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Schabas, Ezra

Prof. Ezra Schabas was born in New York and received his Diploma in Clarinet (1943) and Bachelor of Science (1948) from the Juillard School. In 1949, he received his Master of Arts from Columbia University. He also studied at the Conservatoire de Nancy, and the Fontainebleau School for the Arts in France between 1945 and 1950. After several appointments at American universities (1948-1952), he joined the staff of the Royal Conservatory of Music as Director of Concerts and Publicity where he arranged concerts for leading young artists across Canada. During the 1950s he was active as a clarinetist and conductor and managed music at the Stratford Festival (1958 and 1961). In 1960 he joined the staff of the Faculty of Music as Special Lecturer, becoming Associate Professor in 1961 and Professor in 1968. From 1978 to 1983, he was Principal of the Royal Conservatory of Music. Prof. Schabas retired as Professor Emeritus in 1985. Prof. Ezra Schabas passed away on October 12, 2020 at the age of 96.

University of Toronto. Department of Anthropology

  • Corporate body
  • 1923-

The Department of Anthropology was first established in 1923 as the Department of Ethnology. In 1925 the name was changed to the Department of Ethnology and Anthropology, and in 1933 to the Department of Anthropology.

Hassanpour, Amir

Professor Amir Hassanpour (1943-2017) was a prominent Kurdish-Iranian Marxist Linguist and Professor Emeritus of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations at the University of Toronto (UofT), where he taught from 1999 to 2009. His major research areas were Kurdish socio-linguistics, Kurdish history and nationalism, as well as peasant and social movements in the Middle East and Kurdistan. He was an influential intellectual and revolutionary thinker who advocated for Kurdish Studies and the rights of national minorities for self-determination. His wide-ranging research has left significant impacts in these areas.

Born in Mahabad, Prof. Hassanpour attended the University of Tehran for his B.A. in English Language and Literature (1960-1964). He then completed a compulsory placement in Sepah Tarvij wa Abadani (Advancement and Development Force, a branch of the Land Reform Campaign) as a replacement for the required military service in Iran. This position exposed him to land reform history and peasant movements in Kurdistan.

Following his service, Prof. Hassanpour trained as a teacher at the Tehran Teachers’ Training College (1965). After working in Mahabad for several years, he then returned to the University of Tehran to complete his M.A. in Linguistics in 1968. Prof. Hassanpour moved to the United States to study at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign for his PhD in 1972. Prior to working at the UofT, Prof. Hassanpour held research and teaching positions at the University of Windsor (1987-1993), Uppsala Universitet (1993-1994) and at Concordia University (1994-1996).

Prof. Hassanpour pioneered the application of socio-linguistic theories and methods to the study of Kurdish language and its relationship to nation-building. His thesis, “The Language Factor in National Development: The Standardization of the Kurdish Language, 1918 - 1985” is credited as a Marxist analytical landmark in the field of Kurdish Studies, where he made extensive use of socio-linguistic theoretical literature and referenced previously overlooked sources such as: unpublished government documents, national census data, interviews and personal correspondence with key Kurdish intellectuals, Kurdish language texts including poetry, novels, newspapers, radio programs and music.

Prof. Hassanpour continued his study in communication and media studies, Kurdish nationalism, language, and culture, particularly through the analysis of satellite television and its relation to the development of Kurdish nationalism in 1990s. As the subjects of his research expanded, he developed a reputation for being at the forefront of research in Kurdish literature, culture, and music, as well as looking at Kurdish peasant movements, and Kurdish and Iranian diasporas. Connected to both his academic interests and revolutionary ideas, Prof. Hassanpour actively collected and preserved material related to international revolutionary movements, with particular emphasis on Kurdistan, Iran, Palestine and China under Mao’s leadership. As a revolutionary scholar, his intellectual journey came to embody his rejection of nationalism as a liberation path. He was an internationalist and critical of theories and politics advocating ‘identity politics’ and ‘cultural relativism’ that overlook class and separate patriarchy and racism from capitalist and imperialist relations of power.

As a teacher, Prof. Hassanpour was highly popular among students. He was vastly regarded for his resourcefulness and commitment to critical and transformative pedagogy. While at the UofT, he developed and taught undergraduate courses in Middle Eastern studies with focuses on mass media, nationalism, social movements and civil society. His course, “Theory and Method in Middle Eastern Studies”, became a required component of the Department’s graduate curriculum as the course introduced students to theories of historiography and the history of the discipline and its Orientalist roots in Europe and North America.

While at UofT, Prof. Hassanpour served on multiple committees including The Undergraduate Affairs Committee and the Teaching Evaluation Committee. Outside of the University, he served on advisory boards for Kurdish Studies programs or language course offerings in the United States, the Netherlands and Sweden, as well as consulting for a range of governmental bodies and organizations in Canada and abroad. In addition to his regular publishing activity, Prof. Hassanpour held editorial positions for journals, Derwaze: Kurdish Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, and Gzing.

Prof. Hassanpour’s lifetime intellectual and political partner is Prof. Shahrzad Mojab. She is a Professor at the Department of Leadership, Higher and Adult Education (OISE/UT) and Women and Gender Studies Institute, University of Toronto. She is currently the Director of Equity Studies, University of Toronto. Their son, Salah Hassanpour, is a doctoral student at the Department of Cinema and Media Studies, York University, Toronto.

University of Toronto. Department of Biochemistry

  • Corporate body
  • 1908-

The Department of Biochemistry at the University of Toronto was founded in 1907-08, with Prof. Archibald Byron Macallum, who was head of the Physiology Department, as its first chairman. It was the first biochemistry department in Canada and one of the first in the world. Prof. Macallum is credited with the organization and extension of the Medical School at Toronto in the early 1900’s and he was a strong advocate for the construction (1902-1904) of the original Medical Building, on the third floor of which the Department of Biochemistry was housed for 60 years.

It became a division of the Faculty of Medicine in 1921.

For a detailed history of the Department, see http://biochemistry.utoronto.ca/about/history/

Samarin, William John

William John Samarin (1926 - ) was a professor of linguistics and linguistic anthropology at the University of Toronto between 1968 and 1991. He is best known for his contributions to scholarship in pidgin and creole studies, African linguistics, African history and glossolia.

Born in 1926, Professor Samarin grew up in Los Angeles, California as a member of the Molokans, a Russian Pentecostal sect. In 1947, he married Ruth Custer with whom he later had two children, daughters, Manya and Ramona.

Professor Samarin attended the University of California, Berkeley, and graduated with a B.A., highest honours in linguistics, in 1950. Upon his graduation, he went to Oubangi-Chari, now the Central African Republic. There, he served as a missionary-linguist with the Foreign Missionary Society of the Brethren Church until 1960. He then returned to Berkeley to pursue graduate studies in African linguistics and eventually received his Ph.D. in 1962. His doctoral dissertation, The Gbeya Language, reflected his keen interest in African languages.

While completing his doctorate, Professor Samarin was appointed Assistant Professor of Linguistics at the Hartford Seminary Foundation in Hartford, Connecticut in 1961. He was then made Associate Professor in 1965 and full Professor in 1968. He also served as a Visiting Professor in African Linguistics at the Afrika-Studiecentrum of the University of Leiden, 1966-1967. Professor Samarin then joined the Faculty of the University of Toronto in 1968 as a Professor of Linguistics in the Department of Anthropology and the Department of Linguistics. In this capacity, he taught graduate and undergraduate courses mainly on the sociology of language. Upon his retirement from teaching in 1991, Professor Samarin was made Professor Emeritus of Linguistic Anthropology.

Professor Samarin’s research interests are broad and he has published scholarly articles on the following subjects: Gbeya; glossolalia; ideophones; Kituba; Lingala; lingua-francas; Molokan culture; pidgin/creole genesis; Sango; as well as the history of socio-linguistics.

Morey, Carl

Carl Morey was a musicologist and teacher (born July 14, 1934 in Toronto, Ontario; died December 3, 2018 in Toronto). He received his Associate of the Royal Conservatory of Toronto (ARCT) in 1953, Bachelor of Music (University of Toronto) in 1957, Master of Music (Indiana University) in 1961, and PhD (Indiana University) in 1965. He taught at Wayne State University, Detroit (1962-1963), the University of Windsor (1964-1970, head 1967-1970), and the University of Toronto (1977-2000). Morey was Dean of the Faculty of Music and chairman of the Graduate Department of Music at the University of Toronto from 1984-1990. In 1991, he was appointed as the Jean A. Chalmers professor of Canadian music and director of the faculty’s Institute of Canadian Music.

Lansdale, Robert

  • Person
  • 1931-

Robert Lansdale, a Toronto photographer, has had a long and active career as a commercial photographer and photojournalist, beginning with Federal Newsphotos (1953-1961), then with Jack Marshall Ltd (1961-1968) and finally, with his own business, Robert Lansdale Photography Ltd (1968-). Mr. Lansdale received his formal education in photography at Ryerson Polytechnical Institute (now Ryerson University) from which he graduated in 1953. In 1967 he became an Accredited Photographer in commercial/industrial photography.

Beginning in the early 1960's, Mr. Lansdale was hired regularly by the University of Toronto to undertake a wide variety of photographic assignments. He worked primarily for the Department of Public Affairs, providing the photographic record required for official promotional and news purposes of the University. The frequency of these assignments resulted in him being recognized by the University community as the "U. of T. photographer".

Mr. Lansdale has won a number of awards: Globe and Mail Spot News trophy, 1956 and 1958, the Graflex of Canada Publicity trophy in 1962 and 1963, Toronto Telegram Sports Photography trophy, 1963 and Eaton's of Canada plaque for best black and white photo in Show, 1956.

Safarian, A. Edward

Prof. Albert Edward Safarian (19 April 1924 – 29 January 2016) was a University of Toronto Professor of Economics in the Dept. of Political Economy (1966-1989) and Professor Emeritus of Business Economics in the Joseph L. Rotman School of Management (1989-2016). He is best known for his contributions in the study of Canadian public policy, especially in the areas of foreign direct investment, federalism, free trade, and governance of multinational corporations.

Born in Hamilton, Ontario, Prof. Safarian was raised by Armenian immigrant parents in the Cabbagetown district of Toronto during the Great Depression. He entered University College, University of Toronto in 1942 and graduated with a B.A. (hons.) degree in 1946. He went on to graduate studies at the University of California Berkley, where he received a Ph.D. in economics in 1956.

Between 1950 and 1955, Prof. Safarian worked in the International Trade Division of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics in Ottawa. He then became Associate Professor in the Department of Economics and Political Science at the University of Saskatchewan in 1956. In 1962, Prof. Safarian was promoted to Full Professor and Head of the Department. Later, in 1966 he joined the University of Toronto's Department of Political Economy and served as the Department's last Head from 1976 to 1982 before its reorganisation. Between 1971 and 1976, he was also Dean of the School of Graduate Studies. Following his retirement and appointment as Professor Emeritus in 1989, he became a Professor of Business Economics at the Rotman School of Management.

In addition to his academic activities at the University of Toronto and Saskatchewan, Prof. Safarian taught courses at the Banff School of Management and in the Faculty of Law and Economics at the University of Nice. He held various research positions, most notably Associate Director of the Program on Economic Growth at the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research and Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for International Studies. He also served as a consultant to various federal and provincial governments, including for the Task Force on the Structure of Canadian Industry.

Prof. Safarian’s major publications include Canadian Economy in the Great Depression (1958), Foreign Ownership of Canadian Industry (1966), Canadian Federalism and Economic Interpretation (1973), Governments and Multinationals: Policies in the Developed Countries (1983), and Multinational Enterprise and Public Policy: A Study of the Industrial Countries (1993). Prof. Safarian’s contributions to the social sciences were recognized in various appointments and awards, including as Senior Fellow at Trinity College and Massey College, Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, Member of the Order of Canada, and as a recipient of a Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Award.

Aside from his accomplishments in the academic arena, Prof. Safarian was also active in numerous other areas. Music and dance were a part of his life from a young age, which eventually led to his becoming director of the Danny Grossman Dance Company. He was an avid fisherman and belonged to the exclusive Tadenac Fishing Club, and was also a collector of art and Oriental rugs. He had strong ties with the Armenian-Canadian business community and in his later years served on the Board of a Canadian “think and do tank” the Mosaic Institute.

Prof. Safarian died in Toronto on 29 January 2016 at the age of 91.

Sources: Obituary for Edward Safarian. The Globe and Mail, 15 February 2016 and Address given by David Safarian (son) at the Safarian Conference, April 2004.

Latta, Alan D.

Professor Alan Latta was an Associate Professor in the Department of Germanic Languages and Literature (1969-2001), and based at Trinity College, University of Toronto. His main research endeavours include: Thomas Mann, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, and Post-1945 German Literature.

Evans, Joseph Cooper

  • Person
  • 1904-1987
  • Assistant Registrar, 1945-1948; Registrar, 1948-1958; Director of Alumni Affairs, 1958-1970; Consultant in Alumni Affairs to the President, 1970-1973.

Joseph Cooper Evans was born in Bradford Ontario in 1904 and attended school in Bradford and Barrie. Following graduation he attended Toronto Normal School, then returned to Bradford as a teacher for two years. At the end of the 1935 school year he sought employment with a commercial firm in Toronto. A year later he left the firm to continue his education at the University of Toronto.

In the autumn of 1926, he entered University College as a freshman, graduating with a general B.A. three years later. While there, he took an active interest in sports, especially hockey and lacrosse, winning a championship T in the former and a first T in the latter. He was also active in the Delta Upsilon fraternity.

Following graduation he joined an investment firm in Toronto, McLeod, Young & Weir. After three years he moved to the United States as a trainee in chain store management, and rose to the position of assistant store manager with the W.T. Grant Co. By 1934 he was back in Canada, attending the Ontario College of Education. This led to an eight-year teaching career in Carlton Public School in Toronto.

When World War II broke out he went into training as a Reserve Officer with the University of Toronto, COTC. He was commissioned the following year and saw active service from 1942 until hostilities ended. He then returned to Toronto to begin a new career at the University of Toronto.

He was appointed Assistant Registrar in 1945 and four years later he succeeded A.B. Fennell as Registrar, a position he held for the next decade. In 1958 he accepted the new post of Director of Alumni Affairs and a year later resigned as Registrar to devote his time to it. Evans retired in 1970 but continued as a consultant in Alumni Affairs to the President until 1973.

In the interim, he maintained his interest in sports and military matters. He served on the Athletic Directorate for 12 years from 1961 and was also chairman of the University of Toronto Loan Committee for the Department of Veterans Affairs. He was also a member of the Advisory Committee of Canadian Universities to the Minister of National Defence and to the Minister of Immigration with reference to the resettlement of Hungarian student refugees after the 1956 uprising.

In 1935 he married Mabel Black from South Carolina; they has a son and two daughters. The son, Donald, broke with family tradition by attending the University of Western Ontario. But Sally Jo and Frances both received degrees from the University of Toronto, as had Evans’ father and five brothers and sister.

Sugunasiri, Suwanda H. J.

Suwanda Hennedi Jayasumana Sugunasiri, who initially went by Suwanda Hennedi Sugunasiri Jayasumana Silva until 1964, was born in Tangalle, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) on 10 March 1936. His parents were S. H. Sauris Silva, an educator who was revered for reviving traditional dancing in Sri Lanka. He was educated at Ananda College, Colombo where his extra-curricular activities included playing cricket, serving as a lance-sergeant of the junior cadet platoon. In addition to being on the senior cadet platoon, he was a member of the Literary Union and the Buddhist Brotherhood. In July 1955 he began working for the Ceylonese government, first as a clerk in the Ministry of Education. In November 1957 he was appointed to the post of Sinhala translator in the Department of Information. From March 1960 to January 1962, he was a labour officer in the Department of Labour, moving on to become an assistant assessor in the Department of Inland Revenue from which he resigned in February 1964 to study literature full time.

He continued to develop his cultural interests, being active in literary circles and writing for Ceylonese newspapers, and acting in plays occasionally. He was a member of the Arts Council of Ceylon and an organizer of the Buddhist Scientific Society. To enhance his education he read widely and earned, in 1959 through self-study, a BA degree from the University of London (second class), specializing in Pali, Sanskrit and Sinhala languages.

In 1962 Sugunasiri enrolled in the Master’s program at Vidyalankara University (now the University of Kelanyia) where he studied literature and Sinhalese culture. For a year (1963-1964) under the pseudonym Madhupa (‘honey-sucker’), he wrote a column on art and culture for Sinhala daily, Dawasa. He also wrote feature articles in other journals and presented programs on Ceylon Broadcasting Corporation. In 1963 he married Swarna Bellana, a graduate of the University of Ceylon (now the University of Peradeniya). They eventually had two children, Shalin Manuja and Preeti Tamara, both of whom went into law.

In 1964 Mr. Sugunasiri was awarded a Fulbright Scholarship, tenable at the University of Pennsylvania for one year. He left Vidyalankara University without completing his degree and headed to Philadelphia to study linguistics. Swarna and their son joined him a year later. The renewal of his United States Government Scholarship for the summer of 1965 enabled him to go to the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor where he continued to do graduate research and continue work on his Master’s thesis. At the end of the summer he obtained permission to stay until September 1966, without funding. That was then extended for another year, during which his wife supported him by working at an office. He completed his MA in linguistics from the University of Pennsylvania at the end of 1966. In July of 1967 he received a visa extension until late August to enable him and his wife to attend an International Student Camp in California. They purchased a car which enabled Swarna to learn how to drive, and in it they crossed the Detroit River to Canada as landed immigrants on 1 September 1967.

Professor Sugunasiri got a job as a research assistant at the Toronto Board of Education for one year before taking an English as a Second Language (ESL) teaching position at the Humber College of Applied Arts and Technology, where he remained until 1971. That year he received his Master of Education from the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE). During this time, Swarna earned a second degree (BEd, University of Toronto, 1974) and teacher training certificate which led to a thirty-year teaching career in teaching English as a Second Language in the York Board of Education. When she retired in 1998, she was head of ESL at Weston Collegiate Institute.

The family then returned to Sri Lanka for two years, where Professor Sugunasiri lectured in Buddhist psychology, linguistics and second language psychology in the Faculty of Education at the University of Sri Lanka. Back in Canada, with his wife as the breadwinner for five years, Suwanda enrolled in the doctoral program at the University of Toronto, earning his PhD from OISE in 1978. This was followed by an MA in Buddhism and the scientific study of religion in 1992, also from the U of T. He was also a founder of the OISE International Students’ Association in 1974, chaired UNICEF Mississauga in 1977-1978, and was founding president (1978-1980) of Samskruti Cultural Circle (Sri Lankan Canadian).

From 1980 to 1988, Professor Sugunasiri’s principal employment was as a secondary school teacher (ESL and English) with the Toronto Board of Education, first at Danforth Collegiate and then at the Jones Avenue Adult New Canadian Centre. He also held two positions at OISE: research officer in its Department of Adult Education, 1977-1981; and instructor in multiculturalism in its Department of Sociology, 1980-1982.

Later, at the Faculty of Education, he was summer instructor in multiculturalism and English linguistics from 1989 to 1991, and adjunct faculty in interfaith studies at the Toronto School of Theology from 1989 to 1993. In 1992, he became a research associate/sessional lecturer in interfaith studies in the Faculty of Divinity at Trinity College. This position was upgraded in 1999 to Adjunct Professor. At Trinity he organized in 1993 and 1994 a series of “Seminars on Buddhism” and chaired a conference, “Buddhism after patriarchy” in 1995. In 1993 he also began instructing in Buddhism at the School of Continuing Studies. His involvement with teaching at the University of Toronto continued until 2008.

A strong supporter of multiculturalism, he worked closely with the Multicultural History Society of Ontario where, amongst other activities and beginning in 1978, he conducted a large number of interviews with immigrants from Sri Lanka. He served as an executive member of the Ontario Advisory Council on Multiculturalism and Citizenship from 1983 to 1988. For a time, he set himself up as a multicultural consultant, eventually under the shingles “Intercultural Associates” and “Buddhist Counselling and Consulting Services”. In 1991-1992 he served on the Interfaith Ad Hoc Committee on the Canadian Constitution. He promoted the idea of a Canadian anthology of multicultural literature. In later years he became critical of the divisive force of multiculturalism as it applied to the minority experience in Canada. He was a member of the Ontario Provincial Interfaith Committee on Chaplaincy, served on the board of governors of the World Interfaith Education Association from 1989 to 1991, and was governor of the North American Interfaith Network from 1990 to 1993). He was also an initiator and member of a number of groups and organizations that promoted dialogue between Buddhists, Christians, and Jews. Professor Sugunasiri also sought to promote Canada, especially amongst new Canadians. One way he did this was to join the Ontario Canada Day Committee in 1988, where he chaired its non-profit and cultural communities sub-committee.

Buddhism is central to Professor Sugunasiri’s being and he has actively promoted Buddhist projects in Toronto and the wider Canadian community generally. He was the founding co-ordinator of the Toronto Buddhist Federation that was formed in 1979 as an umbrella organization of the Buddhist groups in Toronto. In 1980 it gathered more than 1,500 Buddhists for the celebration of Wesak, the most important festival in the Buddhist calendar, with which he was involved for many years. It is said to be the first intra-Buddhist Wesak in North America. In October 1983 the Federation agreed to change its name to the Buddhist Council of Canada, which was formally used from April 1984. Professor Sugunasiri served as its president until 1991 when the organization collapsed after he stepped down. The Council was superseded by the Buddhist Communities of Greater Toronto (1990-1994) and, in 1995, by the Sangha Council of Ontario.

In 2010, Dr. Sugunasiri and several others reconstituted the Buddhist Council of Canada. He served as president and was very active in promoting the annual Wesak celebrations. He also curated an exhibition, “Windows to Buddhism in the Academy”, which was mounted in the Robarts Library at the University of Toronto in July and August 2013.

In the late 1990s Professor Sugunasiri also began to realize his dream of creating a college for Buddhist studies. He founded the Toronto (later Nalanda) College of Buddhist Studies, in 1999, serving as president (1999 -2001), secretary (1999-2000), and chair of its Board of Governors (2001 to 2008). He also taught at the College. From 2000 to 2002 he was an instructor in Buddhism at the Learning Annex, which offered live and on-line educational courses and workshops (it folded in 2007).

In addition to these activities, Professor Sugunasiri was a prolific writer, both at the popular level and in educational and Buddhist circles. He began early, in Sri Lanka, first to various publications and then as a columnist for Dawasa [‘Day’] from 1962 to 1964. In Canada, he wrote articles and pieces for the “Opinion” column in the Toronto Star and Saturday Magazine, from 1987 to 1994. He penned a column from the Buddhist perspective in the “Religious” section of that paper from 1996 to 1998. At the same time, he contributing articles and wrote letters-to-the-editor to the Globe and Mail and other papers. His contributions included discussions, mostly from a Buddhist perspective, on multiculturalism, citizenship, religious holidays, abortion, homosexuality and same-sex marriage, the sexual abuse of children, and advancing the roles of women in society.

He has written, edited or translated over 15 books, written chapters in books, articles in refereed journals and more in non-refereed ones. From 1987 to 2011, he provided information for The Multifaith Calendar and also for calendars produced by other organizations. He has presented papers at numerous conferences, and has appeared frequently on Canadian radio and television, beginning with Radio Ceylon in 1960. With the advent of Utube, he found another outlet for his ideas.

Professor Sugunasiri’s cultural interests also resulted in dancing in ballets and acting in Sinhalese plays in Sri Lanka and Canada (some of which he produced and directed) and, early in his life, in ballets.

In 2015 Professor Sugunasiri and his wife sold their six-bedroom house at 3 Ardmore Crescent in Toronto where they had lived since 1986, and downsized. Professor Sugunasiri had dreamed of becoming a monk for many years, but did not do so until after his wife died in 2017. He now goes by the name Bhikkhu Mihita.

He is featured in Canadian Who’s Who, Canada at the Millennium, in Wild geese : Buddhism in Canada, edited by John S. Harding, Victor Sōgen Hori and Alexander Soucy (2010), June Callwood’s ‘National Treasure’ (TV), ‘To Canada with love’ (film), among others.

University of Toronto. Faculty of Music

The Faculty of Music was created in 1918. The Senate of the University withdrew its affiliations with various music schools (Toronto College of Music and Royal Hamilton College of Music) and inaugurated a Faculty of Music to teach music and administer examinations. Along with his duties as music director of the Toronto Conservatory, Augustus Stephen Vogt was appointed Dean. “Courses of Instruction” were introduced, the first courses to be taught at the Faculty; which grew to offer courses with a full range of aspects involved with western music, including Jazz performance, ethnomusicology, and music and medicine.

In 1952, The Royal Conservatory of Music and the University of Toronto's Faculty of Music came under the same administration, placing a Dean in charge of both programs. The Conservatory would be known as The School of Music and was headed by a Principal. The Faculty of Music would be headed by a Director. In 1959 plans for an electronic music studio were announced, historically the second in a North American university. The Faculty regularly hosts events in one of its two theatres; MacMillan Theatre consisting of an 815-seat hall, designed for the production of operas and large ensemble concerts and named after former dean, Sir Ernest MacMillan. World-renowned for its excellent acoustics, and Walter Hall which commemorates Arnold Walter, Director of the Faculty from 1952-1968, Walter Hall was designed for chamber concerts and recitals. The house seats 490. The hall also contains a two-manual tracker-action Casavant organ.

In 1991, the School of Music/Royal Conservatory of Music separated and once again became its own institution.

Canadian General Hospital No. 4 (University of Toronto)

  • Corporate body
  • 1914-1918

The No. 4 Canadian General Hospital was a 1,040 bed base hospital that was approved on 26 March 1915 and shipped via England to Salonika in Greece on 15 May. Before this could happen, the Hospital had to be equipped and funds raised to pay for supplies. An immediate appeal was made by the UofT to 13,000 alumni, using envelopes that had been prepared for a now abandoned appeal for funds for a hockey rink. The work was organized by two committees. The first, representing the Board of Governors, Senate, and staff, arranged for the purchase of medical, surgical, and laboratory apparatus. The second, formed on 17 March as the Women's University Hospital Supply Association, was composed of ladies from the U of T and McMaster. It worked with a ‘large number of societies both in Toronto and throughout the Province to provide everything in the way of bed linen, surgical dressings and garments for patients.’ The two committees combined their efforts for fundraising.

Ward, Muriel Alma

  • Person
  • 1925-1998

Muriel Alma Ward was born on September 6, 1925. She graduated in 1947 from the School of Nursing, Hamilton General Hospital. Her nursing career included being an operating room nurse, and both teaching and nursing at the Toronto Western Hospital and the Nightingale School of Nursing. She held a Bachelor of Science of Nursing and a Master's degree both from the University of Toronto. She died on January 9, 1998.

Northway, Mary Louise

  • Person
  • 1909-1978

Professor of psychology and supervisor in Institute of Child Studies, University of Toronto.

Morton, Desmond

Desmond Dillon Paul Morton was born in Calgary in 1937 to a family with a tradition of military service. On his father’s side, his great-grandfather, Sir William Dillon Otter, led the column of the Canadian forces that marched on Battleford during the North-West Rebellion of 1885 and later captured Chief Poundmaker. In 1899 he commanded the first contingent of soldiers sent to the South African War. Desmond’s father, Ronald Edward Alfred, began his military career in Winnipeg and served in the Canadian Army during World War II, where he commanded the Fort Garry Horse, a tank regiment, from 1940 to 1944. In 1950, as the recently appointed commander of the Army Prairie Command, he oversaw the joint military-civilian fight to save Winnipeg during its massive flood. In 1952 he was appointed head of Canada’s Far East Military Mission in Japan, and in 1954 was sent to Laos as the first military adviser to Canada’s truce team in Indo-China. (After his death in 1976, Dr. Morton established a prize in his honour to Erindale College.) On his mother’s side, Dr. Morton was descended from the loyalist aid-de-camp of Benedict Arnold during the latter’s brief period of service for Britain during the American Revolution.

Morton grew up leading the typical life of an ‘army brat’, moving frequently – his schooling began in Canada but he graduated from high school in Japan. Given this background, it is not surprising that he developed an interest in military history. He is currently Canada’s pre-eminent military historian, following a tradition laid down a generation earlier by C. P. Stacey.

His official association with the military began in 1954 when he began a five-year stint as an officer cadet. In 1959 he was commissioned as a lieutenant in the Canadian Army and was promoted to captain in 1962. In 1961 he was stationed at Depot Company, Royal Canadian Army Service Corps, at Camp Borden, Ontario, where he trained recruits for Basic. The next year, he was put in charge of the Officer Candidate Program (with Jack Granatstein as his junior) in the Officer Training Company at the Service Corps School. Between 1963 and 1974, he was employed as an historical officer in the Historical Section of the National Defence Headquarters in Ottawa.

At the same time, Morton was acquiring a formal education. This began with a diploma at the College Militaire de St-Jean in St. Hyacinthe, Quebec (1957) and was followed with a BA (1959) from the Royal Military College in Kingston, Ontario. Morton then went to Oxford University as a Rhodes Scholar, where he received his second BA in 1961, followed by an MA in 1966. He then took his doctorate at the University of London, graduating in 1968. His doctoral thesis, ‘Authority and policy in the Canadian Militia, 1868-1904’ was supervised by the eminent historian, Kenneth Bourne, of the London School of Economics and Political Science.

While in Ottawa, Morton served as visiting assistant professor at the University of Ottawa (1968-1969) and Western Ontario (1970-1971). In 1969 he was appointed assistant professor in history at Erindale College, University of Toronto, and settled in Mississauga. He was promoted to the position of associate professor in 1975. During his sabbatical term in 1975 he was visiting associate professor at the University of Michigan, and on his return was promoted to full professor. At the same time he took on increased administrative duties at Erindale College as associate dean. The next year he as also appointed vice-principal, academic and held both positions until 1979. From 1986 to 1994 he served as principal of Erindale College. Beginning in 1979, Dr. Morton also annually delivered a series of lectures at the Canadian Forces Staff College in Toronto; a few years later he began doing the same for the Canadian Forces Staff School. In 1994 he left the University of Toronto to become director of the McGill Institute for the Study of Canada in Montreal.

In addition to his academic and administrative activities, he has served on a number of professional associations and on committees and groups, often as president or chair, and a consultant to government. His active participation in the Canadian Historical Association, the Canadian Commission on Military History, and the journal History and Social Science Teacher began in the mid-1970s. Dr. Morton has been a frequent consultant to the Department of National Defence, most recently in the restructuring of the military following the Somalia inquiry, and to other federal agencies. At the provincial level he has advised on the teaching of history and on the role of private schools and universities in Ontario (he has adamantly opposed the creation of private universities). His involvement with community organizations has been with those in the areas in which he has resided, principally the Region of Peel.

Politics has always been one of Dr. Morton’s passions and for many years it constituted a major part of his activities. In the mid-1960s he was an employee at the Ontario wing of the party and from then to the mid-1980s he was an active supporter of the New Democratic Party at the federal and provincial levels. He also played an active role in municipal politics in Mississauga, Ontario. (A detailed description of his activities may be found in the introduction to series 8.) In his various roles he helped to formulate party policies and wrote party briefs and reports. He also designed and wrote pamphlets and in 1978 was the standard bearer in his constituency for the anticipated federal election; when it did not materialize, other commitments forced him to step aside. At the municipal level, he was active in Hazel McCallion’s election campaigns during her long tenure as mayor of Mississauga.

Dr. Morton’s standing as a military historian and his interest in political and social issues are reflected in his voluminous writings. He has authored or co-authored over 35 books, some of which, such as his Illustrated History of Canadian Labour, The Short History of Canada, and A Military History of Canada have gone through several editions. Though many of his books have had military themes (and have met with critical and popular acclaim), those on social and political issues have also proved popular. In recent years, Dr. Morton has also turned his attention to constitutional issues and has written books aimed at young people. In addition to books, he has written numerous articles in academic journals, and many for non-academic ones. He has also found time to pen regular columns in newspapers such as the Toronto Star, Ottawa Citizen, the Mississauga Times (and News) and in the United Church Observer.

Dr. Morton early saw the value of moving images as a teaching and information tool. Between 1973 and the end of the 1980s, he produced a series of video accounts of issues in Canadian history relating to war, immigration, and labour. In recent years, some of these have been recast in CD-ROM format. He has, in addition, been an advisor to and participant in programmes produced by TV Ontario, and an occasional commentator on radio. He has also been a frequent speaker at academic, military and other functions.

1954-1959 Officer Cadet
1959-1962 Lieutenant, Canadian Army
1961-1963 Instructor Royal Canadian Army Service Corps School
1963-1964 Historical Officer National Defence Headquarters, Historical Section, General Staff
1964-1968 Assistant Provincial Secretary, New Democratic Party of Ontario
1968-1969 Visiting Assistant Professor, University of Ottawa
1969-1971 Assistant Professor, University of Toronto
1970-1971 Visiting Assistant Professor, University of Western Ontario
1971-1975 Associate Professor, University of Toronto
1975 Visiting Professor, University of Michigan
1975- Professor of History, University of Toronto
1975-79 Associate Dean, Erindale College
1976-1979 Vice-Principal, Academic, Erindale College
1986-1994 Principal, Erindale College
1994-2001 Director, McGill Institute for the Study of Canada
1997 - Professor of History, McGill University
1999 - Professor Emeritus University of Toronto

Blackstone, Milton

Milton Blankstein was born in New York in 1894 and died in Toronto in 1974. He moved to Toronto in 1911, where he studied with Luigi von Kunits and played in the Toronto Symphony Orchestra (conducted by Frank Welsman) and the Academy String Quartet at the Canadian Academy of Music. He also played viola with the Hart House Quartet and served as their business manager from 1923 until his retirement in 1941.

University of Toronto. Department of Molecular Genetics

  • Corporate body
  • 1969-current

The Department of Molecular Genetics has undergone several names changes;
-Department of Medical Cell Biology (1969-1973)
-Department of Medical Genetics (1973-1990)
-Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics (1990-1996)
-Department of Medical Genetics and Microbiology (undergraduate) / Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics (graduate) (1996-2007)
-Department of Molecular Genetics (2007-present)

Throughout its history, scientists at the department have been conducting world-class research in areas of molecular microbiology, model organism genetics and human genomics.

Mathers & Haldenby, Architects

  • Corporate body
  • 1921-1991

Mathers & Haldenby was an achitectural firm based in Toronto, Ontario that existed between 1921 and 1991.

Mathers & Haldenby was founded by Alvan Sherlock Mathers and Eric Wilson Haldenby. They were both succeeded respectively by their sons Andrew S. Mathers and Douglas Charles Haldenby, in 1964. These two men maintained control of the firm until it ceased practice in December 1991.

The firm's clients were mainly in Toronto, but it also did work both alone and in conjunction with other firms in various locations in Ontario and throughout Canada, notably Halifax, Kingston, Calgary, Waterloo, Quebec City and Ottawa, as well as Australia and the Caribbean.

Major works by the firm include various buildings for the University of Toronto, Queen's University (Kingston), and Dalhousie University (Halifax), Upper Canada College (Toronto) , and government buildings in Ottawa and Toronto.

Additionally, Mathers & Haldenby designed many other buildings, including office and industrial buildings, commercial buildings, school and university buildings, residences, and hospitals. Alvan S. Mathers (1895-1965) was born in Aberfoyle, Ontario. He attended high school at Thorold and Chesley, Ontario, and the University of Toronto, graduating in 1917. Initially he was a partner in the architectural firms of John M. Lyle, Wickson and Gregg, Banigan, Mathers and Thompson, and Eden Smith and Mathers. Subsequently he joined with Eric W. Haldenby. Eric W. Haldenby (1893-1971) was born in Toronto in 1893. He attended Parkdale Collegiate and the University of Toronto, graduating in 1921 after serving overseas during World War I. Haldenby died in Toronto in 1971. Andrew S. Mathers (b. 1934) was born in Toronto, and graduated from the University of Toronto in 1959. He worked with Gordon S. Adamson from 1959 to 1961, and then became a partner in Mathers & Haldenby in 1961. Douglas C. Haldenby (1925-2004) was born in Toronto. After serving in World War II, he graduated from the University of Toronto in 1948. At that time he joined Mathers & Haldenby, where he was a supervising architect for projects outside of Ontario before becoming a partner.

Stanojevic, Patricia

  • Person

Patricia Stanojevic attained her Bachelors of Science, Nursing from the University of British Columbia and her Maters of Science (Applied) from McGill University. As a masters’ student at McGill University’s School for Graduate Nurses, Patricia Stanojevic explored the concept of nursing and its impact on practitioner performance for her thesis (1967). Her thesis looked at how the concept of nursing develops early through student experiences at schools of nursing. She demonstrated that nursing students quickly recognized the importance of the nurse in a clinical setting and how these concepts shaped their future work and professional life. She was appointed as Director of the Toronto General Hospital School of Nursing in 1971 and continued to pursue this interest.

Ms. Stanojevic served on numerous committees and task forces throughout her career. As Director of the Toronto General Hospital Campus, she served as a member of the Task Force on the Role of RNAO in Relation to the Education of Nurses task force. The Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario (RNAO) struck the Task Force in November 1973. The purpose was to review and develop the beliefs of the RNAO with respect to education, to coordinate groups working in these areas, and to develop a plan for future action for the RNAO. In 1979, the Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario (RNAO) developed standards to assist educational institutions plan, implement and evaluate re-entry programs for graduate nurses. Ms. Stanovejic was chair of the Working Party on Mechanism for Re-entry into Nursing, the group assigned to produce these standards for the RNAO. In February 1982, the CNA Board of Directors established the Ad Hoc Committee to Review the Role of CNA in Testing and Measurement to revise its terms of reference, clarify financial status of the testing service, and to make recommendations to facilitate future development. Patricia Stanojevic, a member of the Executive Committee, served as chair to this committee.

Potts, Mary Stewart

  • Person
  • 1923-

Mary Stewart Potts was born on July 3, 1923 in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. She entered nurse’s training in 1942 at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal, Quebec. After her graduation in 1945 she worked at the Sick Children’s Hospital in Toronto and then with the Victorian Order of Nurses in Welland, Ontario. Ms. Potts completed a course in Public Health Nursing at Queen’s University and was appointed charge nurse with the VON In Lachine, Quebec. Later she returned to Kingston where she worked with the Public Health Unit.

In August 1951 she married Len Harper and relocated to Toronto. She worked in the Public Health Branch until 1954 with the arrival of the first of her six children. She returned to nursing in 1965 after a refresher course at the Red Deer General Hospital, working in the Emergency and Outpatients Department. Subsequently, she was employed by St. Joseph’s Hospital in North Bay, Ontario and then the Everett Chalmers Hospital in Fredericton, New Brunswick, in the New-born Nursery and Neonatal units of both hospitals.

Mick, Irene

  • Person

Irene Mick was born in Powassan, Ontario. She was educated in Ottawa and at the Renfrew Collegiate before graduating from Riverdale Hospital. Irene worked at Toronto General Hospital for nine years before joining the RCAMC in 1939.

During World War II, Irene and her sister Delta served in England, North Africa and Italy with number 15 Canadian General Hospital. Arriving in England in 1940 they were stationed at Bramshott, Surrey in a 1000 bed military hospital. They cared for soldiers wounded at Dieppe in 1942. In 1943 the sisters went to El Arrouche, North Africa with their unit. The RCAMC had set up a tent hospital that was taking casualties from the Sicilian campaign. The sisters were also skilled in the treatment of infectious diseases from their training at the Riverdale Isolation Hospital. They were able to use this expertise when an outbreak of smallpox amongst the British soldiers occurred. The sisters were then based in Caserta, Italy, nursing casualties from the Italian campaign. The sisters returned to Canada in 1945.

Irene died in 1995.

University of Toronto Staff Association

  • Corporate body
  • 1970-1998

The University of Toronto Staff Association (UTSA) was formed in March 1970 by 200 staff members who were concerned about possible changes to be made in the governance of the University. The findings of the provincial Commission on University Governance (CUG), released in October 1969, had proposed that administrative staff have only assessor status - that is, they would not be able to vote - on the University's Governing Council. As a result of the UTSA's efforts, however, staff gained two elected (voting) seats on the Council. This was a major achievement, since the administrative staff had never before - as a group - had any direct say in how the University was administered.

In 1998, members of the Staff Association voted to unionize, joining the United Steel Workers (USW) as Local 1998.

Myers, C. Roger

Roger Myers was Chair of the Department of Psychology at the University of Toronto from 1956-1968.

He was born in Calgary, Alberta, on February 12, 1906. He obtained his bachelor's (1927), master's (1929), and doctor's (1937) degrees at the University of Toronto. He began teaching in the department of psychology 1931, became professor there 1948, served as chairman from 1956 to 1968, and retired in 1971. He died in Toronto on 5 June 1985.

For further details about his work and accomplishments, see obituary in Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne, 29(3), 317-318.

McLeod, Keith A.

Keith McLeod was born in Saskatchewan in 1935 and educated at the University of Saskatchewan (BEd 1958, BA 1961, MEd 1966) and at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (PhD 1975).

He began his teaching career in Melfort, Saskatchewan in 1957, rising to the position of assistant principal before leaving in 1964 for the University of Saskatchewan. In 1970 Professor McLeod was appointed to a lectureship in the then Ontario College of Education. He also taught a course in the history and philosophy of education at OISE in the summer/fall of 1975 and again in the fall of 1985. He was visiting professor in multiculturalism at the University of Manitoba in 1976-1977, and guest professor at the Université de Montréal for the winter term, 1990.

At the University of Toronto Professor McLeod headed two departments -- History, Philosophy and Sociology from 1982 to 1987 and then, until his retirement in 1997, Educational Policy and Foundation Studies. In 1987 and from 1991 to 1994 he was chair of the Program Committee at the Faculty of Education (FEUT) and, in 1992-1993 co-chair, with the dean, of the Faculty of Education Restructuring Committee. He acted (1987-1989) as coordinator of Multiculturalism and Education – Research and Development Group, a FEUT based group of about fifty specialists in education, social work, medicine, libraries, and business. From 1990 he served as an associate in the Centre for Health Promotion in the Faculty of Medicine. From 1986 to 1990 he was a member of the Fellowship and Distinguished Educators Awards Committee of OISE, and from 1990 has sat on the Publications Committee of OISE Press. In 1993 he was elected to a three-year term on the Academic Board of the Governing Council of the University.

Professor McLeod has been very active in educational activities outside the University, primarily as a specialist in multicultural and intercultural issues. The recording of these activities, often in considerable detail, forms the largest series in this fonds. In 1984-1985 he developed a curriculum project for the Canadian Teachers Federation and an ongoing national project on multicultural education and secondary schooling. At the request of the Canadian Association of Second Language Teachers [CASALT], he developed a three-year national study, “Multicultural Education – Two Decades: An evaluation and assessment and state of the art,” the results of which was published in 1993. In his capacity as a consultant, he was invited to critique the Policy Report for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD], and has advised the Board of Directors of the Canadian Council of Multicultural Health from its inception in 1986.

Professor McLeod organized and chaired three major national conferences on multicultural education: Winnipeg, 1977 and Toronto, 1978 and 1984, the last in his capacity as president of the Canadian Council for Multicultural and Intercultural Education. In 1982 he organized and hosted a conference for the Canadian History of Education Association on “The New Education”. In 1987 he chaired a forum on “Citizenship and citizenship education in schools and communities” in Edmonton, and two years later was co-chair of the first National Conference of the Canadian Council of Multicultural Health. In 1991 he organized and chaired a colloquium in Toronto, “Multicultural education: equity and human rights.” He helped organize an international conference on ethno-development in Vancouver in 1993, and two international conferences on ethnicity, conflict and co-operation held in Moscow and Detroit (1991, 1992). The former was organized through the Ontario/Michigan Project. He has given keynote addresses, talks, workshops and other presentations many other meetings and symposia. Many of these activities are described in considerable depth.

Professor McLeod has served in an executive capacity with numerous organizations. He chaired the Ontario Multicultural Education Conference Committee from 1980 to 1983 and the Ontario Advisory Committee on Citizenship and Multiculturalism from 1980 to 1984. He was founding president of the Ontario Multicultural Association (1983). A member of the Canadian Council for Multicultural and Intercultural Education since 1980, he served as president from 1981 to 1985 and as past president for the next three years. From 1988 to 1993 he was chair of a national committee, Multiculturalism and Aging Seniors Coordinating Committee [MASCC]. He was a member of the board of directors of the Multicultural Health Coalition from 1985 to 1988 and president from 1990 to 1992. He has also served on the Board of Directors of the Canadian Ethnic Studies Association and was secretary-treasurer of the first executive of the Canadian History of Education Association [CHEA]. He has also maintained an active interest in the Canadian Association of Founders of Education, Canadian Education Association, Canadian Society for the Study of Education [CESE], Comparative and International Education Association, and the International Association for the Study of Adult Education, and the Council of Ontario Professors of Education Only the last is not separately documented.

Professor McLeod’s publications include articles, bibliographies and a videotape, “Putting it all together: Ethnic and race relations” (1991). He has edited several books, including Multicultural Early Childhood Education (1984), Multicultural Education: a Partnership (1987), and Canada and Citizenship Education (1989). In the spring of 1977 he founded the journal MC Multiculturalism/ Multiculturalisme, which he edited until the fall of 1992. He was also a guest editor of the second issue of the Journal of Ethno-Development (1991). He has co-edited several books -- Heritage Languages and Education, Aboriginal Languages and Education, and Health and Cultures (all 1993).

In recent years Professor McLeod has devoted time to the collection and study of antiques, especially fine china. He has contributed extensively to Antiques Magazine and has been active in the Wedgwood International Seminar, which published his edited volume, Josiah Wedgwood and the Potter’s Art, in 1996. McLeod also co-curated an exhibition on the Cabot/Women’s Art Association of Canada State Dinner Service at the Museum of Civilization in 1997.

Toronto School of Medicine

  • Corporate body
  • 1851-1887

The Toronto School of Medicine was founded by Dr. John Rolph in 1851. When the University of Toronto reconstituted its Faculty of Medicine in 1887, it absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine, leading to its closure.

Totton, Charles

  • Person

Charles Totton graduated with a BA in Natural Sciences in 1907 and from the Faculty of Medicine in 1909. A brief biography of Charles Totton has been placed in the case file.

Tracy, Gordon Frederick

  • Person

Gordon Frederick Tracy was Professor and Head of the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Toronto, 1947-1964.

Teichman, Judith A.

Judith Teichman is a professor of Political Science at the University of Toronto Scarborough, and with the Munk School of Global Affairs. Her research interests focus largely on the politics of economic policy making in Mexico, Argentina and Chile. Teichman was born 19 July 1947 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. She began her undergraduate studies at the University of Toronto in 1965, obtaining her B.A. in Political Science in 1969, her M.A. in Political Science in 1971, and her Ph.D. in Political Science in 1978.

Over the course of her career, she has held numerous academic positions within the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (Department of Educational Administration), as a lecturer at Trent University (Comparative Development Studies and Department of Political Studies), an instructor at Ryerson University (Politics Department), Assistant Professor at the University of Waterloo (Department of Political Science), and Professor of Political Science at the University of Toronto’s Scarborough and St. George campuses.

Her main areas of research include Latin American politics; especially the politics of market reform in the Southern cone and Mexico. She is the author of several books, notably Social Democracy in the Global Periphery: Origins, Challenges, Prospects (Cambridge University Press, 2007), The Politics of Freeing Markets in Latin America (University of North Carolina Press, 2001), Privatization and Political Change in Mexico (University of Pittsburgh Press, 1996), and Policymaking in Mexico: From Boom to Crisis (Allen and Unwin, 1988).

In addition to her academic duties, Professor Teichman has been President of the Canadian Council of Area Studies, Learned Societies (CLASLS), an Executive Board Member with the Canadian Association of Latin and American and Caribbean Studies, an Advisory Board Member with the Canadian Association for Mexican Studies, and former editor of the Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies.

Teichman retired from the University of Toronto in 2012 and continues to live and work in Toronto.

University of Toronto. Faculty of Law Review

  • Corporate body
  • 1942-

The University of Toronto Faculty of Law Review is one of the oldest student legal journals in Canada. First published in 1942 under the name School of Law Review, it was a record of student life and times in the faculty. In the 1950s, the Law Review began to professionalize, moving from a student newspaper to a forum for intellectual debate by students about the law.

Uprichard, Muriel

  • Person
  • 1911-1995

Dr. Muriel Uprichard was born in Saskatchewan in 1911. She later studied at Queens University, Kingston, Smith College, and the University of London, UK where she obtained a PhD in Psychology. She became an associate professor with the University of Toronto Faculty of Nursing beginning in 1955. In 1971, she became Dean of the Faculty of Nursing, University of British Columbia. This was an unusual appointment as she was not a nurse. She passed away on November 24, 1995 at the age of 84.

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