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Chambers, John Kenneth (Jack)

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/24687769
  • Person
  • 1938-

John Kenneth (Jack) Chambers was born in Grimsby, Ontario July 12, 1938. He received his undergraduate university education at the University of Windsor (B.A. Honours English, 1961) and his M.A. in English from Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario in 1962. After just one term at the University of Minnesota, where he took his first linguistics course while enrolled in their Ph.D. programme in English, he returned to Canada. Following graduation he received a Diploma in Education and taught at high schools in London and East Elgin, Ontario. In 1967 he entered the Ph.D. programme in General Linguistics at the University of Alberta where he completed a thesis on “Focused Noun Phrases in English Syntax” in 1970. In July 1970 he accepted an appointment as Assistant Professor of Linguistics in the Centre for Linguistic Studies at the University of Toronto. He chose U. of T. over offers from Carleton University and the University of Minnesota. The Centre for Linguistic Studies had a graduate programme and he, along with Ed Burstynsky, were the only other Canadian-born linguists on staff. The Centre, which had been established in 1966, became the Department of Linguistic Studies in 1974. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 1976, and to full Professor July 1, 1982. In 2005 he was appointed Professor Emeritus and in 2012 was recognized for 40 years of service.

At the University of Toronto Prof. Chambers has been actively involved in administrative, academic and research activities. He has participated in many departmental committees dealing with curriculum, admissions, promotions and tenure, as well as chair of the Visiting Lectures committee and 30th anniversary celebrations with Keren Rice. From 1986 to 1999 he was Chair of the Department, and acting Chair for six months in 2006. At the University level he was member of many search committees for departments and divisions at Scarborough and Mississauga campuses.

Prof. Chambers was the Centre’s first syntax professor and a proponent of generative semantics. The model fell out of favour in the discipline with the theoretical shift toward Noam Chomsky’s EST model. Since he was not interested in Chomsky’s model, Prof. Chambers began nurturing an interest in sociolinguistics and dialectology. It was during this time that he taught the ‘first-ever course’ in Canadian English. He has (and continues) to teach courses in linguistics and related disciplines such as sociology, anthropology and Canadian English. From 1999 to 2001 he taught the course Jazz Century (HUM199Y). A popular teacher, he received the Faculty of Arts and Science Outstanding Teacher Award in 1999. He also held many appointments as Visiting Professor at universities in England, Europe, South Africa, Hong Kong, New Zealand and the United States between 1990 and 2007. In 2008 he was visiting professor at University of Cape Town, South Africa and in 2011 Lansdowne Fellow in Linguistics at the University of Victoria. In 2012 he was named/served as CRiLLS Distinguished Professor at Newcastle University in the U.K.

Since the mid 1960s, Prof. Chambers has published extensively in the field of linguistics, with more than 200 articles and reviews, as well as 9 books either as editor, co-author or sole author. He has also been editor (and interim editor) of The Canadian Journal of Linguistics/La Revue canadienne de linguistique (volumes 19, 24 to 28). A major research project since 1990 has been the Dialect Topography project since “Canada was one of the few nations in the world without a databank or linguistic survey of accents and dialects.” In 2008, he was honoured for his contributions to the discipline through the publication of All the Things You Are: A Festschrift in honour of Jack Chambers (Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 27). In 2010, he was awarded the first National Achievement Award by the Canadian Linguistic Association for his outstanding contributions to the field of linguistics in general and to Canadian linguistics in particular. In the same year he was named a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada.

During his career with the University of Toronto, Prof. Chambers has also actively pursued his other ‘avocation’, jazz. His jazz writing predates his work in linguistics, having published his first article in 1963. This has been manifested in the course mentioned above, and in numerous published articles and several books on prominent figures in the history of jazz such as Miles Davis, and Richard Twardzik. He also is a frequent contributor to Coda magazine. When asked in 2005 about the connection between language and music he stated

Both have syntax and phonology, and if I am good at talking about them it is because I can use the same analytic skills on both. Linguistic structure is, of course, hard-wired and irrepressibly human. Musical structure is not hard-wired but learned, and learned with great effort for the greatest practitioners. But it is also uniquely human, and I suspect that it takes its form by spinning off our language faculty, like a kind of satellite. And jazz is especially language-like, because musicians use the syntax and phonology to construct motifs (phrases and sentences) and melodies (discourses) that no one has ever heard before, and they do it spontaneously, just as speakers do in ordinary conversation, except that at its very best it is more like a poem than like ordinary conversation. And how they do it, no one knows. Every three-year-old can do that with language. But only the most gifted musicians can do it in music.

Another specialized area for Prof. Chambers that has evolved from his academic work in linguistics has been forensic linguistics and consulting, an activity dating to the early 1970s. One of the earliest cases involved his role as expert witness on the language of pornography at obscenity trials in 1973. Since then he has testified and/or consulted on dozens of criminal and civil court cases. In addition he has prepared numerous affidavits relating to cases under the Trade Marks Act for companies such as Coca Cola.

Prof. Chambers continues to live and work in Toronto.

Howarth, Thomas

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/36227056
  • Person
  • 1914-2000

Thomas Howarth, professor, architectural historian, collector (born in England 1914, died at Toronto 21 July 2000). Howarth reawakened interest in the great Scottish architect, Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928), through articles, a comprehensive monograph, exhibitions, and lifelong advocacy and collecting. A prescient collector of Mackintosh's work, Howarth amassed a huge and varied collection.

Howarth studied architecture at the University of Manchester in the UK and earned a doctorate from Scotland's University of Glasgow. Mackintosh was the subject of his PhD work. Although Mackintosh's premier work, the still-extant Glasgow School of Art (1896-1909), has been described as "the only art school in the world where the building is worthy of the subject," Mackintosh's best works were completed before 1910 and by his death in 1928 his reputation had markedly declined. Howarth, a born collector, began to amass what would eventually become the world's largest private collection of the architect's work. He published articles on Mackintosh during the 1940s and in 1952 a monograph on the architect: "Charles Rennie Mackintosh and the Modern Movement", with a second edition in 1977.

In 1958 Howarth immigrated to Canada and taught at the University of Toronto's school of architecture until 1974, when he retired as dean of the faculty of architecture. As well as continuing to pursue his lifelong interest in Mackintosh, Howarth published articles and gave lectures on urban design, architectural education, and Renaissance, Modern, and Canadian architecture. He served as a campus planner for Laurentian University and Glendon College, both in Ontario. Howarth also collected the work of other modern architects and designers, notably Frank Lloyd Wright and Charles Eames.

A posthumous donation endowed the Howarth-Wright Scholarship at the University of Toronto, which enables students to study at Taliesen West, Frank Lloyd Wright's western studio.

Jones, L.E.

  • Person
  • 1910-1999

L.E. "Ted" Jones was born in Montreal in 1910. After the First World War, his family settled in Transcona, a suburb of Winnipeg. He completed a B.Sc. in 1931 at the University of Manitoba and graduated as a gold medallist in civil engineering. The following year he moved to Toronto to undertake graduate work in open channel hydraulics at the University of Toronto. After completing his MASc and PhD degrees, he joined the department of applied physics and subsequently the department of mechanical engineering in 1944.

Professor Jones was associated with the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering for approximately seventy years. Over his career, he instructed students in fluid mechanics and hydraulic engineering, metrology and numerical analysis. His research was primarily focused on open channel hydraulics – the science of water flow in channels like rivers and canals. Jones also undertook consulting work in the area of hydraulics. In addition to his research and teaching activities, he also served as an unofficial ombudsman to students and was famous for his lectures on the use of the slide rule as well as his annual address on dress and deportment, which was delivered before the graduation ball.

Professor Jones retired from the University in 1972. He was appointed Professor Emeritus in 1975. Prior to his retirement, and as a consequence of his deep interest in the Faculty’s history, he was appointed Engineering Archivist by Professor James Ham, then Dean, a role he continued to hold until his death.

Professor Jones was a man of many interests. Starting from his early years at the University until after his retirement, he sang with the Hart House Glee Club. It was through his singing, while working on a University production of a Gilbert and Sullivan opera that he met his wife Dorothy, whom he married in 1938. He also was actively involved in his church, St. George’s on-the-Hill in Etobicoke, wrote poetry, was a calligrapher who hand-lettered citations and awards bestowed by the University and an avid photographer who recorded notable events. L.E. Jones maintained his connection to the University and pursued many of these activities until his death in 1999.

Wolfe, David A.

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/6100427
  • Person

David A. Wolfe is a Professor of Political Science at the University of Toronto Mississauga and Co-Director of the Innovation Policy Lab at the Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy at the University of Toronto. His research interests include the political economy of technological change and the role of local and regional economic development, with special reference to Canada and Ontario.

He holds a B.A. and an M.A. in Political Science from Carleton University and a Ph.D. from the University of Toronto. He served as Executive Coordinator for Economic and Labour Policy in the Cabinet Office of the Government of Ontario from October 1990 to August 1993. Upon his return to the University of Toronto from 1993 until 1997, he was a research associate in the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research’s Program on Law and the Determinants of Social Ordering.

Professor Wolfe was the Royal Bank Chair in Public and Economic Policy from 2009 to 2014. Since 2014, he is the lead investigator on the Creating Digital Opportunity Partnership (CDO) the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)-funded project to study how Canada can best respond to the challenges posed by a rapidly changing digital landscape, while benefiting from emerging opportunities to promote our economic prosperity. From 1999 to 2011 he was national coordinator of the Innovation Systems Research Network (ISRN), funded by SSHRC and was principal investigator on two Major Collaborative Research Initiatives, the first on Innovation Systems and Economic Development: The Role of Local and Regional Clusters in Canada, followed by a six year study on the Social Dynamics of Economic Performance: Innovation and Creativity in City Regions which ended in 2011.

He is the editor or co-editor of ten books and numerous scholarly articles, focusing mostly on regional and national politics.

He has acted as an advisor to the Royal Commission on the Economic Union and Development Prospects for Canada, the Ontario Premier’s Council, the E-Business Opportunities Roundtable and the Electronic Commerce Task Force of Industry Canada, the National Research Council, the LEED Program of the OECD, the Ontario Panel on the Role of Government, the Ontario Research and Innovation Council, DG Region of the European Commission, and the Toronto Region Research Alliance. He was the CIBC Scholar-in-Residence for the Conference Board of Canada in 2008-2009 and published a book for the Conference Board, entitled 21st Century Cities in Canada: The Geography of Innovation.

Black (Davidson) Family

  • Family
  • 1838-

This section is under review for historical accuracy. Please check back for an updated version
The Davidson Black’s family history in Canada begins in 1840 when it arrived in Montreal, settling later in the Whitby area in Canada West. The patriarch’s son, the first Davidson Black, was born in England in 1825. He graduated from University College in the University of Toronto with a BA in 1867, even though the only recorded information of his attendance is that he took a third year civil polity (pass) course in 1865-1866. In 1869 he was admitted as a student-at-law to Osgoode Hall. He was sworn in as an attorney on 23 November 1871 and was called to the bar in 1872. Soon thereafter Davidson set up shop at 17 Toronto Street with two younger lawyers who had been fellow students at University College, Thomas Dawson Delamere and Henry Arthur Reesor; the firm was called Delamere, Black and Reesor. Thomas Delamere was the eldest son of a family of four boys and two girls that had emigrated from Ireland to Toronto in 1852. His youngest sister, Margaret Bowes (born in 1850), an organist, was a beauty who caught the eye of Davidson. He proposed to her in October 1878 and she accepted. Her mother and Tom’s approval was muted, but brothers Harry and Joe were enthusiastic. Davidson and Margaret married at end of December 1879 and settled in Toronto where their two sons were born, Redmond in 1880 and Davidson William on 25 July 1884.

This ordered family life was disrupted on 12 July 1886 when Davidson dropped dead of a heart attack at the age of 61. Margaret resolved to be independent and refused to move in with any members of her family. But, knowing she would have to find employment, she accepted Tom’s help in getting a position in Osgoode Hall. She moved her boys into a smaller house at 3 Anderson Street and got on with life. She never remarried. Over the years she and Davidson established a close bond of understanding that is revealed in his voluminous letters to her; his first letters home are dated 1891. In March 1907, with her boys having left home (Redmond to become a banker) Margaret moved to 46 Avenue Road and a few years later to 52 Avenue Road where she resided for the rest of her life. In February 1913 she changed her surname officially to Davidson-Black. In July 1922, she was struck by a car after alighting from a streetcar and fractured her skull. It was the fourth accident she had suffered in recent years. In March 1923, she wrote to Davidson that she had done every job at Osgoode Hall and would like any position that would give her enough money to live on and a pension after 37 years of service there. She died of a stroke in Toronto on 14 September 1929.

Redmond Black was sometimes referred to as “Gov” by himself and his family. He worked for the Dominion Bank for most of his life, in various locations mostly in Ontario including Oshawa, Napanee, Belleville, Huntsville, Seaforth, Hespeler and Dresden. He and his wife, Grace, had three children, Redmond, Harold and Gay. Redmond enlisted and was sent to Durban, South Africa in spring 1902 as part of the Halifax contingent of the Canadian Mounted Rifles during the South African (Boer) War. In 1916 he served as a senior commanding officer in the 110th Perth County Battalion, and later as part of the 8th Canadian Reserve Battalion, St. Martin’s Plain, Shorncliffe, Kent.

Davidson William Black, who was known as “Dyo” to his family and “Kid” to his brother Redmond, never used his middle name. He attended the Model School on Gerrard Street. During his fourteenth year he was bedridden with rheumatic fever. As he entered his teens, he made frequent summer trips as a “chore boy” with his maternal uncles to Minden in the Kawartha Lakes, where he learned the importance of keeping detailed and accurate notes. He also developed an interest in ornithology, as surviving notebooks attest. He attended the Wellesley School before entering, in 1899, Harbord Collegiate Institute. At the latter he took courses in art and became a good amateur artist. As an adult, he composed small sketches of anything that interested him; many of these accompanied his correspondence. To finance his dream of taking medicine, he took summer jobs in the Huntsville and Minden areas. In October 1902, he registered as a matriculant in the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario, thus bypassing the matriculation examinations as he entered the four-year course in medicine at the University of Toronto. He graduated with a Bachelor of Medicine (MB) in 1906 with a pass standing. One of his fellow students, who became a good friend, was Edmund Vincent Cowdry, who later played a role in Davidson’s joining the Peking Union Medical College.

During the summer of 1906 Davidson worked at the Hudson’s Bay Company post on the Mattagami River and also served as an Ontario forest ranger in the Biscotasing area. In 1907 he acquired a miner’s licence and permission to prospect in the Temagami Forest Reserve. With the encouragement of Professor A. B. Macallum, he entered the Honour Arts programme at University College in the fall of 1906, “to widen his horizon and stimulate his powers of exploration and expression” . There he took courses in English, scientific French and German, world history and biology, and indulged in the athletic pastimes of boxing and fencing. Professor W. H. Piersol taught him “the principles and manipulations used in the preparation of material for microscopic examination” and stated he was “a terrifically hard worker”. Although his very amusing biographical sketch for the Class of 0T9 appears in the 1909 volume of Torontonensis, the undergraduate yearbook, he did not finally convocate until June 1911.

Dr. Black’s education continued in subsequent years. In June 1924 he was awarded a Master of Arts degree for his thesis, ‘The motor nuclei of the cerebral nerves in phylogeny. A study of the phenomenon of neurobiotaxis.’ In October 1927, with the upgrading of undergraduate medical degree from Bachelor of Medicine (MB), he was awarded an MD (Doctorate of Medicine).

Black spent the summer of 1909 back at Biscotasing, then headed for Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, where he had accepted a lectureship in the Department of Anatomy. While there he as much spare time as he could “visiting and working in the laboratories of famous institutions”. He was also able to study the specimens in the University’s large skeletal museum. During the summer holidays, he found employment with the Geological Survey of Canada where he acquired the “practical knowledge of structural and stratigraphical geology that subsequently amazed the geologists with whom he worked in connection with his later paleontological studies.” In the summer of 1911 he again went prospecting and on July 11 got caught in the great Porcupine fire. More than a week passed before he could wire his mother, “Am sending this for fear you have been worrying about us. We are all OK…” He had spent two nights standing in Porcupine Lake and was given government relief supplies and a free trip home.

The arrival in 1912 of T. Wingate Todd from the University of Manchester meant that Davidson was exposed to the former’s new ideas “as an interpreter of man’s relation to the anthropoids and on human evolution generally.” Early in 1913 Black was appointed Assistant Professor in the Department of Anatomy, and the first of his scientific articles appeared.

Early in the summer of 1912 Davidson visited his Delamere cousins at their summer house on Balsam Lake in the Kawartha Lakes near Coboconk. There he became reacquainted with Adena Nevitt, whom he had first met some years before at Go Home Bay. They were married in Toronto on 27 December 1913, with an old Delamere family friend, the Venerable Archdeacon Hill, officiating.

Adena (“Adna” in her student records) Sara Nevitt was the younger daughter of Dr. Richard Barrington Nevitt, an American who had been sent north for his education during the Civil War. He graduated from Trinity College in Toronto with a BA in 1871, and entered Trinity Medical School that fall. His formal medical education was interrupted by the opportunity to serve as an assistant surgeon in the original squadron of the Royal Northwest Mounted Police as it marched west from Fort Garry to Fort McLeod in 1872-1873. He then returned to Toronto to complete his medical degree at Trinity (MB 1874, MD 1882). In 1883 he was a founder of the Ontario Medical College for Women and president and dean until its merger with the University of Toronto in 1906. He was also a member of the Trinity College Corporation. All but two (Richard A. and Bertram, who was killed at Courcelette in France in 1916) of the six children of Dr. Nevitt and his wife, Elizabeth Beaty, a daughter of the co-founder of the Leader, attended university. Robert Barrington received his BA in 1900 from Trinity, and his MA in 1901, while Irving Howard entered the School of Practical Science, where he got his diploma in 1903 and his BASc in 1904. Mary Louise received her BA from Trinity in 1901. Robert became an Anglican clergyman and died in England in 1918. Irving became a sanitary engineer (died 1963), while Mary (died 1953) married the Reverend George Egerton Ryerson, who was an Anglican missionary in Japan from 1900 to 1917 before settling in England in 1923.

Adena attended Miss Veal’s School before entering Trinity College in 1901, from which she received her BA 1904. During their first year of marriage, she and Davidson were apart for several months; his vacation job was with the Geological Survey of Canada in British Columbia, while she travelled across Canada by rail to spend the summer in Japan. In the spring of 1914 Davidson took a leave of absence from Western Reserve and he and Adena travelled to England where he took a short course from Grafton Elliot Smith, his colleague Todd’s old chief at the University of Manchester. Smith had spent seven years in Egypt studying ancient skeletons and was then working on the reconstruction of the skull of the Piltdown Man. Black was fascinated by this field of work and became determined to devote his life to it. He re-directed his energy to the study of comparative anatomical material, becoming skilled at cast making, and studied the geological literature essential to his work. Black and Smith got on very well and the latter introduced him to colleagues in London, including Arthur Berridale Keith, Frederick Wood Jones and Arthur Smith Woodward. Smith also recommended him for a position at the University of Otago in New Zealand. Black also met a young Jesuit priest, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, who was interested in the Piltdown Man controversy and later took an active part in archaeological research in China.

Early in the summer of 1914 Black and Adena went to Amsterdam where, at Elliott Smith’s suggestion, Black worked under the guidance of the distinguished neurologist, Ariëns Kappers. They began a long association which was of considerable value to Black in his writings about the nervous systems in man and neuroanatomy. The Blacks remained in the city for a week after the declaration of war, then returned to London and sailed home. Black’s attempt to enlist was rebuffed because of the slight heart murmur he had had all his life. So he returned to Western Reserve where he remained until the United States declared war on Germany in April, 1917.

The Blacks then moved back to Toronto, where Davidson enlisted in the Canadian Expeditionary Force on 27 July 1917 and was assigned to the Canadian Army Medical Corps with the rank of captain. He was attached to the Divisional Laboratory of Military District 2 from 1 September 1917 to 21 June 1918. Four days later he sailed for England where he was assigned to the CAMC Training Division at Risborough Barracks, Shorncliffe, in Kent. He remained there from 15 July to 30 August 1918, when he was given a week’s leave of absence to go to London to discuss the offer of an appointment to the Department of Anatomy at the Peking Union Medical College being established by the Rockefeller Foundation. He accepted the offer, generously backdated to June 1918 but to be taken up when he was released from military service. He then moved to the Canadian General Laboratory at Whitley Military Camp in Surrey, one of three in the Aldershot Command area established by the Canadian Army. He remained there until 2nd February 1919. Three weeks later he was back in Canada.

The following months were spent preparing for departure to China (Adena’s notes on items packed has survived). The Blacks left Toronto on 15 August by train for San Francisco, where they boarded the S.S. Ecuador for China. They arrived in Beijing on 21 September. It was there that their son, Davidson, was born on 12 March 1921, (Their daughter, Nevitt, was born on 2 October 1925.) Black familiarized himself with his surrounding by a series of local trips, especially to the Western Hills. His family also discovered Peitaiho, the popular Chinese summer holiday retreat, where they escaped the furnace-like heat of Peking in summer.

Black found his colleagues very agreeable; amongst them his old friend from university days, E. V. Cowdry, head of the Department of Anatomy at PUMC, George B. Barbour, and J. Gunnar Andersson. It was the last, with his expertise in local geology, and Black who were to lay the foundation for prehistoric research in China. Other colleagues included Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, and Dr. A. W Grabau, Professor of Palaeontology in the National University of Peking, became a mentor and from whom Black learned about a 1903 discovery of an ancient tooth, possibly that of a primitive man. In 1921 Cowdry resigned and Black replaced him. He emphasized the importance of physical anthropology as he built up his department and turned it into a well-equipped anthropological laboratory, in spite of initially finding little support in his attempt to promote anthropological research. He retained this position until his death and was admired by his Chinese colleagues for treating them with an equality that was rare at that time.

Black’s pursuit of evidence of the origins of man began almost immediately. In March 1920, he went to Kalgan, the terminus of the principal caravan route to Mongolia; this was followed in June and July by his first field expedition to investigate cave burials. His preliminary paper on the human skeletal remains in the Neolithic cave deposits at Shakoutun, was published that autumn, his first anthropological paper based on research in the field. The failure of some of his early expeditions, such as one to Jehol and the caves of the Lan River, caused him to look elsewhere; in 1923 he went to Siam as he believed man had migrated from the south. Though this trip proved fruitless, Black did not give up. He established a good working relationship with Dr. Wong Weng-hao who headed the recently formed Geological Survey of China. In 1922 he briefly joined (primarily to see Urga) the third Asiatic expedition of the American Museum of Natural History, which started in April from Kalgan for Mongolia, to study its zoology, paleontology, geology and botany and, if the press was to believed, discover the ‘Missing Link’. But it was Gunnar Andersson’s visit to in 1921 to the hills of Chou-K’ou-tien, twenty-five miles south-west of Beijing, and two years later to a spot near the local railway station, that really changed Black’s life. It was here in 1926 that Andersson’s expedition found an early Pleistocene tooth. Black was initially strongly criticized for regarding this as evidence of “Peking man”, but excavations under his direction at Chou-K’ou-tien began in 1927, with a two-year grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. They resulted in the discovery of more bone fragments and a skull by the Chinese geologists C. C. Young and W. C. Pei, and the confirmation of the validity of the genus Sinanthropus pekinensis which Black had named. His growing stature was recognized by the China Medical Board, now responsible for PUMC, the following year when it released him from teaching duties for three years from 1929 to pursue field research with what became an abortive mid-Asian expedition to Chinese Turkestan (the Swede, Sven Hedin, pulled out of an agreement and found funding for his own expedition).

In addition to their travels in Asia and within China (in addition to Siam, for example, they visited Hong Kong and Macau in 1930), the Blacks returned to Canada as often as they could. Staff at PUMC received a year’s leave every four years. Davidson took advantage of these furloughs to expand his professional experience, but some of their travels were occasioned by Davidson’s professional activities, others by the continuing civil turmoil in China. In 1923 Davidson had his first leave from PUMC; Adena arrived back in Toronto in June and he followed three months later, having escaped pirates on his journey. Adena used this opportunity to establish with Daisy and Marion Boulton of Toronto a business venture importing Chinese goods to Canada. This enterprise ran from 1924 to 1928, from which Adena made a good income. Between 1931 and 1934 she was associated with the trading firm, the Peking Temples Company.

At the end of 1923 Davidson was given a fellowship for travel and medical study in Europe, which he took advantage of to visit the leading medical authorities across Europe (his album of signed photographs is a memento of this trip). He returned to Toronto in August and the family headed back to Beijing. Adena was back in Toronto in April of 1927 with her children “owing to uprisings south of Pekin” (Davidson followed early in December). In April 1928 he attended the annual meeting of the American Association of Anatomists in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and visited old friends in Baltimore and New York. On 15 June 1928, Black and his family sailed to England. Davidson visited colleagues there and also in Europe. They returned to Toronto in August and early in October they left for China.

Back in China, in an attempt to obtain further financing, Black proposed to the Rockefeller Foundation the founding of a Cenozoic Research Laboratory to be linked to the Geological Survey of China. This would facilitate integrated field and laboratory work and extend the range of research. The Foundation agreed, provided $80,000 in funding, and Black brought V. K Ting of the Geological Survey of China in as an honorary director along with himself. The work of developing the fossils discovered at Chou-K’ou-tien “was carried out by Black himself with superb technical skill. Not only did he clean the fossils and photograph them himself, but also he made the excellent casts which have enabled workers in the rest of the world who could not see the fossils themselves, to form a very exact idea of their nature.”

In 1932 Black went on leave again, travelling overland through northern India, Afghanistan, Persia, and Iraq to Palestine and Egypt. Adena and the children went by ship to Vancouver while he sailed to Calcutta, meeting them back in Canada. He then made a quick trip to London on news that he had been elected to the Royal Society. On 8 December he delivered its Croonian Lecture, the first Canadian to do so. The family then returned to China. In June 1933 he was back in Canada to attend the Fifth Pacific Science Congress in Vancouver, where the possibility of an expedition the next year to the Yangtze with George Barbour and Teilhard de Chardin was discussed, with initial preparations being carried out in the spring of 1934.

As word of Black’s findings spread, he received many honours, the first being the Grabau Gold Medal of the Geological Survey of China (1929). This was followed in 1931 by the Daniel Giraud Eliot Medal and in 1932 he was awarded the King Gold Medal by the Peking Society of Natural History. He was made an honorary member or fellow of eight societies, including (in addition to the Royal Society) the National Academy of Sciences (Washington, DC), the Royal Anthropological Institute, and the National Institute of History and Philology, China.

Dr. Black was diagnosed with a serious heart condition in the fall of 1933 and spent a long time convalescing. A few days after he was allowed to return to work, he died in his office of a heart attack in the evening of 15 March 1934. For his obituary in Nature, G. Elliot Smith concluded, “In taking farewell of Davidson Black one regrets not only the loss of a friend of particular charm and generosity, but also the cutting short of the brilliant work in which he was engaged and which there is no one else competent to complete.”

Adena Black remained in China until the end of 1938 when she returned to Canada with Nevitt; Davy was already there. As the situation in China deteriorated, many others associated with the Peking University Medical College left as well. By the end of the 1930s, the Cenozoic Research Laboratory was a mere shell of what it had been. Adena died in Toronto at her home at 218 Cottingham Street on 4 May 1966.

Both of the Black children grew up fluent in Mandarin. Davidson was educated at the Peking American School from 1926 to 1936, except for 1932-1933 when he attended the preparatory school at Upper Canada College. From 1936 to 1940 he was at Ridley College in St. Catharines. He then spent a year at University College before entering medicine, receiving his MD from the U of T in 1946. Davidson married Lynne Sunderland (BA, Woodsworth College, 1985) on 18 January 1964. He died on 31 August 1988. Their son, Davidson (Davy) died on 15 March 2011 at the age of 42, 77 years to the day after his grandfather.

Nevitt attended the same school as her brother, beginning in 1931. Back in Toronto, she entered Bishop Strachan School before taking courses in Arts at Trinity College and in Medicine. She married John Ryerson Maybee, a native of Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan and a 1939 graduate of Trinity College (MA and PhD, Princeton), on 4 August 1945. He served with distinction in Canada’s diplomatic corps from 1945 to his retirement in 1978. He died in 2009, but she survives him and in 2013 is still active.

Black, Davidson [William]

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/15134166
  • Person
  • 1884-1934

Davidson Black (25 July 1884-15 March 1934) was a Canadian palaeoanthropologist, best known for his naming of Sinanthropus pekinensis (now Homo erectus pekinensis). He was a Fellow of The Royal Society.

Linden, Allen

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/59171905
  • Person
  • 1934-2017

Clarkson, Stephen

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/113416189
  • Person
  • 1937-2016

Stephen H. E. Clarkson (21 October 1937 – 28 February 2016) was a prominent Canadian political scientist, scholar, and a University of Toronto professor of political economy. A liberal-left Canadian nationalist, he did much research and writing on developing and protecting the Canadian economy and identity.

Education

Born in London, England, Clarkson grew up on a farm outside of Toronto, Canada. He attended school at Upper Canada College and became a Rhodes Scholar in 1958. In 1959, he received a B.A. from the University of Toronto for a degree in Modern History and Modern Languages (French and Russian), and an M.A. from the University of Oxford for a degree in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics in 1961. In 1964, he was awarded his Doctorat de Recherches from the Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques, Sorbonne, Université de Paris for his dissertation L'analyse soviétique des problèmes indiens du sous-développement (1955-1964). In addition to French and English, Clarkson was also proficient in Spanish, Italian, Russian and German.

University of Toronto

Clarkson became a lecturer in the Department of Political Economy at the University of Toronto in 1964, assistant professor in 1965, associate professor in 1968, and a professor in 1980. He was both awarded tenure and appointed to the Graduate School in 1968. Much of his research, writings and courses focused on an analysis of the Liberal Party, Canadian economic and cultural development, and continental and international trade. He also concentrated on the evolution of North America as a continental state, and the impact of globalization on Canada, specifically in regard to NAFTA and the WTO.

Clarkson was known for his dedicated and inspiring teaching, taking his students on international study trips to learn firsthand about other political systems. It was on such a research trip to Portugal with his students where he passed away after catching pneumonia. He also provided opportunities for his students to co-author papers with him and have them published in academic journals. In 2004, he was awarded the Outstanding Teaching Award from the Faculty of Arts and Science.

Other Academic Appointments

Clarkson has held various fellows and invited scholar positions at institutions worldwide. Early in his career he was a Senior Fellow at Columbia University Research Institute on Communist Affairs (1967-68). In 1995-1996 he was the Jean Monnet Fellow, European University Institute, Florence and did two separated stints at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (2000-2003). In 2006 he became a Senior Fellow, Centre for International Governance Innovation.

Family

Clarkson was married to Adrienne Clarkson (née Poy), (broadcast journalist and former Governor General of Canada) from 1963 to 1975. When the marriage ended, Stephen Clarkson retained custody of their two children Kyra and Blaise. In 1978, he married journalist and writer Christina McCall who would also become his partner in research and writing, co-authoring the two-volume award winning biography on Pierre Trudeau, Trudeau and Our Times. McCall had one daughter from her former marriage with Peter C. Newman, Ashley McCall whom Clarkson adopted. Christina McCall passed away in 2005. In 2014 he married Nora Born, a musicologist he met while studying at the Goethe Institute in Freiburg, Germany. The couple traveled extensively during their years together and split their time between Toronto and Germany until Clarkson’s death in 2016.

Political life

Common to many Canadian university faculty in the late 1960s and into the 1970s, Clarkson was active in formal politics, a role he felt enhanced his academic work. This was the time of student protests, sit-ins and teach-ins on campuses throughout North America. Clarkson was a member of the Sunday Circle, a group of intellectuals and activists whose discussions led to the founding of the City of Toronto Liberal Association in 1968 as well as a broader regional organization, the Toronto and District Liberal Association. In 1969, Clarkson was the mayoral candidate for the City Liberals. While he lost the election to William Dennison, for the next decade he was continually involved in politics at the municipal, provincial and federal level, mainly in his capacity to research and formulate policy at all levels. He was Chair of the Policy and Research committee for the Liberal Party of Ontario and in this capacity was active in leadership races, policy conventions and in both the 1971 and 1975 provincial elections in which Liberal Leader Bob Nixon lost to Conservative William Davis. For the 1975 election in particular, Clarkson was formally part of the Nixon Campaign as a member of the Policy and Platform Committee. The Policy Research Group under Clarkson’s direction was tasked with providing content used for major speeches and candidates’ material; they also answered research requests from candidate campaign offices.

Activism and professional groups

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, Clarkson’s volunteer and activism extended beyond the formal political party structure. As a left leaning political scientist, he gravitated to participatory and nationalist organizations. He was an active member and played leadership roles in such groups as the Committee for an Independent Canada, Praxis Research Institute for Social Change, and the academic centric University League for Social Reform. From 1965-1979 he was on the Editorial Board for The Canadian Forum and held board positions on the Ontario Welfare Council (Director, 1968-69) and the Social Planning Council of Metro Toronto (Director, 1969-72). As a member of the Canadian Political Science Association he held various positions include Secretary-Treasurer (1966-67), Programme Chairman (1969-70) and as representative on Social Sciences & Humanities Research Council, Publications Committee.

Research and publications

A prolific writer and researcher, Clarkson’s publications, among numerous academic papers, addresses, and news articles, include Dependent America? How Canada and Mexico Construct US Power (2011) with Matto Mildenberger; A Perilous Imbalance: The Globalization of Canadian Law and Governance (2010) with Stepan Wood; Does North America Exist? Governing the Continent after NAFTA and 9/11 (2008); The Big Red Machine: How the Liberal Party Dominates Canadian Politics (2005); Trudeau and Our Times Vol. 1: The Magnificent Obsession (1990) and Vol. 2: The Heroic Delusion (1994) with Christina McCall; The Canadian-American Relationship: Uncle Sam and Us: Globalization, Neoconservatism, and the Canadian State (2002) and Canada and the Reagan Challenge (1982). He was also commissioned to write a history of Canada’s federal election campaigns starting in 1974. These election histories formed the basis of his book The Big Red Machine (2005).

Honors and awards

Stephen Clarkson was awarded numerous research grants and awards throughout his long and active career in academia and political writing. In 1990, volume one of Trudeau and Our Times, co-written with his second wife, Canadian political writer, Christina McCall, won the Governor General Award for Non-Fiction. He was the recipient of a Killam Senior Research Fellowship (1999-2001), a Canada-US Fulbright Scholarship (1999-2000), and was elected as a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 2004. He was appointed to the Order of Canada in 2010. In 2013 he was the recipient of the Konrad Adenauer Research Award conferred by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, in recognition of his academic work promoting collaboration between Canada and Germany.

Arts and Science Students' Union

  • Corporate body
  • 1972-

The Arts and Science Students’ Union (ASSU) is an organization representing full-time undergraduate students in the Faculty of Arts and Science (FAS) at the University of Toronto, St. George Campus. The core functions of ASSU as an umbrella organization for over 60 course unions are performed by full-time staff and seven executive members. Executives are elected by members of the Council, the governing, legislative body of ASSU that is made up of representatives from each course union. The course unions in turn directly represent students in the various departments and programs within the Faculty of Arts and Science.

ASSU traces its history back to the 1960s with the formation of student-led course unions. Their major aims were to improve the educational experience of undergraduates, and to advocate for increased student involvement in decisions made about faculty promotion and tenure, as well as curriculum and program content. The earliest course unions were funded through the Students’ Administrative Council’s (SAC) Education Commission. In 1972, the Arts and Science Students’ Union was formed to act as the intermediary between SAC and the course unions, and has been independently funded through a direct undergraduate fee levy since 1975.

Aside from providing funding for course unions and the production of the annual Anti-Calendar, ASSU has provided a variety of services to students, including advising on academic grievances, administering scholarships and bursaries, and offering a past test library. It has also engaged with other student groups, community members and university administration and faculty to organize events and to advocate for changes in policies and programs.

University of Toronto Press Incorporated

  • Corporate body
  • 1901-current

Founded in 1901, University of Toronto Press (UTP) is Canada's leading scholarly publisher and one of the largest university presses in North America. UTP has published over 6,500 books, with well over 3,500 of these still in print. The Scholarly Publishing division produces approximately 175 titles per year, and the Higher Education division publishes around 25 titles per year. The Press has published dozens of notable authors, including Northrop Frye, Robertson Davies, Harold Innis, Marshall McLuhan, Yousuf Karsh, Michael Bliss, Carl Berger, Umberto Eco, and Julia Kristeva, and has produced some of the most important books ever published in Canada, such as the Historical Atlas of Canada, the Dictionary of Canadian Biography, the Encyclopedia of Canada’s Peoples, and the History of the Book in Canada. With the publication of these landmark titles, as well as a continuing dedication to groundbreaking new scholarship, UTP has firmly established its reputation for excellence. - from http://www.utpress.utoronto.ca/aboutus.php?sectionID=2&subsectionID=1&pageID=1

Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) at the University of Toronto. Northwestern Field Centre

  • Corporate body
  • 1970-current

Established in 1970, the Northwestern Filed Centre is the OISE/UT teaching, outreach, and research campus in Thunder Bay.
Field Centres make OISE / UT unique among North American universities. Located in Kitchener, Peterborough, and Thunder Bay, the Field Centres provide OISE/UT with a physical presence across Ontario. The Field Centre provide off-campus sites for courses in both graduate and Continuing Education Programs and serve as the OISE?UT contact point for students in the regions. Further, through Program-Based Field Development projects, the Field Centres link the curriculum and professional development needs of school boards with OISE/UT graduate studies, continuing education, research, and development activities.
The Mandate of the Northwestern Field Centre is to conduct field development projects with local practitioners in order to ensure that initiatives such as site based management, school councils, and new curriculum policy and programs are implemented in a manner consistent with the context and culture of the North. Further, through partnerships with the Northern School Resource Alliance and the local school districts, the Northwestern Field Centre also focuses on the development of leadership at the school and district levels. Finally, the Centre's faculty teach courses on class curriculum.

University of Toronto. Real Estate Operations

  • Corporate body
  • ca. 2000s

Real Estate Operations fell under the the Office of the Vice-President, Business Affairs, and included the Chief Real Estate Officer, the Director of Capital Projects, and the Manager of Design and Engineering. The mandate of the University of Toronto's Real Estate Operations office was taken over by the Office of University Planning, Design and Construction.

University of Toronto. Department of Medical Art Service

  • Corporate body
  • 1925-1945

In 1925, Maria Torrence Wishart (1893–1983), who had studied with Max Brödel at Johns Hopkins University, founded the Department of Medical Art Service in the Anatomy Building (now the McMurrich Building) at the University of Toronto. The Dean of the Faculty of Medicine approved her appointment as the first professionally trained medical illustrator.

In 1945, Wishart founded a 3-year diploma course in medical illustration, at which time the name of the department changed to Art as Applied to Medicine (AAM).

Clark, Samuel Delbert

  • https://viaf.org/viaf/51816324/
  • Person
  • 1910-2003

Samuel Delbert "Del" Clark was a Canadian sociologist and professor in the Departments of Political Economy and Sociology at the University of Toronto.

Born in Lloydminster, Alberta, Clark received a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science and history in 1930 and a Master of Arts degree in 1931 from the University of Saskatchewan. From 1932 to 1933, he studied at the London School of Economics. In 1935, he received a Master of Arts degree from McGill University and a Ph.D. in 1938 from the University of Toronto. In 1943, he was awarded a Fellowship from the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation.

In 1938, he started teaching at the University of Toronto in the Department of Political Economy. Through his efforts, sociology gained respect from Canadian scholars who were initially skeptical of the discipline. On July 1, 1963, he led the founding of the Sociology department and served as its first chair until 1969. He retired in 1976, but taught for years as a Visiting Professor at a number of places, including Dalhousie University, Lakehead University, and the University of Edinburgh.

As a sociologist, Clark became known for studies interpreting Canadian social development as a process of disorganization and re-organization on a series of economic frontiers. His scholarship won him acceptance at a time when Canadian academics were still skeptical of the new discipline of sociology. Under Clark’s direction, a series on the Social Credit movement produced 10 monographs by Canadian scholars. In the 1960s, Clark’s interest shifted to contemporary consequences of economic changes, especially suburban living and urban poverty.

Clark’s publications – mainly books—include The Canadian Manufacturers Association (1939), The Social Development of Canada (1942), Church and Sect in Canada (1948), Movements of Political Protest in Canada (1959), The Developing Canadian Community (1962), The Suburban Society (1966), Canadian Society in Historical Perspective (1976) and The New Urban Poor (1978).

Clark was elected president of the Canadian Political Science Association in 1958 and honorary president of the Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Association in 1967. In 1978, he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada as "social historian of international repute and, as one of our most distinguished scholars". A Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, he also served as its president from 1975 to 1976. He was elected a foreign honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1976. He was awarded the J.B. Tyrrell Historical Medal in 1960. He received honorary degrees from the University of Calgary, Dalhousie University, Lakehead University, the University of Western Ontario, the University of Manitoba, and the University of Toronto.

In 1999, the Department of Sociology, University of Toronto instituted the endowed "S.D. Clark Chair" in his honour.

Clark died in Toronto on 18 September 2003.

Wayman, Morris

  • Person

Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Toronto.

MacDonald, J.W.

  • Person

Dean, Faculty of Education, 1981-1987

Ricker, J.C.

  • Person

Dean, Faculty of Education, 1975-1981

Pounder, I.R.

  • Person

Professor Emeritus, Department of Mathematics, University of Toronto.

Dadson, D.F.

  • Person
  • 1913-1995

Dean, Faculty of Education, 1963-1973

University of Toronto. Office of the Vice-Provost, Students and First-Entry Divisions. Enrolment Services

  • Corporate body
  • ca. 2000 - current

The Office of Enrolment Services i works to ensure the university takes a strategic approach to enrolment management supporting both divisional and central efforts to recruit and retain the best possible students. The division is comprised of four functional areas: Student Recruitment, Admissions, Financial Aid and Awards, and Technical and Administrative Services all under the leadership of the Executive Director, Enrolment Services and University Registrar.

Justina M. Barnicke Art Gallery

  • Corporate body
  • ca 1980s - present

The Justina M. Barnicke Gallery is housed with Hart House, and for a long time was managed as an independent art gallery. In the late 2000s, the gallery became one of 2 Art Museums (along with the University of Toronto Art Centre) managed centrally by the University of Toronto.

McLennan, Mary Louise

  • Person

Education, 1914-1916. Sir John C. McLennan was her brother

Eddie, Scott M.

  • https://viaf.org/viaf/39710665
  • Person
  • 1935-2019

Scott M. Eddie was born November 28, 1935 in Northwood, North Dakota and moved to Canada in 1971 when he accepted the appointment to the Department of Economics, University of Toronto. Prof. Eddie is a graduate of the University of Minnesota (B.S. Econ. (1960) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) where he received a PhD in 1967. He entered MIT on the Woodrow Wilson Fellowship awarded for 1960-1962. He spent the 1962-1963 academic year at the University of Vienna as a special student funded by a Fulbright Scholarship conducting research for his PhD thesis. During and following completion of his doctoral degree, Prof. Eddie held positions at a number of institutions in the United States and abroad: Williams College (1964-1967), Yale University (1967-1968), University of Wisconsin (1970-71) and University of Philippines (1969-1970).

Prof. Eddie was hired by Prof. J. Stefan Dupre, chair of the Department of Economics in July 1971. He was appointed at the associate professor level in the Department of Economics at the St. George Campus and at Erindale College (now University of Toronto at Mississauga). His ‘foreign staff’ status necessitated a title of ‘Visiting Associate Professor’ until he received tenure at the end of his first three year term. He was appointed full professor in 1978. In addition to his teaching and research responsibilities, Prof. Eddie was Director of the European Studies Program, and Academic co-ordinator of the U. of T./DAAD Joint initiative in German and European Studies (1998-2001). Following his retirement in 2001, he has continued his academic activities in research and writing. As well he was Acting Director, International Relations Programme, Trinity College at the University of Toronto from 2004-2005.

As professor of European economic history, Prof. Eddie has produced more than 50 published and unpublished works including articles, chapters in books, conference papers and four separate monographs. Fluent in both German and Hungarian, he writes and publishes in these languages as well as English language journals in North America and Europe. His interest in cliometrics “… an approach to historical research which combines explicit models with formal statistical techniques to analyze painstakingly collected and refined data, often very large quantities of data…” [ B2005-0027/003 (09)] by organizing the First Conference on German cliometrics held at the University of Toronto in 1999. He has received numerous awards and fellowships including Connaught Senior Fellowship, University of Toronto (1987-88), the IREX Exchange Fellowships (German Democratic Republic, and Hungary) and the Life Achievement Award from the Rákóczi Foundation in 2005.

Since his retirement in 2005, Prof. Eddie has continued to be actively involved in professional activities and publishing. From 2006-2008 he was a member of the RALUT (Retired Academics and Librarians University of Toronto) executive. In 2008 his latest book entitled Landownership in Eastern Germany before the Great War: a quantitative analysis was published by Oxford University Press.

Moldofsky, Harvey

  • Person

Dr. Harvey Moldofsky is a world-renowned specialist on sleep disorders, chronic pain and fatigue, and chronobiology. He is Professor Emeritus of the Faculty of Medicine and Member Emeritus, Institute of Medical Science, School of Graduate Studies at the University of Toronto, and formerly Professor of Psychiatry and Medicine. From 1993-2000 he served as the founding Director of the University of Toronto Center for Sleep and Chronobiology. In addition to serving in various administrative positions at the university, university-affiliated hospitals and institutions, national and international scientific organizations, and professional organizations, he served from 1998-2003 as a medical assessor for the Workplace Safety and Insurance Appeals Tribunal of Ontario.

Born in Toronto, he attended Harbord Collegiate Institute and then earned his M.D. from the University of Toronto in 1959. He subsequently pursued postgraduate training in psychiatry in Vancouver, Toronto, London and San Francisco. In 1966, he was appointed Staff Psychiatrist at the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry of Toronto, the first in a long line of appointments within hospitals in Toronto and at the University of Toronto.

Throughout much of his career together with his colleagues and students, he has been studying sleep physiology and biological rhythms. His interests have included sleep/wake-related immune, cytokine and neuroendocrine functions in various conditions including long-term space flight. Early research studies were devoted to eating disorders, Tourette's Syndrome, and rheumatic disease. For more than 30 years he has studied the cause and treatment of illnesses characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and nonrestorative sleep, which became known as fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome.

In the 1990’s, he was the Principal Investigator on a team that worked with NASA and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) to study the effects of spaceflight, microgravity, and sleep/wake immune functions (SWIF) in humans. This research included numerous sleep experiments with astronauts and cosmonauts on the Mir Space Station.

He has received many local, national and international awards and honors, including the regional award of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada for his long-standing contributions as a medical educator. In honour of his contributions, in 1989 his friends and associates established The Dr. Harvey Moldofsky Scholarship for Psychiatric/Neuroscience Research, which is awarded annually to a medical student of the University of Toronto.

University of Toronto Archives and Records Management Services

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/123086588
  • Corporate body
  • 1965-

The University of Toronto Archives was established in 1965 as a unit within the Department of Rare Books and Special Collections. Its antecedents, however, date back much further to the Art Room in what is now the Science and Medicine Library. It has been located on the fourth floor of the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library since 1972. Along with the Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, it forms part of the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, University of Toronto Libraries.

UTARMS' Oral History Collection on Student Activism

  • Corporate body
  • 2019 -

The University of Toronto Archives & Record Management Services (UTARMS) Oral History Collection on Student Activism is a collection of oral history interviews focused on illuminating the impact of student action and initiatives across UofT’s three campuses. The project, established in 2019, received funding from the University of Toronto Libraries’ Chief Librarian Innovation Grant for its initial one-year phase in which Ruth Belay, GSLA Project Coordinator, and Daniela Ansovini, Archivist, worked to complete the 17 interviews included here.

The goal of the project aimed to respond to the under-representation of student voice within the Archives’ collections and was an opportunity for the Archives to gain deeper understanding of the barriers in documenting this critical aspect of the University’s history. In developing the project’s scope, we identified the importance of also ensuring that participants’ voices reflect diverse communities on campus and experiences that have guided struggles for representation, equity, and systemic change.

Methodology and Project Design
Oral history is a generative, exploratory methodology oriented to capture the perspectives of participants in a format that is self-directed and that allows for the sharing of desired elements of personal stories and experiences. For this project, oral history was specifically used as an inclusive approach in addressing archival gaps and diversifying our collections. We designed a semi-structured interview guide to spark discussion while encouraging participants to guide the conversation. In acknowledging the personal nature of student experience and activism, it was essential to the project that participants be given a high-level of autonomy and control in how they narrated their experiences and that these records be preserved in the Archives without editing or adaptation.

Careful consideration was given to the development of our consent form in order to ensure that risks were clearly identified and could incorporate participants’ expressed protections. To minimize unintended risks to third parties, we also advised participants to anonymize those individuals mentioned when potentially private information might be disclosed.

Research and Recruitment
We adopted varying tactics in our approach to research and recruitment given the complexity of identifying individuals and movements over a fifty-year span. The project design recognized the importance of consulting a wide range of sources. Ruth began by scanning The Varsity, UTSG’s undergraduate newspaper, to track broad social movements from 1967 onwards, gain broader context about the student action and the University’s response, and to start to identify key groups and individuals. While The Varsity had been identified as one of our principle resources, it was challenging for several reasons: varying editorial approach and personal biases affecting the coverage of student groups, as well as difficulties in specifically identifying BIPOC (Black, Indigenous and People of Colour) actors.

This emphasized the importance of consulting additional archival and print sources as well as gathering background from individuals and student groups themselves. We spoke to individuals with insight into some of the groups and actions on campus and sought their recommendations on who to approach for interviews. We also reached out to student groups to learn about aspects of their history that they would like to see documented, receive their feedback about the project in general, and gather their suggestions of potential participants. Many of the individuals who did participate in turn provided the names of others who had been actively involved.

Broad Spectrum of Activism
In looking at activism and its impact on UofT’s campuses, we have adopted a definition of the term that accepts a broad spectrum of activities, approaches, and actors. Activism includes efforts to support social, political, economic, and environmental change, though can also be shaped by commitments to systemic reform through decolonization, liberation, and equity. It is inclusive of grassroots activists, those involved in radical forms of disruption and protest, advocates, facilitators, organizers, insurgent civil servants, and those whose presence is an active form of resistance. It is a subjective term that individuals define through their lived experience and for this reason, we also understand activism as fluid and evolving.

This project seeks to honour, preserve, and celebrate a rich history of activism that is representative of this breadth of approach and identification. We also recognize how larger movements, solidarity networks, and communities outside of UofT have helped to push forward change within the institution. While this is a retrospective project looking at the history of activism at UofT, we also acknowledge the continued resistance and calls for institutional change that are being pushed forward by students today.
Commitment to Learning

Through the work of researching, designing, and completing this oral history project, UTARMS has had the opportunity to gain feedback from alumni, key informants, and in particular, student groups. This input has asked us to take critical views of the project design, interrogate our role as an archive, and ensure our connection to current student groups. We are incredibly grateful as these conversations have positively shaped the project, deepened our understanding of the institution, and given us insight into how we might further support rich documentary heritage through reflection, enhanced inclusion, and strengthened relationships. As a department, we are committed to actively engaging with community members and continuing our own learning about the institution, ourselves, and the diverse communities who have shaped UofT.

If you have any feedback or questions regarding the project, please feel free to email Daniela Ansovini at d.ansovini@utoronto.ca

Tri-campus Representation
The University of Toronto is composed of three separate campuses – the University of Toronto Mississauga (UTM), University of Toronto Scarborough (UTSC) and the University of Toronto at St. George Campus (UTSG). Each of the campuses carry distinct histories and are shaped by local communities and the formation of unique campus cultures. As it was important that this project reflect the actions and interests of students across the three campuses, we aimed to both include participants who attended each of the institutions, as well as build connections to oral history projects currently taking place at UTM and UTSC.

Ethics and Use
The intimate nature of the conversations that generate an oral history interview require a level of trust between the interviewer, the participant, archivists, and researchers. Please listen to these interviews with an acknowledgment of the generous spirit with which participants offer their memories, opinions, and views. This project was guided by the Oral History Association’s Core Principles for Oral History with the aim of ensuring that participants’ perspectives, privacy, and safety are respected. Interviews that are part of the Oral History Collection on Student Activism are made available for research purposes only.

The audio recordings are intended to be the original source within this collection and have not been altered with the exception of removing identifying information of third parties who did not agree to be named in the interview and where their involvement was not already publicly known. Transcripts are available for each of the interviews and while they are near verbatim, they have had varying degrees of editing to remove word repetitions and some non-words, in addition to the same identifying information removed from the recordings. Transcripts are noted when they have been more heavily edited by the interviewee and verbatim transcripts of these interviews are available upon request. They also include added notes or corrections by the participant in square brackets. As oral history interviews rely on individual perspectives and opinions, they represent a broad range of viewpoints and serve as entry points in building our understanding of rich and intricate histories.

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