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People and organizations

Anderson, Anne

  • Person
  • 1906-1997

Dr. Anne Gairdner Calihoo Anderson (1906-1997) was a Métis Elder, cultural advocate and champion of the Cree language. Anne Anderson was born near St. Albert, Alberta in 1906 as Anne Calihoo Gairdner to William Gairdner and Elizabeth Calihoo, who was Métis. Anderson was the oldest daughter of ten siblings and grew up speaking Cree at home. She was educated in english at a nearby Grey Nuns convent before returning to work on the family farm after the death of her father in 1922. Anderson married, had children of her own and worked as a nurse’s aid throughout her adult life. In 1965, Anne’s mother, Elizabeth died and, on her deathbed, urged her daughter to teach and preserve the Cree language. While Anne had no formal training as a teacher or educator, she published her first Cree language manual in 1969 and would go on to write 93 books on the Cree language and Métis history before her death in 1997. She petitioned the Alberta school board to teach Cree in schools and taught language classes for sixteen years before opening the Dr. Anne Anderson Native Heritage and Cultural Centre in Edmonton in 1984. Anderson’s Centre provided Cree classes for children and adults, was a community hub for cultural events, boasted a library and museum, and also sold Indigenous and Métis arts and crafts. Anderson also organized programs to teach Cree at the University of Alberta, patients in local hospitals, inmates at the Fort Saskatchewan Correctional Centre and children and young adults in the fostercare system. Anderson published her books independently through her own organization, Cree Productions, and she is most well-known for her Cree-English dictionary, Dr. Anne Anderson’s Metis Cree Dictionary (1975, republished 1997) which translated 38,000 words into Cree. Anderson also wrote a history of the Métis in Alberta, The First Métis – A New Nation in 1985. Anderson received many accolades during her lifetime including the Alberta Achievement Award and a honourary Doctorate from the University of Alberta in 1975, the Order of Canada in 1979, and as a valued Elder in the Métis Nation. Anderson died in 1997.

William Harry Petts

  • Person
  • 1954 – 2014

William Harry Petts (1954 – 2014) was a film collector and member of Toronto’s vintage film community. He had a life-long passion for film and collected films for many years. Until his death, Petts was a staff member at East York Collegiate Institute, where he was active in the school’s AV club.

Shirley Hughes

  • Person
  • 1960 -

Shirley Hughes (b. 1960) is a high-profile member of Toronto’s vintage film community. She has been active in the Toronto Film Society since 1979 and served as vice-president for nearly a decade. In the late 1990s, Hughes co-founded Goddess Film & Entertainment Inc. which produced and marketed art videos, feature films, and shorts. In 2010, Hughes co-founded the Toronto Silent Film Festival and has programmed the Toronto Film Noir Syndicate since 2012. A long-time collector of films on home video formats, Hughes began collecting film prints in the early 2000s.

Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada

  • Corporate body
  • 1957-2015

The Indian-Eskimo Association (I.E.A.) was first established as a commission for the Canadian Association for Adult Education (CAAE) in 1957 to study issues in Indigenous communities and issues faced by Indigenous individuals living off reserves. In 1960, the commission withdrew from the CAAE and formed the Indian-Eskimo Association with the purpose of providing national services to Indigenous communities and individuals including housing, community, and economic development, as well as fundraising and to provide a forum for research on Indigenous issues by both Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, scholars, activists, organizations, and governmental entities. The I.E.A had a mixed membership and Indigenous individuals formed at least 25% of the membership of the I.E.A, and sat on the Board of Directors. One of the services of the I.E.A was a library, which actively collected books, as well as amassing reports, periodicals, speeches, and pamphlets by or relating to Indigenous communities and issues. The library provided research resources and reproduced speeches, press releases, offprints and reports, and developed and shared bibliographies and booklists. The I.E.A’s headquarters was originally in Toronto, but in 1973, they moved to Ottawa and changed their name to the Canadian Association in Support of Native Peoples. The association dissolved in 2015.

Yee, Gary

  • Person

Gary Yee, a UofT alumnus, is a lawyer who had a long career in administrative justice, having chaired multiple adjudicative tribunals. He was the founding Clinic Director of the Chinese & Southeast Asian Legal Clinic, and a past National President of Chinese Canadian National Council. Yee currently serves as Vice-President of the Chinese Canadian National Council for Social Justice. He received the Law Society Medal in 2017, and the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Federation of Asian Canadian Lawyers in 2022.

Alway, Richard

  • Person
  • 1939-

Richard Martin Holden Alway (1939-) was born in Hamilton, Ontario. He graduated from the University of Toronto summa cum laude in 1962. He was awarded further graduate degrees from the University in 1965 and 1967.

From 1976-86 he also worked as senior news analyst and commentator for Canada’s largest radio station, CFRB in Toronto. At the request of Cardinal Emmett Carter, Alway was the published of the Catholic Register for two years after the unexpected death of Fr. Sean O’Sullivan. A supporter of Roman Catholic-Anglican cooperation, Alway was the official representative of Cardinal Carter in ongoing conversation with the Anglican Church of Canada (1980).

He was appointed the first lay President and Vice-Chancellor of the University of St. Michael’s College in 1990, a position which he held for 18 years. Following his tenure at St. Michael’s, Alway served as the President of the Pontifical Institute for Medieval Studies from 2008-2022. A supporter of Catholic education, Alway served as the Ministry Supervisor of the Toronto Catholic District School Board (2009-2011). He is an honourary fellow of Trinity College.

In addition to his academic service, Alway is an active collector of Canadian art and has served on several arts-related boards and committees. He has served as chair of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada and chair of the C.D. Howe Memorial Foundation. Alway has also served as a member of the board of trustees of the National Museums of Canada from 1979 to 1986, and has served as chair of the National Gallery of Canada, as well as chair and CEO of the Ontario Heritage Foundation for two three-year terms.

He has also served on the boards of several non-arts associations, including the Canadian Educational Standards Institute, St. Michael's Hospital and the Belmont House Foundation. He has served as a member of the Millennium Planning Committee of the Archdiocese of Toronto and was a member of the Association of Catholic Colleges and Universities of Canada. He helped found the Canadian Catholic Bioethics Institute and he served as vice-chair of its board and chair of its executive committee under Cardinal Aloysius Ambrozic.

Alway was appointed a Member of the Order of Canada in 1989 and was promoted to Officer in 1998, as well as a member of the Order of Ontario in 2001. In 1999 he was Appointed Knight Commander with Star of the Order of St. Gregory the Great by Pope John Paul II. He had previously been appointed Knight of the Magistral Grace, Sovereign and Military Order of Malta (1990) and Knight of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre (1994).

Richards, Larry Wayne

  • https://viaf.org/viaf/39447422
  • Person
  • 1944-

Professor Larry Wayne Richards is an architect, Professor Emeritus, and former Dean of UofT’s John H. Daniels Faculty of Architecture, Landscape, and Design.

Professor Richards was born on 24 November 1944 and grew up on a farm that abuts the village of Matthews in Grant County, Indiana. He attended elementary school there and high school in Upland before entering Miami University in Oxford, Indiana, where he received his Bachelor of Architecture in 1967. He completed his masters degree at Yale University (1973-1975), where he was a teaching assistant and was awarded the Everett Meeks Graduate Fellowship (1974) and was a finalist for the American Rome Prize in Architecture (1975).

In 1967, Professor Richards began his professional career in Cambridge, Massachusetts as a designer for The Architects Collaborative, Inc. (TAC), which was headed by Walter Gropius; he stayed until 1972. From 1968 to 1971 he was also a part-time instructor in Architecture at Garland Junior College in Boston and in 1972-1973, he was assistant professor at the College of Architecture and Planning at Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana. From 1971 to 1975, he had a private practice in Boston, Florence (Italy), and New Haven. In 1972, he was certified as an architect in Massachusetts.

Professor Richards left the United States for Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1975, where he was hired as assistant professor in the Faculty of Architecture at the Nova Scotia Technical College. In addition to design studio teaching, he was responsible for ‘Introduction to Architecture’, an elective course in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Dalhousie University (1975 through 1978). He coordinated a 1977 study-abroad programme in China and Japan, and developed their guest lecture series. In 1978, he was appointed Campus Design Coordinator for the university. [1]

The same year Professor Richards formed a design group called NETWORKS with two former students, Brian Lyons and Eric Fiss. A year later, Frederic Urban joined them. Numerous projects by NETWORKS were published in the monograph, Larry Richards’ Works, 1977-1980 (1980).

In 1980, Professor Richards left for the University of Toronto. As an assistant professor in
the Department of Architecture, he co-coordinated the 1980-81 fourth-year programme
and the fall 1981 studio in Venice. He developed and taught a new course, “Introduction
to Architecture,” at University College. After one year he left, as had others, including
Alberto Perez Gomez and Daniel Libeskind, due to “the non-hospitable environment and
resistance to change…that prevailed” [2] there.

Professor Richards’ next appointment was Director of the University of Waterloo’s School of Architecture. He “commenced his work there in the fall of 1981, officially leaving U of T in January 1982. It was a wonderful opportunity for me to go to the vibrant Waterloo School”, [3] and his tenure as director was a fruitful one. In addition to his administrative and teaching duties, he was very active on university committees, especially those relating to design, on a number of professional bodies, as a guest critic at Carleton University and the University of Toronto, and (in 1987) served as guest editor and curator at the Canadian Centre for Architecture (CCA) in Montreal.

During his time at Waterloo, Professor Richards maintained close contact with Toronto and the UofT. This was to have a significant impact on his future. He wrote that, in 1985,

‘when the U of T school of architecture reached a point of self-isolation, total turmoil, and near-closure, I was invited to highly confidential meetings with v.p. Joan Foley and other top administrators to see if I might consider being telescoped in as dean to help save and turn around the school. The university could not meet my basic conditions for taking the position, and I stayed at Waterloo. In 1996 I was again courted by the University of Toronto, primarily by v.p. and provost, Adel Sedra, and commenced as dean in January 1997, serving for seven-and-one-half years, through June 2004. Transforming and revitalizing the school during that period was an entirely rewarding, fulfilling experience for me.’ [4]

Professor Richards brought fundamental changes to the Faculty at UofT. He devised and implemented two long-range academic plans, established three new masters programs (Architecture, Landscape Architecture, Urban Design) and a new undergraduate major in Architecture in the Faculty of Arts and Science. He also oversaw the renovation (over several years and including the renovation and expansion of library and the creation of the Eric Arthur Gallery) of 230 College Street, and the establishment of the Faculty’s first endowed chair, the Frank Gehry International Chair in Architectural Design (2003). He was responsible for changing the name of the Faculty to “Faculty of Architecture, Landscape, and Design”, which was branded by consultant Bruce Mau as “al&d”. He created the Faculty’s first Advancement Office and organized a successful fundraising drive. Professor Richards was also deeply involved in the architect selection processes for major projects on the University’s St. George, Mississauga, and Scarborough campuses, and sat on numerous other University committees and boards that were primarily associated with planning and design. He stepped down as dean in 2004 and was named Professor Emeritus in 2010.

Professor Richards is dedicated to “nurturing a broad understanding of and appreciation for the art of architecture” and in the 1970s and the 1980s had a strong interest in postmodernism. For many years he taught an “Introduction to Architecture” course at the University of Toronto. His own creative work engages collage processes to represent conceptual architectural projects. Professor Richards’ work has been shown internationally, and several of his drawings are in the collection of the CCA in Montreal.

Professor Richards’ membership in professional organizations ranges from Canadian associations such as the Ontario Association of Architects, the Royal Architectural Institute to Canada, and the Society for the Study of Architecture in Canada, to American bodies such as the American Institute of Architects and the Institute for Urban Design in New York City.

He has been an advisor and consultant to a wide number of projects, including as creative consultant to the Hong Kong-based fashion house, Blanc de Chine, where he designed the third floor for Blanc de Chine’s New York, Fifth Avenue store among other projects. He has sat on numerous juries and held appointments on a variety of boards, committees and councils, including (in addition to most of the bodies previously mentioned) the Ontario Heritage Foundation, the Canadian Architectural Certification Board, the Design Exchange (Toronto), and the Canada Council’s Canadian Prix de Rome Committee. In the fall of 2008, he was appointed artistic director of WORKshop Inc., a Toronto-based research and development company, owned by Blanc de Chine, which focused on furniture and products for 21st-century urban living inspired by the Chinese Ming period.

He has received grants for multiple research projects, including those focused on Japan, the Canadian Centre for Architecture, for the study of cylindrical space, and, in 1982, for a series of television programmes. He has written three books, including a guide to UofT’s campus architecture, and numerous articles. He has given many talks to student and professional groups and to the wider public. Honours received include election to the College of Fellows of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada (1998) and receiving the RAIC Award of Excellence (Advocate for Architecture) in 2007.

Professor Richards and Frederic Urban, his partner since 1967, live in Toronto.

NOTES
[1] Much of the information on the professional aspects of Professor Richards’ activities has been drawn from the October, 2004 version of his curriculum vitae.
[2] Personal communication, 23 July 2009
[3] Personal communication, 23 July 2009
[4] Personal communication, 23 July 2009
[5] Professor Richards’ biographical sketch on the website of the John H. Daniels Faculty of Architecture, Landscape, and Design, University of Toronto, 2010.

Appendix 1: Professor Richards’ statement on his parents accepting his sexuality and his partner, Frederic Urban

The context for this statement is Harold Averill discovering two letters to Professor Richards from his best childhood friend, Dick Kibbey, about his relationship with his parents. The first, written from the ranch where he was working in Texas, was dated 25 August 1973: "Going back to your earlier letter, you mentioned ‘Muncie’ and a ‘last-ditch attempt to win acceptance and love from my parents.’ How can you expect them to accept you when they don't know you? Maybe they know all about you and Fred (or maybe they have guessed), but my guess is that they don't. Maybe they wouldn't accept you if they knew everything, but you can't condemn them when they don't even see the whole picture. You and Fred have a good thing going, a great relationship and I envy you for the love you must feel for each other." Four years later, in December 1977, Dick wrote, "We (he and his wife, just married) sat next to your parents at a recent civic theater production. It is good that they accept your life better now. They told me about calling you in China."

You asked me to explain a little bit about this comment and that period of my life.

I met Fred in Boston in the spring of 1967, and my parents made a car trip from Indiana to Boston a few months after that. Fred and I were not living together yet (he was still sharing an apartment on Mt. Vernon Street with his former college roommate, Arthur Gallerani, and I was living in a crummy apartment on Revere Street, the "wrong side" of Beacon Hill). Anyway, my parents were coming to visit me in Boston on a sort of holiday for them, but also to bring my Siamese cat, Nina. (It must have been horrible with the cat in the car during that long drive from Indiana.) So of course they also met Fred. Surely at that time they were mostly repressing whatever thoughts they might have been having about my sexuality and my relationship with Fred. They were nice to him, and he was nice to them. They visited us in Boston a time or two after that, after we had moved in together, and I think they only very reluctantly accepted our living together. (At a wonderful dinner that Fred cooked for them, my father got up from the table and vomited. We could never finally decide whether it was the somewhat rare lamb, which he had possibly never eaten before, or us two guys living so close in a small apartment.) As well, Fred went with me to Indiana several times to visit my parents, brother, sister, etc. It was always somewhat tense when we visited there together.

By the early 70s, I found my parents somewhat less accepting of Fred. I can't remember the date, but I do remember the time when my father decided it was time to have a "heart to heart" and persuaded me to go walking with him in a ravine behind my grandparent's farm house. He started into some kind of thing about how wonderful women were, and in a roundabout way how my sexual orientation was preventing him from being able to accept a Deacon position in the Primitive Baptist Church. I was full of anger, and there was a moment when I wanted to push him off the side of the hill that we were on. There ensued a couple of years when I withdrew from my parents and my upbringing (with my attitudes related in certain ways to the radical times, then, in Boston). The year I went back to Muncie to teach at Ball State University, things improved with my parents, partly because they got the mistaken idea that I was going to move back permanently to Indiana alone and teach forever at Ball State. That was their fantasy.

The low point in my relations with my parents was likely around 72-74, when I had started at Yale. I never did invite them to Yale. I didn't stay for my own commencement in the spring of 1975, and it is now something that I regret, because it would have been a huge, huge wonderful deal for them -- to have experienced Yale and see me graduate from there. Now at some point in the midst of all of this, I came out to my parents -- I really can't recall what year-- and they were somewhat accepting, inferring that they already knew (which of course they did). I don't [know] when their more accepting attitude (of Fred) really started happening; but the clue must be, in part, in the second letter from Dick Kibbey which you think might be December 1977. That seems about right. By September 1975 Fred and I had moved to Halifax. My parents came to visit, and they enjoyed it. I think they stayed at the Lord Nelson Hotel, diagonally across the street from where Fred and I lived on Spring Garden Road.

Over the years they mellowed, shall we say, as did I. About three years before my father died --I'm guessing around 2002-03, I was visiting Indiana and went to Sunday church service with my parents, at the little red brick Primitive Baptist Church that my great-great-grandfather Richards had founded with a few other "pioneers" and where he was a minister. The minister was speaking in tongues and drifted off into a rant against homosexuals and how they would die in hell. I was shocked. At the end of the service I quickly left and went for a walk in the nearby cemetery. I rode home in the car with my parents in near silence. Nobody said anything but everyone knew something weird and awful had happened.

A year or so later my father announced to me that he was no longer attending the Harmony Primitive Baptist Church, nor was my mother. (She converted from Congregational Christian soon after she married my father. I saw her receive full immersion baptism in my grandfather's creek when I was a kid, with people singing hymns. She couldn't swim and was deathly afraid of drowning.) Anyway, this news from my father that he had abandoned the Primitive Baptist Church came as a shock. In his awkward way he told me that "what that minister said that Sunday was not right...I will never forgive him. Your great-grandfather [also a Baptist preacher] would not have approved. We are now attending the Methodist Church (where his own mother had been a member)." I do not have time to add details here. But it was truly remarkable to me that my father abandoned the church that his family had attended and nurtured over several generations, just because of his love and respect for me. I told him that he didn't have to do that for me. He insisted. They never turned back, and my mother still attends the Matthews Methodist Church. She seems very content there. Although there were some difficult times, I have to say in retrospect that I was very fortunate to have, finally, such accepting parents.

So this is a long explanation for your curiosity about the Dick Kibbey comment about Fred and my parents.

Blewett, George John

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/6367151248002944270007
  • Person
  • 1873-1912

George John Blewett was a student and professor at Victoria. He graduated from Victoria in 1897 and went on to do graduate and postgraduate studies at many institutions including the University of Würzburg, Harvard University, Oxford, and Cambridge.

Blewett was born in Yarmouth Township, ON in 1873, raised in St. Thomas, ON, and died at Go Home Bay, ON in 1912 in a drowning accident. He married another Victoria graduate (Clara Marcia Woodsworth) in 1906 and they had a son and a daughter. Another son passed away in infancy.

Blewett won many prizes at Victoria as a student, including:
E. J. Sanford Gold Medal in Philosophy
Aberdeen Silver Medal
The Governor-General's Gold Medal (Philosophy and English, 4th yr.)

As a professor, Blewett held the following positions at Victoria:
Ryerson Professor of Ethics and Apologetics, 1906-1912
Ryerson Professor of Ethics, 1907-1912

University of Toronto History Society

  • Corporate body
  • 2016-2022

Formed in 2016, the University of Toronto History Society (UTHS) is a club open to all undergraduate students at the University, who share an interest in the University’s history and in presenting a history that focuses on issues of importance to students. The club hosts a website, Facebook page, and Instagram account that curates and shares the history of the University of Toronto.

In March 2022, the Society was renamed the University of Toronto Students' History Collective (UTSHC).

University of Toronto Students' History Collective

  • Corporate body
  • 2022-

Formed in 2016 as the University of Toronto History Society (UTHS), the University of Toronto Students' History Collective (UTSHC) is a club open to all undergraduate students at the University, who share an interest in the University’s history and in presenting a history that focuses on issues of importance to students. The club hosts a website, Facebook page, and Instagram account that curates and shares the history of the University of Toronto.

In March 2022, the University of Toronto History Society was renamed the University of Toronto Students' History Collective.

Mosteller, Sue

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/92230632
  • Person
  • 1933-

Sister Sue Mosteller, CSJ, OC (1933-) was born in Ohio to Canadian parents. In eighth grade, Sue Mosteller was sent to boarding school with the Sisters of St. Joseph in Toronto. Her experience boarding with the Sisters of St. Joseph led her to join the order upon graduating high school. After joining, Mosteller was encouraged to teach by the sisters and spent 15 years teaching in Barrie, Kitimat, and Toronto.

In 1967, when Sue Mosteller was finishing her BA in English Literature, her friend took her to a lecture by Jean Vanier at the University of St. Michael’s College where he talked about L’Arche and life living with the disabled. Vanier’s talk moved Mosteller and she assisted with organizing a pilgrimage to Lourdes for people with disabilities, their families, and young people. These experiences were a turning point for Mosteller and in 1972 she requested and received permission to live and work at L’Arche Daybreak, the first L’Arche community in Canada. Mosteller quickly became an integral part of the L’Arche community and oversaw many large initiatives. In 1976, Mosteller became L'Arche Daybreak’s second community leader. In the mid-1980s, Mosteller was instrumental in inviting Henri Nouwen to join the Daybreak community as their pastor. In 1985, Mosteller established Dayspring Chapel, a centre for spiritual growth, with Henri Nouwen. Beyond the Daybreak community, Mosteller served as the first international coordinator of L'Arche after Jean Vanier for nine years. During that time, Mosteller expanded the L'Arche network from 30 to 65 countries.

Over the ten years Henri Nouwen was at Daybreak, Mosteller and him became close friends. In 1996, Mosteller was asked by Nouwen to be his literary executrix of his estate shortly before his death. As executrix, Mosteller oversaw the founding of the Henri J.M. Archives and Research Collection at the John M. Kelly Library at the University of St. Michael’s College in Toronto. Mosteller would continue to live within the Daybreak community for 40 years until 2011 when she left to live with a small group of sisters in a Toronto Convent.

On November 5, 2011, Mosteller received an Honorary Doctorate from Tyndale University College and Seminary in Toronto for her “lifelong commitment to sharing the love of God with many of society’s marginalized people and her significant contributions to Christian life and learning over several decades.”

On December 27, 2019, Mosteller was named to the Order of Canada for her dedication to improving the lives of people with intellectual disabilities, and for her decades of work as a leader of L’Arche.

Today she continues to be a member of L’Arche Daybreak, works as a Trustee for the Henri Nouwen Legacy, and gives retreats and lectures all over the world.

French, Barry

  • Person
  • 1931-

Barry French was born on August 22 1931. In October 1955, he graduated with a B.A.Sc from the University of Toronto in Chemical Engineering. A year later, in 1956, he pursued his Masters degree at Graduate School of Thermodynamics at the University of Birmingham on an Athlone Fellowship. During this interim year, he worked as a research engineer for Orenda Engines in Malton Ont. and as a scientist to the Ramjet Section of the National Gas Turbine Establishment in Pyestock, Hants, England. In 1957, he returned to the University of Toronto, Institute of Aerophysics for his doctoral work. His thesis research, supervised by Prof. J.H. de Leeuw, related to plasma diagnostics and was both theoretical and experimental. He was hired as a lecturer in 1961, obtained his Ph.D. in 1962 and quickly rose through the ranks of the Institute of Aerospace Studies (UTIAS) to full professor by 1968. From 1974-1982, he held the position of Associate Director of UTIAS and from 1982-85 was half-time Dean of the School of Graduate Studies. He was also a founding board member of the Innovations Foundation. Prof. French is now Prof. Emeritus and has retained his ongoing connections to the University and specifically to the research done at UTIAS through his position as a scientific advisor of SCIEX (name derived from Scientific Export).

Prof. French has over sixty scientific publications and more than a dozen patents in his name. His early work in the 1960s on gasdynamics led to the establishment of the space simulation laboratories at the UTIAS and, as a result, was jointly involved with Prof. A.O Nier of Minnesota in developing the upper atmospheric mass spectrometer for Project Viking that collected atmospheric data for Mars. This research in miniature mass spectroscopy, vacuum gasdynamics and electronic technology led to several patented inventions relating to analyzing trace components. In 1974, Prof. French along with his associate Bill Breukelman founded SCIEX with the purpose of finding applications and markets based on these patents. For the twenty-five years following the establishment of SCIEX, Prof. French remained a key figure at SCIEX with positions on the Board of Directors and as a Senior Scientific Consultant. Much of his research in the latter part of his career related to further developments of trace analyzers and ionization mass spectroscopy. Today SCIEX, a division of MDS Health Group Ltd., is a world leader in mass spectroscopy instrumentation. It employs over 400 highly trained scientists and engineers and has established awards and research chairs at several Canadian universities. It is seen as the most significant research company to evolve out of the University of Toronto.

Prof. French is a fellow of the Canadian Academy of Engineers and the Royal Society of Canada and was a Fellow of the Royal Society of Art and the Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute. He continues to advise at SCIEX and is presently working with Bill Breukelman on a new venture relating to geophysical instrumentation for resource exploration. He lives with his wife Gloria in Oakville, Ontario.

Wilson, John

  • Person

John Wilson was a Professor at Victoria, 1848-1899. He held the following positions:
Professor of Latin and Greek, 1848-1849
Professor of Latin and Greek, 1852-1853
Professor of Classical Literature, 1853-1856
Professor of Latin and Greek, 1856-1872
Professor of Latin and Greek; Professor of Biblical Criticism and Antiquities; Professor of Exegesis and Literature of the New Testament, 1872-1887
Professor of Latin and Greek; Professor of Exegesis and Literature of the New Testament, 1887-1889
Professor Emeritus of Latin and Greek, 1897-1899

Bader family

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/104720309
  • Family

Alfred Bader was born in Vienna, Austria in 1924. After Kristallnacht he was included in the first Kindertransport from Vienna to Britain in December 1938. In 1940 he was interned in a British detention centre until being transferred to another centre on Quebec’s Ile aux Noix later that year; while there he studied for McGill University’s matriculation exams, passing them in 1941. After World War II he studied chemistry and engineering at Queen’s University, receiving a Bachelor of Science degree in 1945. Emigrating to the United States, he pursued graduate studies at Harvard, earning an M.Sc. in organic chemistry in 1948 and then a Ph.D. in 1949. During a sea voyage to Liverpool that year he met Isabel Overton.

After his studies Bader began work as a research chemist with PPG Co. in Milwaukee, Wisconsin from 1950–1954, and then became chief chemist for Aldrich Chemicals Company (1954–55), and subsequently its president (1955–81) and chairman (1981–91). He served as president of Sigma-Aldritch Corporation (1975–80) and its chairman (1980–91), then as chairman emeritus (1991–92). Alfred Bader became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1964. He has received honourary degrees from several universities in the United States, Canada and England. He passed away in 2018.

Isabel Louise Overton was born in northern Ontario and graduated from Victoria University in 1949 (DLittS Vic ’95). After touring England in the summer of 1949 she accepted a teaching post at St. Francis School, Bexhill-on-Sea in Sussex, where she taught drama, French and Spanish and established a costume museum. She remained there until her marriage to Alfred Bader in 1982. In 2000, the Isabel Bader Theatre was completed at Victoria University. She passed away in 2022.

Colman, John

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/315960624
  • Person
  • -2010

John Colman served as Associate Dean at Scarborough College in 1965-1966. He was then appointed Dean at Erindale College and served in this role 1966-1968, before returning to Scarborough to serve as Dean 1968-1972. He later served as Acting Principal of UTSC in 1980-1981. He taught Political Science.

Hassanpour, Amir

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/16416288
  • Person
  • 1943-2017

Professor Amir Hassanpour (1943-2017) was a prominent Kurdish-Iranian Marxist Linguist and Professor Emeritus of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations at the University of Toronto (UofT), where he taught from 1999 to 2009. His major research areas were Kurdish socio-linguistics, Kurdish history and nationalism, as well as peasant and social movements in the Middle East and Kurdistan. He was an influential intellectual and revolutionary thinker who advocated for Kurdish Studies and the rights of national minorities for self-determination. His wide-ranging research has left significant impacts in these areas.

Born in Mahabad, Prof. Hassanpour attended the University of Tehran for his B.A. in English Language and Literature (1960-1964). He then completed a compulsory placement in Sepah Tarvij wa Abadani (Advancement and Development Force, a branch of the Land Reform Campaign) as a replacement for the required military service in Iran. This position exposed him to land reform history and peasant movements in Kurdistan.

Following his service, Prof. Hassanpour trained as a teacher at the Tehran Teachers’ Training College (1965). After working in Mahabad for several years, he then returned to the University of Tehran to complete his M.A. in Linguistics in 1968. Prof. Hassanpour moved to the United States to study at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign for his PhD in 1972. Prior to working at the UofT, Prof. Hassanpour held research and teaching positions at the University of Windsor (1987-1993), Uppsala Universitet (1993-1994) and at Concordia University (1994-1996).

Prof. Hassanpour pioneered the application of socio-linguistic theories and methods to the study of Kurdish language and its relationship to nation-building. His thesis, “The Language Factor in National Development: The Standardization of the Kurdish Language, 1918 - 1985” is credited as a Marxist analytical landmark in the field of Kurdish Studies, where he made extensive use of socio-linguistic theoretical literature and referenced previously overlooked sources such as: unpublished government documents, national census data, interviews and personal correspondence with key Kurdish intellectuals, Kurdish language texts including poetry, novels, newspapers, radio programs and music.

Prof. Hassanpour continued his study in communication and media studies, Kurdish nationalism, language, and culture, particularly through the analysis of satellite television and its relation to the development of Kurdish nationalism in 1990s. As the subjects of his research expanded, he developed a reputation for being at the forefront of research in Kurdish literature, culture, and music, as well as looking at Kurdish peasant movements, and Kurdish and Iranian diasporas. Connected to both his academic interests and revolutionary ideas, Prof. Hassanpour actively collected and preserved material related to international revolutionary movements, with particular emphasis on Kurdistan, Iran, Palestine and China under Mao’s leadership. As a revolutionary scholar, his intellectual journey came to embody his rejection of nationalism as a liberation path. He was an internationalist and critical of theories and politics advocating ‘identity politics’ and ‘cultural relativism’ that overlook class and separate patriarchy and racism from capitalist and imperialist relations of power.

As a teacher, Prof. Hassanpour was highly popular among students. He was vastly regarded for his resourcefulness and commitment to critical and transformative pedagogy. While at the UofT, he developed and taught undergraduate courses in Middle Eastern studies with focuses on mass media, nationalism, social movements and civil society. His course, “Theory and Method in Middle Eastern Studies”, became a required component of the Department’s graduate curriculum as the course introduced students to theories of historiography and the history of the discipline and its Orientalist roots in Europe and North America.

While at UofT, Prof. Hassanpour served on multiple committees including The Undergraduate Affairs Committee and the Teaching Evaluation Committee. Outside of the University, he served on advisory boards for Kurdish Studies programs or language course offerings in the United States, the Netherlands and Sweden, as well as consulting for a range of governmental bodies and organizations in Canada and abroad. In addition to his regular publishing activity, Prof. Hassanpour held editorial positions for journals, Derwaze: Kurdish Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, and Gzing.

Prof. Hassanpour’s lifetime intellectual and political partner is Prof. Shahrzad Mojab. She is a Professor of women and gender studies and education.

Victoria College (Cobourg, Ont.). Philalethic Society

  • Corporate body
  • [ca. 1839]-1842

The Society was active from at least ca. 1839 to 1841 as a student society of Upper Canada Academy, and in 1842 of Victoria College. In vol 1 no 1 of Society's publication, "The Philomath." it gives the following summary of the Philalethic Society: "The Philalethic Society as the name clearly signifies, was established for the discovery and promotion of Truth. Its existence is not only antecedent to the Charter of Victoria College but its foundation may almost be said to have been laid with that of the noble edifice; and whilst U.C. Academy was struggling through the vale of obscurity to the attainment of a nobler name, and more conspicuous situation in the literary world; the operations of this first regularly organized literary club were felt and appreciated and known in the public account of the Institution."

The early minutes of the society shows that their primary function was to hold regular debates on various topics.

Scott, Duncan Campbell

  • Person
  • 1862-1947

Duncan Campbell Scott (1862-1947) was a Canadian civil servant, poet and short story writer. Scott was a member of a group known as the "Confederation poets" which also included Charles G.D. Roberts, Bliss Carman, and Archibald Lampman. This term was first applied to them by scholar and editor Malcolm Ross when he collected their work in the anthology Poets of the Confederation (McClelland & Stewart, 1960). The Confederation poets were the first Canadian writers to become widely known after Confederation in 1867. Scott’s legacy as one of Canada’s preeminent poets has been overshadowed by the prominent role he played in supporting the forced assimilation of Indigenous children through the residential school system.

In 1880 Scott joined the Canadian Department of Indian Affairs as a third-class clerk. In 1893 he was promoted to Chief Accountant. He was made superintendent of Indian Education in 1909 and was deputy superintendent-general from 1913 to 1932. As deputy superintendent, Scott oversaw and expanded the residential school system for Indigenous children stating his goal was to “get rid of the Indian problem.” In its 2015 report, Canada’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) stated that that residential schools were “part of a coherent policy to eliminate Aboriginal people as distinct peoples and to assimilate them into the Canadian mainstream against their will.” The establishment and operation of residential schools has been labelled by the TRC as cultural genocide.

Additional information on the legacy of Duncan Campbell Scott can be accessed here: https://fncaringsociety.com/sites/default/files/duncan_campbell_scott_information_sheet_final.pdf.

Hay, William

  • Person
  • 1818-1888

William Hay (1818-1888) was born in Scotland in 1818, and after spending time in Newfoundland from 1846 to 1850, proceeded to Toronto where he established a prominent architectural firm in southern Ontario which ran from 1853 to 1860. After several years spent in Halifax, he returned to Scotland in 1863 where he died in 1888. Hay was the architect of government buildings and some of the finest buildings constructed in Canada West (Ontario) in the middle of the nineteenth century.

Kerr, Robert

  • Person
  • 1930-2010

Robert Kerr was born and raised in Galt, Ontario, and as a young man he established and operated the printing company John Kerr and Son with his father.
Kerr was drawn to politics as a young man, and in 1964 became the youngest mayor in the history of the City of Galt. In 1975 he was elected mayor again, representing the City of Cambridge, which had recently been formed by the amalgamation of the towns of Galt, Preston, and Hespeler. He retired from that role in 1976 to devote himself full-time to work on IMAX.
IMAX corporation (originally named Omnimax, then IMAX Entertainment Limited, and finally IMAX Systems Corporation) emerged from large-screen and multiple-screen displays that Robert Kerr, Graeme Ferguson, and Roman Kroitor did at Montreal’s Expo 67. Together with engineer William Shaw, they developed a camera system that allowed for high-resolution images and enlarged projection. The Rolling Loop Projection System invented by Ron Jones allows the projection of 70mm film to create a projection area ten times the size of a standard projection area.
After debuting the IMAX film Tiger Child, dir. Donald Brittain, in 1970 at Expo 70 in Osaka, Japan, the IMAX format took off, and construction began on permanent IMAX theatres around the world.
Robert Kerr worked for IMAX from 1967 to 1994 as Chairman, then Chairman Emeritus and finally President and Chief Executive Officer.
IMAX received an Academy Scientific and Engineering Award from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for technological innovation and excellence (1986), a Canada Export Award from the Department of External Affairs (1988) and an Award of Excellence for contributions to Canadian culture from the Department of Communications (1991). In 1997, IMAX received an additional Academy Award for scientific and technical achievement.
IMAX corporation was sold to a US investment group, WGIM Acquisition Corporation, in 1994. It was then restructured and merged with Trumbull Company Inc. Douglas Turnbull now serves as Vice Chariman of IMAX and President of its Ridefilm Division.

In Robert Kerr’s retirement he took an interest in local arts education, and in 1997 he endowed the University of Waterloo's Stanley Knowles Visiting Professorship in Canadian Studies and bestowed bursaries at all of the Cambridge high schools. In his later years he enjoyed spending time at the Lake of Bays, Ont., which Graeme Ferguson dubbed “Lake IMAX,” because he, Kerr and other IMAX founders kept cottages on the lake.

Jefferies, R.L.

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/65134181
  • Person
  • 1936-2009

Robert “Bob” Lenthall Jefferies (1936-2009) was born on 13 March 1936 in Trowbridge, Wiltshire, England, and grew up in Clevedon, Somerset. He credits his mother Violet, a school teacher with a passion for British natural history, as the inspiration behind what would become his life’s work. He studied at the University of Bristol, graduating with a degree in botany with subspecialties in chemistry and microbiology in 1958, and a doctorate in plant ecology in 1962. He moved to the University of California at Davis from 1962-64 for a two-year postdoctoral fellowship with Emanuel Epstein in the soil and plant nutrition department. There he met Susan Locke, who he married in 1964 before moving back to England to take up a position at the University of East Anglia in Norwich to work with Jack Dainty.

In 1973-74, Prof. Jefferies took a year-long sabbatical as visiting professor at the University of Toronto, Canada where Jack Dainty had moved. During this year he was asked to stay on as a full professor in the Botany Department, which he accepted in 1975. He became a Canadian citizen and remained at the University of Toronto until his official retirement in 2001 and beyond.

During his 45-year long career, Prof. Jefferies’ main focus was around the Hudson-James Bay system. He was first invited to join Fred Cooke at his research camp in La Pérouse Bay near Churchill, Manitoba. From 1978-1992, Jefferies spent his summers there with graduate students and international collaborators, studying nesting snow geese and plant-herbivore interactions as part of the La Pérouse Bay Snow Goose Project. Between 1993-2009, he co-led (with Robert Rockwell and Ken Abraham) the Hudson Bay Project, a collaborative research program that studied the impact of migrating birds on northern Canada.

According to his obituary in the Globe and Mail, “Prof. Jefferies was among the first to recognize that the geese had begun multiplying in unprecedented numbers and that their increased population was turning part of the Arctic into a desert. He also realized that the loss of vegetation allowed seawater to seep in and further degrade the environment which, in turn, caused a decline among other animals living there. […] His efforts to document the consequences of climate change and wildlife populations were central to setting North American wildlife management policy. His work also played a role in the establishment of Wapusk National Park on the Hudson Bay.”

He was a member of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which received the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize for its work on the impacts of climate change.

In addition to his research in the field, Prof. Jefferies served as Associate Editor of the Journal of Ecology and was on the editorial board of Global Change Biology. He was also a dedicated graduate student mentor and teacher. He was instrumental in the creation of BIO150: Organisms in the Environment, the largest class in Canada and required by most science students at the University of Toronto. Teaching it every year since it began in 1990, Prof. Jefferies was scheduled to teach it again in the fall of 2009 when he died of a cerebral hemorrhage in Toronto on 8 July 2009 at the age of 73.

McInnes Family

  • Family
  • Walter John McGill McInnes, student at Toronto School of Medicine, listed as attending 1861-1862 (1862-1863 annual announcement): Born 1843(?), Died 1919.
  • Norman Walter McInnes student in medicine 1893-1897, MB 1897.

Thomas, Theodore

  • VIAF ID: 12302400
  • Person
  • 1935-1905

Thomas, Theodore (1835-1905), formed his own orchestra in 1862 and gave concerts in many American cities, always including some unfamiliar work. He conducted the New York Philharmonic 1877– 91, and was the first conductor of the Chicago Symphony 1891 – 1905.

Creative Anarchy

  • Corporate body
  • 1997-2008

Creative Anarchy is a Toronto-based film production company. Creative Anarchy co-produced the crime documentary series Exhibit A: Secrets of Forensic Science with Kensington Communications, and co-produced a similar series, 72 Hours: True Crime with Kensington Communications and Meech-Grant Productions.

Lang, Robert

  • Person
  • Floruit 1972-

ROBERT LANG is an internationally recognized, award-winning filmmaker and television producer whose work has covered many documentary topics, from music programs and interactive media to science and social documentaries.

Lang founded the production company Kensington Communications in 1980, and in that role he has been responsible for hundreds of television programs, including: 3 seasons of 72 Hours: True Crime; the acclaimed four-part television series The Sacred Balance with David Suzuki; 5 seasons of the true crime series Exhibit A: Secrets of Forensic Science; the Gemini Award-winning 3-part series Diamond Road; the 5-part series Shameless Idealists; and 3 seasons of the hit documentary program Museum Secrets.

He has worked as a director on many music productions with artists such as Bruce Cockburn, Emmylou Harris, Daniel Lanois, Jackie Richardson, Toumani Diabate and Ali Farka Toure.

Among his many award-winning documentaries and TV specials are the Gemini-winning Separate Lives, One Warm Line: the Legacy of Stan Rogers, Diamond Road, and The Equalizer (Canadian Screen Award).

Lang has produced many interactive digital projects over the years, from River of Sand interactive website (1998), to The Sacred Balance online (2003), Diamond Road interactive documentary (2007), Museum Secrets Interactive (2011), ScopifyROM, a mobile app to enhance the museum experience at the Royal Ontario Museum (2013) and Risk Navigator mobile app (2017).

Kensington Communications Inc.

  • Corporate body
  • 1980-

Kensington Communications is a production company founded in 1980 in Toronto’s Kensington Market that has produced documentary and factual films, television shows, and multimedia projects for more than 40 years. Kensington has produced documentaries and series for the CBC and NFB, and its productions have been broadcast internationally on Discovery Channel, TLC, BBC, ZDF Arte, and other networks.
Early productions in the 1980s focused on social issues such as blended families (Stepdancing, 1986), youth suicide (Childhood’s End, 1981), and addiction (Out of the Past, 1989).
Many of Kensington’s productions have featured Earth’s natural environment and human activities that threaten it: Fragile Harvest (1986, the Nature of Things), Sacred Rhythm (1990), Sacred Balance with David Suzuki (2002), and Port Hope: A Question of Power (2005, The Nature of Things).
Kensington also has a history of producing iconic music documentaries. One Warm Line: The Legacy of Stan Rogers (1990), Mariposa: Under a Stormy Sky (1990), My Beat: The Life & Times of Bruce Cockburn (2001), and the City Sonic App (2009) all highlight Canadian music and musicians.
Kensington Communications worked with Bruce Cockburn over decades from the 1980s to the 2010s to produce short documentaries and advertisements for USC (formerly known as the Unitarian Service Committee of Canada) about their work in Nepal.
Kensington produced two successful crime series that focused on the role of forensics in solving real crimes – Exhibit A: Secrets of Forensic Science, and 72 Hours: True Crime.
Recent TV productions include The Shadow Of Gold (2019), Risk Factor (2017), The Equalizer (2016), and three seasons of the popular international TV series Museum Secrets, which goes behind the scenes at great museums of the world.
Kensington Communications has also been a leader in using multimedia websites to enhance documentary and television content. River of Sand, Sacred Balance, Diamond Road, Raw Opium, and Museum Secrets all included website content. Museum Secrets included a tie-in app called Scopify to help visitors navigate the Royal Ontario Museum, and the documentary Risk Factor was accompanied by the Risk Navigator app.

Plessner, Jacob

  • https://viaf.org/viaf/308264628/
  • Person
  • 1871-1936

Paterson, G. R.

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/104822214
  • Person
  • 1920-

Frye, Herman Northrop

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/49236705
  • Person
  • 1912-1991

Herman Northrop Frye (1912–1991) was an internationally recognized literary scholar and academic. He was born in Sherbrooke, Quebec, the son of Herman Edward Frye and Catherine Maud Howard. He married Helen Kemp in 1937. Two years after her death in 1986 he married Elizabeth Brown. He died in Toronto, Ontario.

Frye spent his childhood in Quebec and New Brunswick. His primary and secondary education in Moncton, New Brunswick, was followed by a business training-course. In 1929 he entered Victoria College, Victoria University at the University of Toronto. He graduated in 1933 in the Honour Course in Philosophy and English. He then studied theology at Emmanuel College, Victoria University, and was ordained to Ministry of the United Church of Canada in 1936. He attended Merton College, Oxford, England from 1936 to 1937 and from 1938 to 1939. He graduated with first class honours in the English School and received an Oxford M.A. in 1940.

In 1939 Frye joined the Department of English at Victoria College as a Lecturer. He became Assistant Professor in 1942, Associate Professor in 1946, Professor in 1947, Chairman of the Department of English at Victoria College in 1952, and Principal of Victoria College in 1959. In 1967 he retired as Principal and became University Professor at the University of Toronto. He continued to teach as Professor of English at Victoria College. From 1978 until his death he was Chancellor of Victoria University.

Frye lectured at over one hundred universities in Canada, the United States, Great Britain, Ireland, Scandinavia, Japan, New Zealand, Italy, Israel, Australia and the former Soviet Union. He taught a full term or a summer session at Harvard, Columbia, Princeton, Indiana, Washington, British Columbia, Cornell, Berkeley and Oxford. He gave many special lectures for endowed lecture series. During his career he received numerous awards and honourary degrees, including Companion of the Order of Canada (1972), the Governor General’s Literary Award for Non-Fiction for Northrop Frye on Shakespeare (1987) and the Mondello Prize (1990) in Italy for his lifetime dedication to literature.

Frye edited fifteen books, contributed essays and chapters to over sixty others and published over one hundred articles and reviews, including: Fearful Symmetry: A Study of William Blake (1947), Anatomy of Criticism (1957), The Well-Tempered Critic (1963), The Educated Imagination (1963), T.S. Eliot (1963), Fables of Identity (1963), A Natural Perspective (1965), The Return of Eden (1965), Fools of Time (1967), The Modern Century (1967), A Study of English Romanticism (1968), The Stubborn Structure (1970), The Bush Garden (1971), The Critical Path (1971), The Secular Scripture (1976), Spiritus Mundi (1976), Northrop Frye on Culture and Literature (1978), Creation and Recreation (1980), The Great Code (1982), Divisions on a ground (1982), The Myth of Deliverance: Reflections on Shakespeare’s Comedies (1983), Northrop Frye on Shakespeare (1986), No Uncertain Sounds (1988), Northrop Frye on Education (1988), Myth and Metaphor: Selected Essays, 1974–1988 (1990), Words with Power (1990), Reading the World-Selected Writings, 1935–1976 (1990), The Double Vision (1991), and A World in Grain and Sand: Twenty-two interviews with Northrop Frye (1991).

Urquhart, Frederick A.

  • VIAF ID: 44698356
  • Person
  • 1911-2002

Fredrick (Fred) Albert Urquhart was a professor of zoology at the University of Toronto and the University of Toronto Scarborough. Born in Toronto in 1911, Urquhart studied biology at the University of Toronto, completing an MA in 1937 and a PhD in 1940. His first attempt at tagging monarchs, in 1937, met with limited success, but led to the development of the Alar Tagging Method in the 1940s. In 1945, he married Norah Patterson, who would become a partner in his research endeavours. He was appointed assistant director of zoology at the Royal Ontario Museum in 1945, becoming director in 1949; at the same time, he was appointed as an assistant professor in zoology at the University of Toronto. Urquhart took on full professorship in 1963. In 1966, he spearheaded a program in zoology at Scarborough College, a position that he held until his retirement in 1977. In 1975, two member of Urquhart’s extensive network of monarch trackers, Ken and Cathy Brugger, discovered millions of monarch butterflies in the Neovolcanic Plateau in Mexico, many of them tagged, proving that monarchs did indeed travel thousands of kilometres to breed. Urquhart and his wife were able to visit Mexico in 1976 to see the monarchs firsthand. An internationally renowned entomologist, Urquhart published both books and articles on the migratory patterns of monarch butterflies. He died in 2002.

Bata, Thomas J.

  • Person
  • 1914-2008

Thomas J. Bata (1914-2008) was the son of Tomáš Baťa (1876-1932), who founded the Bata Shoe Company in Zlin, Czechsolovakia in 1894. Thomas J. Bata was the Chairman and CEO of the Bata Shoe Organisation from 1944 until 1984, becoming Chairman from 1984 to 1994, and remaining as Honorary Chairman until his death in 2008. In 1939, the company’s Czech holdings were nationalized during the Second World War. Thomas J. Bata immigrated to Canada with his wife Sonja Bata (1926-), where he established Bata Limited, the Canadian offshoot of the Bata enterprise, as well as the company town ‘Batawa’ (located outside of Trenton, Ontario). Batawa employed and housed some 1500 people before closing in 2000. In 1962, the Bata Shoe Organization moved its headquarters from London, UK to Toronto, where it was based until 2003. Since then, the company’s head operations have gradually shifted back to Europe, to Bata Brands SA (based in Lausanne, Switzerland). Thomas J. Bata was involved with almost all of Bata’s international companies (from North America and South America, to Europe, Asia, South Asia and Australia). He also served on numerous external committees, including the Business Industry Advisory Council and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

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