Toronto Western Hospitals in 1986) from 1984 – 1994. Additionally, Dr. Baines has served on several committees including the Council of Heads of Laboratory Departments (1984 – 1988), Joint Council of Laboratory Directors (1987 – 1994), Medical Advisory Board (1977 – 1998), Medical Education Committee (1988 – 1994), Committee for Coordination of Downtown Genetic Services (1989 – 1992), The Toronto Hospital Laboratory Committee (1990 – 1992) at TGH and The Toronto Hospital; the Planning Committee for Women’s College Hospital (1989); the Molecular Diagnosis Laboratory Steering Committee (1991); and the Board of Trustees at the Hospital of Sick Children (1994 – 2004, 2019).

Research and Publications
Dr. Baines has published over 80 articles, reviews, and chapters throughout his academic career. Much of his early work relates to the structure, function, and physiology of kidneys. He later expanded his research to include studies on the effects of the sympathetic nervous system on kidneys and heart, methods in laboratory medicine, as well as clinical research related to hypertension and blood substitutes. Dr. Baines’s research appears in numerous high-impact academic journals including Kidney International, the American Journal of Kidney Diseases, and the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. As of 2024, more than twenty of his most cited articles have over 50 – 200 citations.

Honours and Awards
Dr. Baines has received numerous awards, fellowships, and honours in recognition of his work. In addition to the Cody Silver Medal (1959) and Star Medal for Outstanding Scholarship (1965), he was elected a Senior Fellow at Massey College in 1981 followed by the Canadian Society Clinical Chemists Cybermedics Award in 1982 and the Medical Award from the Kidney Foundation of Canada in 1994. He also became a Fellow of the Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Canada in 1988 and has been awarded several major research grants from NSERC, the Medical Research Council of Canada, the Kidney Foundation, the Heart and Stroke Foundation, and Hemosol.

Dr. Baines is married to Dr. Cornelia Baines (neé van Erk) who is known academically for her work on the Canadian National Breast Screening Study. The couple met and married while in medical school at the University of Toronto. They have two kids: Nicole and Nigel.

Rastrick Workhouse

  • Corporate body

Rastrick is a small village in the riding of West Yorkshire in the vicinity of Brighouse. The Overseer of the Poor of Rastrick was a
yearly appointed and unpaid position, usually a landowner or church warden, who was tasked with assisting the poor of the parish.
This included estimating how much poor relief was required and setting the poor rate accordingly, as well as collecting the tax levied
on land and business owners, distributing relief to needy individuals and supervising the poor house. Prior to 1837, the Overseer at
Rastrick facilitated the treatment of the poor through the provisions set by the Gilbert Act (1782). Under this act, only the elderly, sick
and orphaned were removed to the workhouse, all able-bodied poor were eligible for ‘out-relief,’ which included monetary assistance
for food, clothing, schooling and housing. In 1834, the Poor Law Amendment Act emphasized that out-relief should cease and instead
that assistance only be given inside the workhouse. The roll-out of this new amendment was not put into effect in Lancashire and
Yorkshire (including Rastrick) until 1837. The Outdoor Labour Test Order of 1842 did reinstate out-relief to some capacity for the

Howell, Nancy

  • Person
  • 1938 -

Nancy Howell is a sociologist best known for her demographic research on the !Kung San in Botswana. Howell was born in 1938 and grew up in Michigan. Howell graduated with her B.A. in 1963 from Brandeis University and with her Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1968. Her doctorate research centred on the study of the abortion network in the United States prior to Rowe vs Wade ruling. Her thesis was published in 1969, titled The Search for an Abortionist and was since re-released in 2014 as an e-book.

It was at Harvard where she met and married anthropologist Richard Lee. The two spent nearly two and half years living among the !Kung San in Botswana from 1967 to 1969. The couple divorced in teh early 1970s but this fieldwork was the source of her lifelong interest in the !Kung San. She is the author of numerous articles on the !Kung San and has published two books focusing on these hunter gatherer peoples including The Demography of the Dobe !Kung (1979 and 2nd edition 2000) and Life Histories of the Dobe !Kung (2010).

In 1985, the tragic death of Lee and Howell’s son Alex while in Botswana with Lee on a field trip shifted her research for the half decade. Howell wrote and researched extensively on the health and safety of anthropologist working in the field. The result of this effort was the publication of a report of the American Anthropologist Association in 1990, Surviving Fieldwork: Health and Safety in Anthropological Fieldwork.

Howell taught sociology at Princeton University (1970-1972) before moving to the University of Toronto in 1972. She was a Faculty member of the Department of Sociology from 1972 to 2004 and served as Associate Dean of the School of Graduate Studies from 1982-1985. During her years at the University of Toronto, she had stints as visiting professor at the University of California Berkeley (1977-1978) and the University of Botswana in Gaborone (1991-1992). She has also held several fellows at Stanford University. Nancy Howell is retired from teaching but continues to publish and lecture occasionally. She lives in Fort Meyers Florida.

Hollander, Samuel

  • Person
  • 1937-

Samuel Hollander was born in 1937 in London England. He grew up in an orthodox Jewish family where at the age of 16 he was sent to Gateshead-on-Tyne for Talmudic training. After returning to London in 1953 and completing “Advanced Level” requirements at Hendon Technical College and Killburn Polytechnic, he entered the London School of Economics. There, he was taught by well known economists, Lionel Robbins, Bernard Corry and Kurt Klappholz, to name a few. He graduated with a B. Sc. in Economics in 1959 and went to Princeton University where he completed his A.M. and Ph.D. by 1963.

He was recruited by Vincent Bladen to come to the University of Toronto to teach the history of economic thought and received his first appointment as Assistant Professor in 1963, rising through the ranks to Professor in 1970. In 1984 he received the distinction of University Professor, a lifetime honorary title held by only 14 professors at any one given time. Other prestigious honours include being named a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 1976 and the First Bladen Lecturer, 1982 and Innis Lecturer, 1982. Hollander’s research has been recognized by the support of various fellowships and grants including the Guggenheim Fellowship (1968-69), Senior Canada Council Grant (1969-71), the Killam Senior Research Fellowship (1974-75), Connaught Senior Fellowship (1984-85) as well as numerous Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada Grants.

Hollander’s diligent research and innovative interpretations of the British classical economists have earned him distinction and recognition internationally in the field of the history of economic thought. Since the publication of The Economics of David Ricardo in 1979, Hollander’s works (numerous books and over 100 articles) have been the subject of unprecedented debate among academics. In a review of one of his recent books The Economics of Thomas Robert Malthus, the author, Walter Eltis of Oxford, refers to a possible “Hollanderian approach to the history of economics” (History of Economic Thought Newsletter, No. 59 Winter 1997 pp.20-23). In 1991, a campaign to procure Hollander a Nobel Prize was initiated. Nobel laureate Paul Samuelson of MIT wrote to University of Toronto President Robert Prichard in support of this campaign and noted that “Professor Hollander of your university, by virtue of the depth and breadth of his writings on classical economics, I have to regard as virtual dean of his discipline”. At Hollander’s request, this endeavour was put on hold until the publication of his Malthus manuscript. In September 1998, in view of his early retirement from the University of Toronto, a two day conference was organized in his honour.

Since 2000, Hollander has been a professor, lecturer and research associate in the Department of Economics at Ben-Gurion University in Beer-Sheva, Israel. He remains an active member in the political economy community, and continues to write extensively. He has published The Economics of Karl Marx: Analysis and Application in 2008, Friedrich Engels and Marxian Political Economy in 2011, and Essays on Classical and Marxian Political Economy in 2013, John Stuart Mill: Political Economist (2015), A History of Utilitarian Ethics: Studies in Private Motivation and Distributive Justice (2020), and Immanuel Kant and Utilitarian Ethics (2022).

Bodle, Douglas

  • Person
  • 1923-2022

(George Talbot) Douglas Bodle, pianist, harpsichordist, organist, was born in Winnipeg, Manitoba August 7, 1923. He taught piano, harpsichord, and organ at the University of Toronto Faculty of Music from 1969 to 1989, and on a part-time basis in 1990-1991.

Manson, Robert Graham

  • Local
  • Person
  • 1883-1950

Robert Graham Manson was a violinist, violist, pianist, and composer. Born in London, England on July 11, 1883 to James Alexander Manson (journalist and author) and Margaret Emily Deering, Robert G. Manson studied music at the Royal College of Music in London (1900-1903) with Arthur Somervell, Sir Frederick Bridge, and Sir Charles Villiers Stanford. After graduation he stayed in the United Kingdom where he performed with the Scottish Orchestra and London Symphony Orchestra.

By 1911, he was living at a boarding house at 320 Spadina Avenue, Toronto, Ontario with fellow musician Percy Thomas, a second violinist in the Toronto Symphony Orchestra (TSO) conducted by Frank Welsman starting in 1908. Manson also played in Welsman's TSO, and is listed as a violist on two programs for TSO concerts with Kathleen Parlow (March 16, 1911 and October 18, 1911).

After World War One, during which he served in the British Expeditionary Force, he married Mary L. Stewart in Bedford, England (m. 1921, d. 1940 in Toronto) and performed regularly in North America, including two seasons with the Cleveland Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Nikolai Sokoloff, and fifteen years with the "New" Toronto Symphony Orchestra, formed by Luigi von Kunits (violin, 1925-1932; viola, 1932-1940). He also performed with the Spivak String Quartet, led by Elie Spivak, and taught at the Hambourg Conservatory of Music in Toronto.

Manson also wrote a number of original compositions and made several arrangements. His compositions exist in manuscript form only. Helmut Kallmann's Catalogue of Canadian Composers (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 1952) lists eight manuscripts: Symphony in C minor, An Atlantean episode, Niagara, Canadian fantasy, Ukrainian fantasy, Quintet in F major, Quartet in D major, Alouette. and The collection of Manson's manuscripts at the University of Toronto Music Library also includes Symphony in G minor, which was premiered in County Orange Hall by the Toronto Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Donald Heins; Symphony in D major; and two of Manson's arrangements.

During World War Two, he served as a translator in Ottawa; on one of his travel documents from a trip in 1922 from England to Canada, he listed having reading comprehension of English, French, German, and Spanish. Following the war, he continued to perform regularly in and outside of Canada. According to his obituary, he performed at the Hart House Theatre two weeks before he died at his home on 49 Huntley Street, Toronto on February 14, 1950.

Hacking, Ian

  • Person
  • 1936 - 2023

Dr. Ian MacDougall Hacking (18 February 1936 - 10 May 2023) was a white analytic philosopher whose work drew from multiple disciplines, including the history of science, statistics, physics, and psychology. Recognized as an influential contemporary thinker, Dr. Hacking is noted for his examination of the relationships between the physical and social sciences.

Raised in Vancouver, British Columbia, Hacking received his B.A. in Physics and Mathematics (1956) from the University of British Columbia. He later became a student at the University of Cambridge’s Trinity College, studying moral sciences. Here, he received a BA (1958), followed by an M.A. and PhD (1962). Between the 1960s and early 1980s, Hacking held academic teaching positions at universities internationally. These included his alma maters, the University of British Columbia (1964-1967) and the University of Cambridge (1969-1974), as well Princeton University (1961-1962), Makerere University College in Uganda (1967-1969), Stanford University (1975-1982), and Germany’s Bielefeld University (1982-1983).

In 1982, Hacking accepted a position at the University of Toronto Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology and, in 1991, was awarded the title of University Professor. Following his tenure at the University of Toronto, he was appointed Chaire de philosophie et histoire des concepts scientifiques at the Collège de France. His term from 2000 to 2006 marked the first time an Anglophone philosopher was awarded the prestigious position. Subsequently, Hacking taught at the University of Chicago (2007), the University of California, Santa Cruz (2008-2010), and the University of Cape Town (2011) as a visiting professor. He numerous year he continued his work as University Professor Emeritus at the University of Toronto and Professeur honoraire at the Collège de France.

Hacking published fourteen books in addition to numerous reviews, articles, and editorials. The books he authored comprise both his academic writing as well more popular texts directed to general audiences. His early text, The Emergence of Probability (1975), explores the influence of a 17th century concept of probability in contemporary thought. Logic, statistical theory, and the history of mathematics are also the central topics of Hacking’s Logic of Statistical Interference (1965), Taming of Chance (1990), An Introduction to Probability and Inductive Logic (2001), and Why is There Philosophy of Mathematics at All? (2014).

Hacking’s later texts, Rewriting the soul: Multiple personality and the sciences of memory (1995) and Mad travelers: Reflections on the reality of transient mental illnesses (1998), discuss psychiatric illness and the behavioral and social effects of diagnosis. These texts also reflect Hacking’s longstanding interest in ‘human kinds’ and the relationship between individuals and social categories.

In response to the philosophical debates surrounding the objectivity of scientific inquiry and theory, often referred to as ‘the science wars’, Hacking published The Social Construction of What? (1999). A collection of Dr. Hacking’s writing was published in the volume Historical Ontology (2002) taking essays authored throughout Hacking’s career to discuss the philosophical uses of history.

Hacking was recognized for his work with numerous awards, fellowships, and honours. In 1991, he was selected to present the Tarner Lectures at Trinity College, Cambridge University and is a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences among other institutions. He was the recipient of the Canadian Council of the Art’s Molson Prize (2000), the inaugural Killam Prize for the Humanities (2002) and the Holberg International Memorial Prize (2009). Hacking was named a Companion to the Order of Canada in 2004.

Ian Hacking had three children, Daniel Hacking, Rachel Hacking, and Jane F. Hacking. Following two previous marriages, Dr. Hacking married Judith Baker (nee Polsky, 1938-2014) in 1983. Prof. Baker was a professor of philosophy at York University, Toronto. Following a period of declining health, Hacking died on May 10, 2023.

Imai, Shin

  • Person
  • 1950-

Shin Imai helped form the Sodan-Kai group during the Redress movement for Japanese Canadians. He played a pivotal role in the events leading up to Redress, and the organizing of the Japanese Canadian people in the Toronto area.

Born in Tokyo, Japan, Imai immigrated to Canada as a child with his family in 1953, one of the few Japanese families allowed to enter Canada during the post-war era. His father, Reverend Canon Ken Imai, was an Anglican Minister who had been invited to Canada to lead a Japanese speaking congregation, composed of Japanese Canadians who had settled in Toronto after internment. Though the family was initially prepared for three years in Canada, they chose to stay and received Canadian Citizenship in the 1960s.

During the Redress movement, the Toronto chapter of the Japanese Canadian Citizens Association (JCCA) had become fractured, and members were torn between whether or not Redress should include individual financial compensation and civil rights protection. Though his family had come to Canada after the war, Imai became an active member in the movement. At the time he helped to prepare briefs for the National JCCA Human Rights Committee. He, along with two other lawyers Maryka Omatsu and Marcia Matsui created the Sokan-Kai in 1983. The Sodan-Kai was meant to be a forum for public discussion on Redress, taking no sides and acting separately from the Toronto JCCA and the National Association of Japanese Canadians (NAJC). Imai was inspired by Vancouver sansei called the Canadian Centennial Committee and Canada’s growing awareness of the treatment of Japanese Canadians during WWII. The group began informal discussions at each other’s homes, and members grew to include Joy Kogawa, Ron Shimizu, Edie Goto, Yukio Mizuyabu, Roger Obata, Bryce Kanbara, Wes Fujiwara, Connie Sugiyama, Jim Matsui, David Fujino and Harry Yonekura. Imai chose the name “Sodan-Kai” as it roughly means “discussion society”. The group came from many different backgrounds and had varying opinions on Redress. What they held in common was their belief that Japanese Canadians should be informed about the issue and have a platform to discuss it before addressing the Canadian government.

The first public meeting of the Sodan-Kai was held Sunday May 15, 1983 at the Japanese Canadian Cultural Centre (JCCC). Over 300 came to listen to members of the Japanese American Citizens' League, George Imai of the National Redress Committee, and Gordon Kadota the NAJC president. The second meeting was held Saturday, July 23, 1983, with Shin Imai and Frank Moritsugu acting as chairmen. Those in attendance agreed to form a Toronto Redress group from members of both Sodan-Kai and the Toronto JCCA.

The Sodan-Kai participated in the Prince Hotel Conference where the NAJC and its representation was overhauled. Their participation caused much controversy, especially from those who still followed the Toronto JCCA. The third public meeting of the Sodan-Kai was Sunday, October 23 at the JCCC, though there was little discussion of Redress.

After dismissive comments from Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, the Sodan-Kai organized the CentreStage Forum, titled “Racism and Injustice: The Japanese Canadian Experience”. Taking place at the St. Lawrence Centre on April 25, 1984, it was the first time non-Japanese Canadians were invited to participate. Shortly after the forum, the group stopped meeting, but only until 1987 did they formally dissolve.

The logo for the Sodan-Kai was designed by David Fujino.

Shin Imai received his law degree in 1980 and has spent much of his career working in human rights, refugee law and indigenous rights. He currently teaches at Osgood Hall Law School.

Hirabayashi, Gordon

  • Person
  • 1918-2012

Gordon Hirabayashi was born April 23, 1918 in Sandpoint, Washington, USA. His father, Shungo Hirabayashi, immigrated to the United States in 1907, and Mitsuko, Gordon’s mother, came to the United States in 1914. Both of Gordon’s parents came from the Nagano prefecture in Japan. Prior to immigrating to the United States, both Shungo and Mitsuko had studied English at Kenshi Gijuku academy in Japan and it was there that they converted to Christianity.

Hirabayashi went to study at the University of Washington in 1937. He was active with the YMCA and attended a leadership conference at Columbia University in the summer of 1940. After that summer he returned to University and registered with the Selective Service as a conscientious objector and joined the Religious Society of Friends. Though born in the United States and thus a citizen, as a Japanese American his rights were continually encroached upon during WWII. President Franklin D. Roosevelt initiated the mass removal and internment of Japanese Americans from the West Coast on February 19, 1942 with Executive Order 9066. Instead of following these orders, Hirabayashi began to resist. He left school and began to volunteer with the American Friends Service Committee and defied the newly placed curfew on those of Japanese Ancestry.

In order to create a test case against these new laws, Hirabayashi turned himself into the FBI for not obeying the imposed curfew. He argued he was not guilty as the laws were prejudice and unconstitutional. His case, Hirabayashi v. United States, (320 U.S. 81) culminated with him serving time in prison. After his release, he spent another year in prison after refusing to complete the Selective Service Form 304A, "The Statement of United States Citizens of Japanese Ancestry" from the draft board as it singled out Japanese Americans.
After the war, Hirabayashi completed his B.A., then went on to earn an M.A. and Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Washington. He taught around the world, and eventually settled in Edmonton at the University of Alberta in 1959. In 1987, shortly after his retirement, lawyers contacted him seeking permission to reopen his wartime conviction. That year the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled in favor of his case, vacating his personal conviction.

Gordon Hirabayashi passed away on January 2, 2012. Later that year he was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Obama for his stand against Japanese American internment.

Smellie, William

  • Person
  • 1836-1919

William Smellie (1836-1919) immigrated to Glenelg Township, Ontario from Scotland with his father, William Smellie.

Patterson, William Robert (W.R)

  • Person
  • 1859-1931

William Robert (W.R) Patterson was born in 1859 in Kent County, Ontario and was the oldest child of Philip Bolling Patterson (1830-1922) and Alcinda Francis Parker (1840-1892). Philip Patterson and Alcinda Parker were both born enslaved in Virginia and escaped to Canada, settling in Chatham, in the 1850s. They married on 4 October 1860, and the couple had twelve children: William Robert (1859), Philip (1863), Thomas (1864), John Henry (1866), James (1868), Lucy “Lulu” Ellen (1870), Kiziah Victoria (1873), Clement Herman (1877), Anna Frances (1879), Prince Albert (1879), Bertia (1883) and Nathaniel Oscar (1885). The family was a musical one with at least three of the siblings, W.R, Thomas and Nathaniel Oscar working as professional musicians. The children grew up on a farm in Harwich township and attended local segregated schools until 1893 when the schools in the area were desegregated. W.R moved to Hamilton and was involved with music both locally and touring the United States with his first wife, Fannie Harris (1864-1909). After Fannie’s death in 1909, W.R remarried in 1910 to Mary Morton (1885-?) and settled permanently in Hamilton where he worked as a barber along with organizing and performing in local singing groups. W.R died in 1931. W.R.’s youngest brother, Nathaniel Oscar (N.O.) was born twenty-five years after W.R. but the brothers maintained a close relationship in adulthood. N.O. began touring as a musician by 1907 when he sang as a baritone soloist in the Old Southland Sextette in Chicago. N.O. married Lillian Belle Isabell (1882-?), a professional vocalist from Norfolk Virginia, on 13 December 1911 in Huron, Ontario. The couple soon began singing with the Famous Canadian Jubilee Singers, a well-known Black spiritual group which was founded in 1879 in Hamilton, Ontario. By March 1914, N.O had established his own group, the Patterson’s Jubilee Quartet and Concert Company, which featured N.O., his wife Lillian, along with Chonita Hyers (1893-1953) of Amherstburg, Ontario and Hiriam Berry (1894-1983) of Hamilton. The group was first based in Hamilton, but by 1915, had moved to Buffalo, New York. They toured in the United States throughout the war years. N.O contracted the Spanish Flu while on a visit home to Hamilton and died on 19 October 1918 at age 32.

Meinhardt, Hermann

  • Person
  • 1910-1945

Hermann Meinhardt (1910-1945) was the son of Alfred and Arnoldine (née von Wedell) Meinhardt. Hermann had three siblings, his elder sister Hedwig (Heidi), his younger sister Charlotte (Lotti) and Ernst, a younger brother. Alfred Meinhardt was a businessman who owned what would be referred to today as a commercial dry-cleaning company, specializing in preserving restaurant draperies. His wife Arnoldine’s love for the Arts influenced a broad artistic education for their children. Hermann studied at the Music Conservatory in Cologne, Heidi became a dancer and Lotti dabbled in painting for most of her life. Difficult economic times in the 1930’s guided Hermann towards more practical pursuits and he found employment in the offices of the Braunkohlen Synidcat in Cologne. Hermann Meinhardt married Emmi Oligschläger in 1939, and they had one daughter, Ingeborg (Inga). Herman Meinhardt was killed by Allied Troops near Felbecke, Germany in April 1945.
Wartime records indicate that Hermann was a member of the German Airforce 3. Batterie, I. Abteilung, Flakregiment 4 (I./Flak Regt. 4), which took him to France, Austria, Ukraine, Romania and Southern Russia, and that he held the position of Obergefreiter (leading aircraftsman) on 08.03.1943.

Meinhardt, Emmi

  • Person

Emmi Oligschläger married Hermann Meinhardt in 1939, and they had one daughter, Ingeborg (Inga). Herman Meinhardt was killed by Allied Troops near Felbecke, Germany in April 1945. Emmi remarried in 1947 and soon lost touch with most of the Meinhardt family.

Jaremenko, Nadija

  • Person

When Nazi Germany invaded Ukraine in 1941, the occupying forces took Dr. Pip’s mother, Nadija Jaremenko, from her native village of Shpola in Cherkasy province to Germany to work as an Ostarbeiter (Eastern Worker), a form of slave labour. Nadija ended up in a prison camp in Itzehoe. Following liberation by British forces, she was sent to Wagenfeld, and then Korigen. At the latter camp, Nadia composed poetry (under her name and the pseudonyms N. Iskra and Ya. Idan) describing her contemporary living conditions and feelings, took part in amateur plays, and taught at the makeshift school. She also contributed to Camp Korigen’s journal Na chuzhyni (In a Foreign Country). While there, Nadija Jaremenko met her eventual husband, Ivan Pip.
Ivan and Nadija Pip immigrated to Canada in 1948-1949. In Canada, Nadija Jaremenko Pip taught in several Ukrainian schools in Winnipeg and continued to write for Ukrainian-language periodicals and pedagogical journals.

Pip, Ivan

  • Person

Ivan was born in the village of Koniushky in the Lviv region. He enlisted with the Polish cavalry in 1938 and, during the September Campaign of 1939, was wounded and captured by German armed forces. Ivan spent the rest of the war moving from one forced labour camp to another in the Hamburg region. Afterwards, he passed through several displaced persons camps in Lower Saxony and Schleswig‐Holstein. Ivan, an artist and musician, participated actively in the cultural life of Camp Korigen. He painted icons for the camp church, created stage sets for the performances staged there, and designed the costumes and makeup for the actors, crafted dolls for children, and played the violin both solo and with the camp orchestra, which he organized. In addition, Ivan illustrated camp journals, including Dzhmil´ (Bumblebee), a satirical‐humorous publication.
Ivan and Nadija Pip immigrated to Canada in 1948-1949. In Canada, Nadija Jaremenko Pip taught in several Ukrainian schools in Winnipeg and continued to write for Ukrainian-language periodicals and pedagogical journals.

Saville, Miriam

  • Person

Miriam Saville was a diabetic patient treated by Dr. Charles Best in the late 1920s/early 1930s when she was about thirteen years old.

Nobel, Mable N.

  • Person
  • [19--]

Mable N. Nobel was the daughter of Percy G.B. Westmacott who served a nurse with the Red Cross
during World War I.

Westmacott, Percy G.B.

  • Person
  • 1830-1917

Percy G.B. Westmacott (1830-1917) was a British mechanical engineer. He began work as a draughtsman at the Elswick Ordnance Company, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, in 1851, and in 1859 was responsible for technical management of the engine works at Elswick as well as for contributions to the hydraulic lifting machinery department. In 1864 he became a partner of Sir W.G. Armstrong and Co., then managing director in 1882. Sir. W.G. Armstrong and Co. was a major British manufacturing company that built armaments, ships, locomotives, automobiles and aircraft. Westmacott then became involved in bridge building, helping to design swing bridges on the Ouse and Tyne rivers, as well as working on the principle docks on the Thames in South Wales and other part of the country.

Stewart, Kathleen Innes

  • Person
  • 1908-2003

Kathleen Innes Stewart was born 9 April 1908 in London, England as the oldest child of George and Louise Stewart. Her father soon moved the family to Cleveland, Ohio, where he headed at the H.K Cushing Laboratory for Experimental Medicine at Western Reserve University. In 1922, the family – now including Kathleen and her three younger brothers – moved to Toronto, where Kathleen attended Havergal College. She later attended University College at the University of Toronto, and graduated in 1928 before leaving on an eleven month trip through Europe with her close friend, Kathleen Sutton. George Stewart died in 1930, and Louise Stewart died in 1933, leaving Kathleen to care for her younger brothers. Kathleen Stewart married James Fitz-Randolph Crowe in 1935, and they travelled across the United States and Canada performing in theatres together under the stage names Kathleen and Norman Roland; including the opening season of the Stratford Festival. Kathleen wrote cookbooks for additional income and worked for the Canadian National Film Board during the Second World War. She worked on the stage until the 1960s, whereupon she became a social worker in New York City. She died in New York in 2003 at the age of 95.

Ronald Arthur Ward

  • Person
  • 1908 - 1986

Rev. Canon Dr. Ronald Arthur Ward (1908 - 9 July, 1986) was born in Hertfordshire, England, hailing from a family of preachers. Originally a Classics scholar, Ward parlayed his knowledge into becoming a New Testament scholar, graduating from London University with Bachelor of Divinity (1934), Master of Arts, and Doctor of Divinity degrees. His Ph.D thesis was entitled, "The Aristotelian Element in the Philosophical Vocabulary of the New Testament." After ordination, Rev. Ward took a Curacy in South-East England, and was appointed Tutor of London College of Divinity, where he taught briefly.

He immigrated to Canada in 1951, where he was charged with the Church of the Messiah (240 Avenue Road, Toronto), and became a staff member of Upper Canada College. The following year, Rev. Ward took a position as professor of New Testament at Wycliffe College, a position he held from 1952 until 1963. Beginning in 1955, he held the position of Examining Chaplain to the Bishop of Toronto. Rev. Ward held Canadian citizenship for more than 30 years; his other activities included preaching at noon-hour Lenten service in St. James Anglican Cathedral, Toronto, located at King and Church.

Rev. Ward was a prolific scholar, even when not at his academic post at Upper Canada College or Wycliffe College. He went on a mission to Jamaica from 1958-1960, spoke at interdenominational conferences and committees, published several articles, authored 12 books, and acted as editor or Evangelical Christian from 1959 to c.1967.

In 1963, Rev. Ward briefly returned to England, spent a year travelling through Europe and Asia, and next lectured and preached in Australia and New Zealand. He returned again to England, and became rector of the Ellingham and Kirby Cane churches in the Anglican diocese of Norwich.

In 1969, Ward relocated to New Brunswick, were he was rector of St. John’s Stone Anglican Church, and rural dean of Saint John for eight years prior to retiring in 1975. Ward was well-known in Saint John for his many public speaking engagements and his appearances on local television station CHSJ’s programme Destination. In September 1984, Rev. Ward went on an eastern Arctic mission to Povungnituk, and Sugluk, in northern Quebec, and Cape Dorset in the Northwest Territories.

In 1985, Rev. Ward continued his scholasticism. A member of the International Society of New Testament studies, Rev. Ward lectured at the Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Banockburn, Illinois, in 1985.

For the last eleven years of his life, Rev. Ward lived in St. Stephen, New Brunswick, with his wife, Evelyn (Powell) Ward (b. December 1906). The couple married in September, 1933, and had three children, Phillip, John, and Timothy.

William Thompson Hallam

  • Person
  • 1878-1956

Rt. Revd. William Thompson Hallam was born in Derby, England on March 4, 1878, the son of Thomas Hallam, of Leicester, England. He came to Canada with his parents in 1887 and settled in London, Ontario. His early education was at the London College Institute. After training to become a teacher, Hallam received his Ontario public school teaching certificate in 1896. He then studied Classics at Dalhousie University, graduating with a BA honours in 1901. It was there that Hallam also met his future wife Lillian Hallam (née Best), a fellow classics student. After graduating, Hallam moved back to Ontario and was appointed a deacon in the Church of England in 1903. He graduated from Wycliffe College in 1904 and was ordained by the Archbishop of Toronto the same year. His first appointments were curate at St. Paul’s Church in Lindsay (1903-05), incumbent in Cannington and Beaverton, Ontario (1905-07), and assistant at All Saints’ Church in Toronto (1907-08). Hallam received his BD from Wycliffe College in 1908 and accepted a position at the college as a professor of New Testament History, which he held from 1909 to 1922. During this period he continued his studies and obtained his DD from the college in 1916. Hallam also served as the editor of the Canadian Churchman, the national journal of the Church of England in Canada, from 1918 to 1922, when he accepted a position as the principal of Emmanuel College in Saskatoon. He remained the principal of the college as well as sub-dean of St. John’s Cathedral, Saskatoon, until 1927. In January of that year, shortly before leaving his position at Emmanuel College, Hallam delivered a series of lectures as part of the Laurie Memorial Trust at King’s College, Halifax. He then moved back to Ontario in the summer of 1927 to take up the position of rector at the Church of the Ascension in Hamilton. In 1931 Hallam was elected Bishop of the diocese of Saskatchewan and moved back to Saskatoon. Shortly thereafter, the diocese was divided and Hallam became the Bishop of the diocese of Saskatoon, a position he held for the following 17 years until his retirement in 1949. During this period, Hallam travelled widely across Saskatchewan and the rest of Canada as well as to the United Kingdom in late 1935 and early 1936 and again in the summer of 1948, when he attended the 8th Lambeth Conference in London. In 1945 he was awarded an honorary LL.D from the University of Saskatchewan. After retiring as First Bishop of Saskatoon, Hallam moved back to Ontario and continued his ordained ministry in the position of Assistant Bishop of the diocese of Huron. In 1949 he also resumed his academic career and accepted a professorship of apologetics and practical theology at Huron College, London, where he additionally served as the Dean of Divinity. In 1952 Hallam’s book, The Victory of Faith: A Study in Christian Missions, was published by the Church of England in Canada. He died in London, Ontario, on July 25, 1956.

Hallam’s first wife, Lillian, was born in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, and raised in Halifax. She studied classics at Dalhousie University and graduated with BA honours. She also obtained a MA from King’s University, Halifax. Throughout the career of W.T. Hallam, Lillian Hallam was active in a number of associations, including the Woman’s Auxilary, the Local Council of Woman, the Canadian Club, the Home and School Association, and the Council of Friendship. She also wrote a book entitled When You Are In Halifax: Sketches of Life in the First English Settlement in Canada, which was published by Church Book Room in 1937. Lillian died in 1939. Hallam later remarried Kathleen Hallam (née Coggs). W.T. Hallam and Lillian Hallam had three children: two sons, Beverley and Cyril, and one daughter, Isabelle Hallam Whitley.

Bruce, George Nigel

  • Person

Rev. Dr. George Nigel Bruce began his studies at the University of Toronto in 1864. He later went on to establish St. Andrew's College in the former home of Sir David Macpherson at Chestnut Park, Toronto in 1899. Dr. Bruce acted as the school's first headmaster from 1899-1990 before stepping down due to illness.

Carland, John M.

  • Person
  • 1942-

Dr. John Michael Carland (b. 1942) is an author, professor, and former historian for the United States Department of State.

Carland grew up in Little Rock, Arkansas. He received an undergraduate degree in political science and history from the University of Arkansas at Little Rock and an M.A. in political science from the City College of New York. Afterwards, Carland pursued doctoral work under the supervision of Archibald Paton Thornton at the University of Toronto. He received is Ph.D. in 1977 for his thesis, Colonial Office Staff and Nigeria: 1898 to 1914.

From 1985 to 2002, Carland worked as a historian the U.S. Army Center of Military History as where he became a subject specialist on US Army operations in the Vietnam War. He then moved to the Office of the Historian at United States Department of State where he remained until 2013. Carland has also taught at the University of Kentucky and George Mason University on topics such as Imperial, English, Canadian history as well as the history of the Vietnam War.

Carland has published works related to militaries, imperial history, and the Vietnam War, including: The Colonial Office and Nigeria, 1898–1914 (1985); Combat Operations: Stemming the Tide, May 1965–October 1966 (2000); Vietnam, January--October 1972 (2010); Vietnam, October 1972–January 1973 (2010); and Vietnam: The Kissinger-Le Duc Tho Negotiations, August 1969–December 1973 (2017).

Tokiwa, Masaji George

  • Person
  • 1898-1978

Masaji George Tokiwa was born in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, February 5, 1898. He moved to Canada with his brother Tsunesuke Tokiwa (1891-[1971]) in 1917, settling in Ocean Falls, B.C. He worked in the lumber industry there but soon went to Vancouver to receive his Barber License. Around this time Masaji returned to Japan to marry Hiroko (Hiro) Alice Tokiwa (1902-1970), bringing her Canada. Both were from farming families and both had received education, Masaji had completed highschool, Hiro completing middle school. He returned to Ocean Falls where he became a prominent member of the Japanese Canadian community.

At the time, the workers at the sawmill in Ocean Falls were almost all Japanese Canadian single men. The Tokiwa family were one of the first to settle there as a family. Masaji and Hiro had four children: Helen Sachiye Tokiwa (1925-2014), Paul Yoshiharu Tokiwa (1927- 1994), Samuel Mitsuo Tokiwa (1929-2014), and Lily Yasue (nee. Tokiwa) Gibson (1932- ). Though the town was segregated, Masaji was respected by both the Japanese Canadians and the white settlers. He worked as one of the three barbers there. No longer working in the sawmill, many of the men there came to Masaji to discuss their problems. As he interacted with all the men in the mill by cutting their hair, he became a leader figure and helped many of the men out with their problems.

When the province of British Columbia began to forcibly remove Japanese Canadians from the coast, Tokiwa decided to move to Kelowna with his family to work on a farm. The government quickly pushed against this decision and Hiro and the two girls moved to Vancouver to stay with an Aunt, leaving Masaji to work on the farm himself. Previous to the war, both sons had been sent to Japan for education. Masaji was concerned that if they were to stay in Canada, they would not receive adequate education due to discrimination against those of Japanese descent. Masaji and Hiro had planned to eventually retire to Japan, but the war completely upturned this. In Vancouver, Hiro, Helen, and Lily were moved to Hasting Park. From there they then went to live in Tashme, B.C.

The family was told Masaji could rejoin them if they all moved out of the province. With the help of a Minister in Tashme, the Tokiwa’s reunited in Beamsville, O.N. to work on the Prudhomme’s farm in November of 1942. They were one of the first Japanese Canadian families to be sent there. Both Lily and Helen were musically inclined and continued their studies there. Helen practiced the piano and organ at the local Church, and Lily sang in school recitals. Masaji’s leadership and intelligence was quickly perceived and the Prudhomme’s soon moved him to work in their greenhouse instead of the farm fields. Tokiwa was a strong believer in education and began to search for a new home for the family that would have more education opportunities for his eldest, Helen.

In 1948, the family moved to Toronto, O.N. The brothers, who were in Japan during the war, returned to Canada to join the family in 1950. In Toronto, Masaji took up the business of barber again and quickly grew a loyal customer base. Hiro worked in a garment factory along Spadina Ave. for a few years, Lily went into nursing, and Helen began to train at the Royal Conservatory of Music.

Even in Toronto, Masaji continued to be a leader for the Japanese Canadian community. He is noted to have been a fantastic speech maker and was an integral member in the creation of the Japanese Canadian Cultural Centre (JCCC). He was an elder in the church. The family had converted to Christianity early in their time in B.C., and continued to practice in Toronto, following Rev. Shimizu. After the passing of Masaji in 1978, his son Paul took over his spot on the board of the JCCC.

Eloísa Cartonera, publisher

  • Corporate body

Eloísa Cartonera is a graphic arts and independent publishing cooperative founded in 2003 in Buenos Aires by Fernanda Laguna, Washington Cucurto (Santiago Vega), and Javier Barilaro. Eloísa Cartonera publishes illustrated and handmade books of poetry, novels, short stories, and essays. The texts are created and donated by established and emerging Latin American authors, poets, artists, and activists. The Eloísa Cartonera team works with cartoneros, or cardboard collectors, to source material used for the covers of their illustrated handmade books. The small-scale, independent collective model of production and the use of inexpensive and recyclable materials creates publications that support social solidarity and sustainability efforts and make books accessible to a wider public.

Greater Toronto Chapter of the National Association of Japanese Canadians

  • Corporate body
  • 1947-

The Greater Toronto Chapter of the National Association of Japanese Canadians has its history stemming from the National Japanese Canadian Citizens Association (NJCCA). Founded in 1947 by Roger Obata and other nisei leaders, the NJCCA was the first national organization by Japanese Canadians. Japanese Canadians were still disenfranchised and facing injustice from the unlawful dispossession of the community. In April 1980, the NJCCA changed their name to the NAJC, though many chapters, including the Toronto chapter kept NJCCA in their name.

1977 marked the centennial of the fist issei, Nagano Manzo, arriving in Canada. This large community celebration brought many Japanese Canadians together, and informal discussion of redress began. By the early 80s, friction between members in the Toronto JCCA began and stemmed from whether redress should include individual compensation, representing the huge loss of assets and work during the internment. Many members of the Toronto JCCA felt that the Toronto chapter was not representing the views of the majority, nor aligned with the NAJC on the national level. To protest this, members created the North York Chapter of the NAJC, which later would be renamed to the Greater Toronto NAJC, headed by Wes Fujiwara. Between 1983 and 1984, the nonpartisan group Sodan-Kai helped bring together and facilitate discussions between the Toronto JCCA and those who believed redress should include recognition of individual loss. In their efforts to seek redress, the NAJC had the Price Waterhouse Associates assess the loss endured by the Japanese Canadian community from the internment. This was calculated to income and property losses at not less than $443 million in 1986 dollar. The Greater Toronto NAJC organized and led many demonstrations demanding the Canadian government recognize their racist actions towards the Japanese Canadians and offer redress. These demonstrations include the Ottawa rally in April 1980 where many prominent members of the Japanese Canadian community met with Minister of State for Multiculturalism Gerry Weiner, opening up the discussion for redress.

On September 22, 1988, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney announces a Redress Settlement negotiated between the National Association of Japanese Canadians and the federal government. The Redress Settlement acknowledged injustices against Japanese Canadians during and after World War II, provide a payment of $21,000 to all Japanese Canadians affected by the provisions of the War Measures Act, expunge criminal records of those charged with offenses stemming from violation of provisions of the War Measures Act, re-instate citizenship of those exiled to Japan, establish a $12million community fund to help rebuild community infrastructure, and provide $24million to establish the Canadian Race Relations Foundation

Toronto became the Eastern Regional Office for the Redress Advisory and Assistance Committee, aiding field workers as they intern aided members of the Japanese Canadian community complete their redress forms. The Eastern Regional Office also worked with members of the community re-apply or appeal unsatisfactory decisions regarding their Redress applications.

After winning the battle for Redress, the Greater Toronto chapter of the NAJC continues to seek justice and support marginalized communities who have faced discrimination from the Canadian government and elsewhere.

Rakoff, Vivian M.

  • Person
  • 1928-2020

Dr. Vivian Morris Rakoff is a noted psychiatrist who served as Chair of the University of Toronto Department of Psychiatry and Psychiatrist-in-Chief of the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry from 1980 to 1990. Dr. Rakoff’s research has pertained to a wide range of issues, including alcoholism, childhood and adolescence, family dynamics, obesity, and the challenges faced by children of Holocaust survivors. He has also co-authored and co-edited a number of general textbooks and clinical handbooks for students and practitioners.

Dr. Rakoff was born on April 28 1928 in Cape Town, South Africa and received his BA (1947) and MA (1949) from the University of Cape Town. He then moved to England, where he received an MBBS from the University of London (1957), at which point he joined the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of London and England and returned to Cape Town as a Senior Intern in Neurology and Psychiatry and Psychiatric Resident at Groote Schuur Hospital.

Dr. Rakoff married a physician, Dr. Gina Shochat-Rakoff, and they had 3 children: Simon (1960-), Ruth (1962-) and David (1964-2012).

Dr. Rakoff moved to Montreal and received a diploma in Psychological Medicine from McGill University (1963) and became a member of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada in 1964. He worked in the Department of Psychiatry at the Jewish General Hospital in Montreal, becoming Staff Psychiatrist (1963), Assistant Director of Research (1965), and Director of Research (1967). During this time, he also worked in the department of Psychiatry at McGill University, as a Lecturer (1964), Assistant Professor (1966), Associate Professor and Director of Postgraduate Education (1968-1971), and Professor and Director of Postgraduate Education (1971-1974). He then moved to Toronto to become the Coordinator of Education at the Clarke Institute (1977) and Head of the Department of Psychiatry at Sunnybrook Medical Centre (1978).

In 1980, he became Professor and Chairman of the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Toronto and Director and Psychiatrist-in-Chief of the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry (a position he held until 1990). He received an honorary degree from the University of Toronto in 2008 and was appointed as a Member of The Order of Canada in 2015. The Rakoff Centre for Positron Emission Tomography at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health is named in his honour.

Dr. Rakoff is also the author of a number of plays, radio plays, poems, and essays. He has appeared on radio and television programs to discuss problems of current concern, most particularly as a regular contributor to CBC Ideas. Dr. Rakoff is also a prolific sketcher.

He died on October 1, 2020 in his home in Toronto at the age of 92.

McPhedran, Marie Green Duncan

  • Person
  • 1900-1974

Marie McPhedran was born in Sault Ste. Marie in 1900 and had attended University College for the academic year 1921-1922, before leaving for Normal School to help put her brothers through university. In 1927 she married Gordon George Duncan, captain of the Varsity intercollegiate football champion team in 1921 and a 1923 graduate in mining engineering. In the latter year he was appointed field engineer for the Mining Corporation of Canada in the new mining town of Flin Flon, Manitoba. At the time of his marriage he was in charge of exploration work for the Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting Company. Marie was one of the first women to live there, and it was her experiences during these happy years that she drew on in writing her first book, Golden North. About 1928 Gordon made the first aerial flight into Bathurst Inlet. In 1929 he became director of field operations for the Northern Aerial Mining Exploration Company. He died in April, 1932. Having lost one kidney from a football injury, he succumbed when the other became tubercular. He was survived by his wife and a daughter, Kittie-Marie.

By the time she married Harris McPhedran in 1926, Marie was already writing short stories and had recently had published one about her experiences in the north. Over the next decade she wrote a large number of short stories for children, for which she had difficulty finding publishers. Her breakthrough came with her first novel, Golden North, the runner-up for the 1948 Governor-General's Award for juvenile fiction. Other books followed, including Cargoes on the Great Lakes, for which she won the 1952 Governor-General's Award. Later she began work on a biography of Jeanne Mance, but never completed it. She died on 1 September, 1974.

Primitive Entertainment

  • Corporate body
  • 1990-Present

Primitive Entertainment (formerly, Primitive Features) was formed in January 1990 by brothers Kevin and Michael McMahon. Previously, Michael had worked as an editor for Canadian ‘B’ movie production company SC Entertainment. Kevin had been a journalist at the “St. Catharine’s Standard” but became interested in making feature films, and attended film school in Bristol, England.
Primitive’s feature documentaries and series often focus on the intersections between the environment, human culture, history, and technology. The brothers’ first film with their new company was “The Falls”, a meditation on their hometown of Niagara Falls, Ontario. It debuted at TIFF in 1991 to critical praise and received a Genie for Best Feature Length Documentary that year. Primitive’s next projects were “Deserts,” a massive film project for a multimedia museum exhibition (which unfortunately never came to fruition), “In the Reign of Twilight,” a feature documentary about the militarization of the Arctic and its effects on the Inuit, and “Intelligence,” a documentary film exploring different ideas and meanings of intelligence. “Twilight” received a Gemini Award for Best History Documentary Program, while “Intelligence,” received a Gemini nomination for Best Direction in a Documentary.
Documentary programs and series made for television followed, including “Cod: The Fish That Changed the World,” (hosted by Mary Walsh), “Truth Merchants,” and “Lifting the Shadow.” Primitive’s “Ancestors in the Attic” – a series which featured people exploring their family history through genealogy – aired for four seasons on History Television in Canada, while their “Things That Move” – a series that explored the social and technological histories of all kinds of moving vehicles – aired for four season on The Discovery Channel. Primitive also continued to produce acclaimed feature documentaries, including “McLuhan’s Wake,” a richly layered film about the life and works of Marshall McLuhan. The films “Waterlife” and “Four Wings and Prayer” gave viewers insight into the waters of the Great Lakes and the migration routes of monarch butterflies respectively. “The Face of Victory,” co-produced with Barna-Alper Productions, stitched together thousands of archival photographs and audio, and documented the jubilation and the horror at the end of WWII.
Over their more than 30 years in business, Michael McMahon has overseen the company’s project selection, as well as the financing and distribution of productions, while Kevin McMahon has focused on directing. Their films have been screened at TIFF, Berlin, Hot Docs, and SXSW, while their programs have been broadcast on CBC, TVO, Discovery, NHK, ZDF, and others. The company has received over 50 awards for their work, and they continue to produce thought provoking series and documentaries to this day.

Edie Steiner

  • Person
  • 195[?]-Present

Edith (Edie) Steiner is a Toronto based photographer, filmmaker, composer, writer, and teacher. Born in Germany, Steiner emigrated to Canada with her parents in the 1950s, and her family settled in Manitouwadge, in Northern Ontario. Steiner moved to Toronto in the 1970s and pursued a degree in Media Studies from the Ryerson Institute of Technology (now Toronto Metropolitan University), specializing in fine art photography.
After graduating in 1973, Steiner became a freelance photographer, and she focused on documenting Toronto’s burgeoning punk and new wave scenes, as well as portraits of musicians. Her photographs began to make the pages of “Night Out,” “Today,” and “Impulse” magazine. Some of her notable portrait subjects at this time included Patti Smith, Debbie Harry of Blondie, and Rough Trade.
In the early 1980s, Steiner joined the experimental film collective, The Funnel, where she became interested in Super 8 filmmaking. Here, she produced several experimental short films on Super 8. As she was also composing music and playing in musical groups at the time, her film screenings often had a live music or performance aspect to them. Steiner also continued her photography, exhibiting her work at the Funnel and other galleries in Toronto. Around this time, her focus began to shift from the music scene and portraits to urban objects and landscapes.
Steiner branched out into narrative filmmaking, joining LIFT (Liaison of Independent Filmmakers of Toronto) in 1985. She began to write, direct, and produce films on 16mm, including “Places to Stay,” a film about Steiner’s experience as a German émigré; “Roses are Blue,” a lush, surreal film about the healing power of music; and “Felicity’s View,” a mediation on aging and desire. Steiner continued to compose music for her films, and frequently collaborated with other musicians including Chip Yarwood, Malcolm Lewis, Colin Offord, and Daniel Rojas.
Through the 1990s, Steiner’s work in both film and photography began to focus on social justice and environmental themes. In “Northland: Long Journey,” Steiner revisited both her hometown, Manitouwadge, as well the death of her father due to work-related illness. Steiner’s further explored the environment of Northern Ontario in her photo series “Northland,” as well her documentary film “Conversations on the Lake.” In the early 2000s, Steiner began to document the changes to Toronto’s waterfront wrought by development, which became the film and photo series “Views from Home: Facing North.” Her recent film, “Borderland Memories” explores the natural and built environments of Eastern Europe, as well as the ideas of memory, family, and nation.
Steiner earned an MA (2006) and PhD (2014) in Environmental Studies from York University, in Toronto, and she has taught at several Canadian universities. She is a member of the Association for Literature, Environment, and Culture in Canada (ALECC); the Canadian Filmmakers Distribution Centre (CFMDC); The Film-Makers’ Cooperative (NACG); Gallery 44 Centre for Contemporary Photography; the Society of Composers, Authors and Music Publishers of Canada (SOCAN); and Vtape. Some of her early photographic works can be found at the National Gallery of Canada.

Rush Productions

  • Corporate body
  • 1972-2010

Rush Productions was a corporate subsidiary of SRO/Anthem, specifically concerned with Rush’s touring expenses and coordination within Canada. Over the years, various other corporate entities were set up to handle American and International touring expenses, including ORS Management Corporation, By-Tour Inc., PLD UK, PLD Tourco, and LDP Entertainment. All of these activities were overseen by the creator of these records, Sheila Posner, who was SRO Management’s accountant and office manager.

Franceschetti, Antonio

  • Person
  • 1939-2021

Antonio Franceschetti (13 October 1939 – 11 May 2021) was Professor Emeritus in Italian Studies at both the University of Toronto, St. George Campus, and the University of Toronto Scarborough. A scholar in literature, he published extensively on Italian literature and poetry from the Middle Ages to the 19th century, with particular focus on works from the Renaissance and Baroque periods, and on Italian Canadian writing and culture.

Franceschetti was born in Padua, Italy. He studied at the University of Padua where he received his Dottore in Lettere in 1963. His thesis, L’Arcadia e la ricerca di un nuovo linguaggio, was the first of many papers he wrote on Sir Philip Sidney’s Arcadia. Franceschetti began teaching at the University of Reading in 1964 and lectured in Italian at Barnard College, Columbia University from 1964 to 1969. During this time, he also received his PhD in Italian (1968) from Columbia University. His thesis, Per una lettura dell’Orlando Innamorato, formed the basis of a significant portion of his later research and writing.

In 1969, Franceschetti was hired as an assistant professor of Italian at Scarborough College, University of Toronto. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 1978 and Professor at the St. George campus in 1995, when he became acting head of the department. Professor Franceschetti lectured at universities and other institutions in Canada, the United States, Italy, England, France, Yugoslavia, Belgium, Denmark, Switzerland, Hungary and Poland. In the year before his retirement in 2004, he taught as a visiting professor at the Ca' Foscari University of Venice.

At the University of Toronto, Professor Franceschetti taught numerous courses in Italian at the undergraduate and graduate level on the St. George and Scarborough campuses. He has also held numerous administrative positions: In the 1970s, he was Discipline Representative for Italian studies at Scarborough College and at various times in the 1970s and the 1980s, a member of the Senior Committee and the Scholarly Initiatives Committee (chair, 1989-1991) in the Department of Italian Studies. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, he served as a member of the Promotion and Tenure Committee of the department. In these years he was frequently also a member of the Graduate Admissions, Fellowship and Awards Committee, and the Goggio Committee. Between 2001 and 2002, he served as a member of the Conference and Research Grants Committee and Supervisor of Reading Knowledge Examinations in Italian, and a member of the Committee on Faculty Appointments at the Toronto School of Theology.

Professor Franceschetti was very active as an editor and member of multiple professional associations. His interest in Dante was reflected his term as secretary of the Società Dantesca Italiana from 1961-1963 and president of the Dante Society of Toronto from 1971-1974. He held numerous administrative positions in the Associazione Internazionale per gli Studi di Lingua e Litteratura Intaliana (AISSLI): he was a member of the organizing committee of its conferences in New York (1973), Toronto (1985), Odense, Italy (1993) and Turin (1994), a member of its executive board (1976-1982, 1994-2003), vice-president (1982-1985, 1991-1994) and co-president (1985-1988). At the Canadian Society for Italian Studies (CSIS), he was president from 1980-1982 and has chaired various sections at a number of its conferences. He served as associate editor of its journal, Quaderni d’italianistica, from 1985 to 1989 and editor from 1990 to 1999.

Franceschetti served as a member of the publications committees of the Humanities Research Council of Canada (1977-1980) and the Canadian Federation for the Humanities (1980-1983). He served on the latter’s board of directors for 1982-1983. In 1980-1981, he sat on the advisory board of the Canadian Academic Centre in Italy of the newly established Canadian Mediterranean Institute. In 1982-1983, he was regional representative for Canada at the American Boccaccio Association. He chaired a section at the conferences of the American Association of University Professors of Italian (now the American Association of Italian Studies) and the annual Symposium on Italian Canadiana in Toronto (1988 and 1989). He also helped organize or chair sessions at a number of other international conferences, including commemorating the sixth centennial of the death of Petrarch (Washington, 1974), ‘Italian literature in North America: pedagogical studies’ (Toronto, 1989), ‘La litteratura dell’emigrazione de lingua italiana nel mondo’ (Lausanne, 1990), the 500th anniversary of the death of M. M. Boiardo (New York, 1994), and two conferences on Pirandello (Toronto, 1994 and 1997).

Professor Franceschetti published a book on Matteo Maria Boiardo’s Orlando Innamorato (1975), edited the three-volume proceedings of the 1985 Toronto conference on Letteratura italiana e arti figurative (1988), and co-edited and co-translated La Moschetta by Angelo Beolo (Ruzante) (1993).

Professor Franceschetti died on May 11, 2021.

Branfill, Benjamin Aylett

  • Person
  • 1828-1899

Colonel Benjamin Aylett Branfill was an artist, remembered especially for his enormous founding contributions and pioneering influence to the art scene in the late nineteenth century in Nelson, New Zealand. He was a well-known illustrator and was published in T.L Wilson’s History and Topography of Upminster (1880).

He was born on 26 February 1828 to Champion and Anne (nee Hammond) Branfill in Upminster, England. Benjamin was the fourth child of eight. He spent his childhood at Upminster Hall, a fifteenth-century Estate home that had been the ancestral home of his family since 1685. He was educated at Forest School in Walthamstow. Within the span of a year, between 1843 and 1844, Benjamin would lose both his brother, Egerton, and his father of illness. On the 5 April 1846, at the age of 18, he joined the 10th Royal Hussars Cavalry regiment (Prince of Wales’ Own) at the rank of Cornet, but quickly rose to the rank of Lieutenant by 1847. He traveled to India with the regiment in 1846 and then to the Crimea in 1855. Upon returning to England in June 1856, he married Mary Anna Miers on 1 July 1857 at Cheltenham and they had 8 children: Champion Edward (b. 1858), Capel Aylett (b. 1859), Mary Leigh (b. 1860), Ethel Aylett (b. 1862), Helen Hammond (b. 1863), Egerton Brydges (b. 1864, d. 1866), Francis Lisle (b. 1865), and Benjamin (b. 1871). On 6 May 1859, he was assigned Deputy Assistant Quartermaster General (DAQMG) in Ireland and lived in Dublin until 1864. From 1864 to 1881, he traveled widely, making trips to Gibraltar, Cape Town, and Mauritius, as well as having extended postings in Bermuda (May 1873- March 1874) and India (1875-1876). He retired as a Lieutenant-Colonel in October 1877. He inherited Upminster Hall in 1873 and resided there with his family after his retirement. In 1881, he immigrated to New Zealand and settled in Nelson. Once there, he became an art instructor and critic for the Bishopdale Sketching Club. In New Zealand, Branfill’s life focused primarily on art, religious study, music, horticulture and photography. He died 4 January 1899 at the age of 70.

Murakami, Michael

  • Person
  • 1943-

Michael Murakami was born July 7, 1943 in Kaslo, B.C. His mother, Aiko Murakami (nee. Kondo) was born in Steveston, B.C. in 1917, and grew up in Victoria, B.C. after the Kondo family moved to the area in 1918. Michael’s father, David Masawo Murakami, was born in Vancouver, B.C. in 1917.

The Kondo family began their life in Canada when Shinjiro Kondo, a fish broker, traveled to Victoria in 1900 from Wakayama, Japan. He began work as a fisherman in Steveston, and in 1908 he sponsored Kinu to come to Canada to join him as his wife. Together they had five children, Tohachiro also known as Toki (1909), Matsuye (1910), Fusako (1912), Eichi (1914), Aiko (1917), and a sixth after moving to Victoria, Fumiko also known as Finks (1921).

In Victoria, Shinjiro began again as a fish broker, selling to Chinese restaurants in the area. He also spent his time volunteering for the Japanese Language school and became a Buddhist lay minister. Kinu who was trained as a dressmaker made children’s clothes, adding to the family’s income. The family was close to the Shimizus, who owned a rice mill, and Aiko became close to their daughter. Aiko was encouraged to finish highschool and eventually went into bookkeeping. She was an active member of the Japanese Canadian Citizen League and participated in their conventions with her brother Eichi. Like many women at the time, Aiko worked as a domestic and eventually took up dressmaking. Through these career choices she was able to move to Vancouver and attend Marietta’s School of Costume Design.

David Murakami was the youngest of three siblings. His parents had emigrated from the Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan and had settled in Vancouver across the street from Hastings Park. David worked as a fisherman, along the Skeena River. He held Captain’s papers and also worked as a skipper.

Aiko and David met at a New Years Eve party in 1941, and on May 7, 1942, they married at the Powell Street Japanese United Church. Eiko Henmi was the maid of honour, with Thomas Shoyama as the best man. Their courtship was in the aftermath of the attack on Pearl Harbor, and so the couple were quickly sent to Kaslo, B.C. only 10 days after getting married.

The newlyweds joined many other Japanese Canadians who were also forcibly uprooted and moved to the interior of B.C. David worked as a truck driver for the B.C. Securities Commission and Aiko worked in the local Commission office. David was also named the official photographer in the Kalso internment camp by the B.C. Securities Commission, an important title as cameras had been forbidden to Japanese Canadians. In 1943, their son Michael was born. By 1944 the family moved to New Denver for David’s health. New Denver, B.C. had a recent sanitorium built for interned Japanese Canadians. It was often called “The San”. In New Denver, Aiko began teaching at the New Denver Orchard internment camp school, the elementary school for Japanese Canadians, and when they left in February 1947, she had been appointed principal.

The family eventually moved to Hamilton, then Toronto, ON. Aiko began to work as a secretary for Mitsui’s Canadian office and David became a watchmaker. David served on the board for the Watchmakers Association of Ontario for many years. During her free time, Aiko volunteered for the Toronto Nisei Women’s Club, and also served as president.

During the 1980s both Aiko and David were active in the Redress movement. Both marched on Parliament Hill in April 1988. On September 22, 1988, it was Aiko who ensured the Japanese flag was removed at Westbury Hotel after someone wrongfully included it along with the Canadian flag. In 1988 Aiko and David moved to Edmonton to be with their son Michael and his family. They both continued their work with the Redress movement, helping to organize Edmonton’s celebrations for the monumental victory. Aiko also served as the regional Redress Coordinator in the area.

David Murakami passed away in Edmonton, A.B. in 1992. Aiko Murakami passed away in Toronto, O.N. in 2020.

Esprit Orchestra

  • Corporate body
  • 1983-

Founded in 1983 by Music Director and Conductor, Alex Pauk, with financial assistance from Canada Council and Suncor Inc., Esprit Orchestra is Canada's only full-sized, professional orchestra devoted to performing and promoting new orchestral music. It was known as Esprit Contemporain from 1983 to 1986.

They gave their first concert on August 19, 1983 in Kingston, Ontario with the National Youth Orchestra, featuring works by Serge Garant and Alexina Louie, and premiering two commissioned works: Alchemies by John Burke and Vanishing Points by John Rea.

The orchestra, based in Toronto, commissions and premieres new Canadian works and ensures continued public access to this material via repeat performances, audio and film recordings, radio broadcasts, and national and international tours. Their concert programs also regularly feature Canadian premieres of music by leading international composers. As of 2023, the orchestra consists of 65 members. Esprit's annual subscription series consists of three to five concerts per season, held at Toronto's St. Lawrence Centre and at Koerner Hall, University of Toronto.

In addition to their commitment to new music, Esprit is dedicated to working with the next generation of new music professionals, with mentorship and outreach programs, lectures, open rehearsals, and the annual New Wave Composers Festival that celebrates young Canadian artists.

Esprit has received several awards, including three Lieutenant Governor’s Arts Awards (1996, 1998, 2000), the Jean A. Chalmers National Music Award (1995), the Vida Peene Award and the SOCAN Award for Imaginative Orchestral Programming (1990).

Millgate, Jane

  • Person
  • 1937-2019

Jane Millgate (1937-2019) was a writer and Professor Emeritus at the University of Toronto. She was educated at the universities of Leeds and Kent at Canterbury and taught at Victoria College in the English Department at the University of Toronto from 1964-1997. From 1982-87 she was Vice-Dean of Arts and Science. She is the author of Macaulay (1973), Walter Scott: The Making of the Novelist (1984), and Scott’s Last Edition: A Study in Publishing History (1987). This last work, an examination of the creation of Scott’s magnum opus edition, was awarded the British Academy’s Crawshay Prize in 1988. In addition, she edited a volume of essays, Editing Nineteenth-Century Fiction (1978), and wrote numerous articles on American, English, and Scottish literature as well as on the History of the Book.

Professor Millgate was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 1986 and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1994. She served on numerous editorial boards, including Dalhousie Review, Victorian Review, the Papers of the Bibliographical Society of Canada, English Studies in Canada, and the Collected Works of Northrop Frye. She was a member of the advisory board for the Edinburgh Edition of the Waverley Novels and one of the founders of the Toronto Centre for the Book. Her Union Catalogue of the Correspondence of Sir Walter Scott, comprising over 14000 records for letters from and to Scott, is published by the National Library of Scotland.

Jane Millgate died in Toronto in 2019.

Emmanuel College (Toronto, Ont.). Principal’s Office

  • Corporate body
  • 1928-

The Principal's Office was created in 1928 when Emmanuel College was founded. The College was established as a result of the formation of The United Church of Canada in 1925 and formed with the intention of continuing the tradition of theological education established earlier by Canadian Methodists and Presbyterians. The Principal is head of the College, and thus responsible for its academic program, life and work.

List of Principals:
Alfred Gandier (1928-1932)
Richard Davidson (1932-1943)
Frederick Langford (1943-1945)
Alexander Dawson Matheson (1945-1956)
Kenneth Harrington Cousland (1956-1963)
Earl S. Lautenschlager (1963-1971)
William O. Fennell (1971-1981)
Douglas Jay (1981-1990)
John Hoffman (1990-1996)
Roger Hutchinson (1996-2001)
Samuel Peter Wyatt (2001-2008)
Mark G. Toulouse (2009-2017)
Phyllis D. Airhart (Interim - 2017-2018)
Michelle Voss Roberts (2018-2021)
John H. Young (Interim - 2021-2022)
HyeRan Kim-Cragg (2022-present)

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