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University of Toronto Archives and Records Management Services (UTARMS)

Davis, Chandler

  • Person
  • 1926 – 2022

Horace Chandler (“Chan”) Davis (1926 – 2022) was a white mathematician, pacifist, human rights activist, science fiction writer, poet, musician, and educator who taught in the University of Toronto’s Department of Mathematics from 1962 until the mid-2000s.

As a scholar in the field of mathematics, Davis is best known for his work in the areas of operator theory and linear algebra, as one of the creators of the theory of fractal ‘dragon curves’, the eponymous Davis-Kahan theorem, Bhatia-Davis inequality and Davis-Kahan-Weinberger dilation theorem. His interdisciplinary work included publishing in areas such as ethnomathematics and ethnobiology, mathematics education, and ethics.

Embedded in many aspects of Davis’ life and work was his deep commitment to social justice and human rights. His advocacy to protect freedom of speech and academic freedom encompassed the release of political prisoners internationally; upholding gender and racial equity in academic environments and beyond; and promoting social responsibility in science. Within the context of UofT, he was active in Science for Peace, a leadership figure within a group of radical mathematicians, and campaigned against labour inequity on campus.

Professor Davis was born on August 12,1926 in Ithaca, New York. His parents, Horace “Hockey” Bancroft Davis and Marian Rubins Davis, were both economists and educators grounded by a deep-seated belief in socialism, racial equity, and labour rights. Their teaching brought the family to several universities and colleges across the United States, as well as in Brazil and Europe.

At the age of sixteen, Professor Davis was awarded a National Scholarship to Harvard, where he later received his Bachelor of Science in 1945, followed by an MA and PhD (under Garrett Birkhoff) in 1950. While at Harvard, he joined groups of science fiction writers and enthusiasts, the Astounding Science-Fiction Fanclub and the Boston Stranger Club, as well as The Futurists, who approached the genre from a Marxist perspective.

For a brief period in 1943, Davis joined the US Communist Party (CPUSA), later withdrawing as a requirement for his participation in the Navy Officer’s Training Program. The latter led to Davis’ work as a minesweeper for the US Navy in the spring of 1945. The following year he returned to Harvard for his graduate studies.

During this period, Davis expanded his participation in groups both political and creative: he re-joined the CPUSA, became a member of the Federation of American Scientists, a group of scientists who resisted the military use of nuclear energy, and the US’ left-wing Progressive Party. From his early publishing of the science-fiction fanzine “Blitherings”, Davis also began writing his own short-stories, publishing his first, “The Nightmare” in Astounding Science Fiction in 1946. Davis continued to write both science-fiction and essays on the genre until the 1970s, publishing sporadically later in his career.

At a meeting of the Young Progressives in 1948, Davis met the eminent social historian Natalie Zemon, then a student at Smith College, with whom he shared similar political values. In 1950, Davis accepted a faculty position at the University of Michigan, where the two, now married, relocated.

In 1954, Davis was summoned to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), the McCarthy-era investigative committee known for its aggressive pursuit of individuals suspected of carrying communist sympathies. Davis declined to answer the Committee’s questions about his political affiliations citing his First Amendment right to free speech and assembly. This differed from many other individuals who invoked their Fifth Amendment right to protection against self-incrimination in refusing to answer questioning. Davis’ defiance, particularly through his attempt to challenge the constitutionality of the hearings , led to his indictment for contempt of Congress. Following the decision, Davis together with two colleagues, Mark Nickerson and Clement Markert, faced an investigation by the University of Michigan, and all were ultimately fired.

In 1957, Davis was convicted of contempt of Congress and through a number of appeals attempted to bring the case before the U.S. Supreme Court. By 1959, these efforts were exhausted and Davis was found guilty and sentenced to six months in prison.

In both the period after his dismissal from the University of Michigan and following his release from prison, Davis struggled to find employment as having been blacklisted by most American academic institutions. For a period, he served as Editor for the American Mathematical Society’s Mathematical Reviews (1958 – 1961). After his release from prison, he also began considering Canada, where other academics facing similar persecution had succeeded. He reached out to Donald Coxeter at UofT’s Department of Mathematics and in 1962 was hired by the University as Associate Professor. Zemon Davis also accepted a role at the University and the family relocated that year.

At the Department of Mathematics, Davis was known for his Monday afternoon operator theory seminars and the impact he had on his numerous students, as evidenced in Series 2.2: Alphabetical Correspondence. Over his career, Davis authored over 80 papers. Many of these focused on his primary mathematical interests: linear algebra and operator theory. However, his wide-ranging research including among other topics geometry, fractal ‘dragon curves’, and the philosophy of mathematics. He edited four books: Linear Algebra and Its Application(1977), Geometric Vein: The Coxeter Festschrift with Branko Grünbaum, Coxeter Legacy: Reflections and Projections with Erich W. Ellers (2006), Shape of Content: Creative Writing in Mathematics and Science with Marjorie Senechal and Jan Zwicky (2008).

Davis’ involvement in professional associations spanned the majority of his career. Three decades after his work with Mathematical Reviews, Davis took on the role of Editor-in-Chief for The Mathematical Intelligencer in 1991. Here he was celebrated for his expansive view of the mathematical community and its interests alongside his reputation as both a generous and rigorous editor. Davis also brought his deep social concern and principled approach to the mathematical community, and a broader scientific one, through his participation in the AMS’ Committee on Human Rights of Mathematicians, its precursor, the Mathematics Action Group, the Canadian Mathematical Association Committee on Human Rights, the Association for Women in Mathematics, Science for Peace, and Science for the People .

His activism similarly connected him to numerous other organizations and individuals, a productive network he long maintained. These included the Committee for Concerned Canadian Jews.

In addition to his academic career and advocacy work, Davis found inspiration in creative expression, writing poetry and composing music throughout his life. In 1986, he published a volume of poetry, Having Come This Far, and a book of prose, It Walks in Beauty in 2010.

At the age of 96, Davis passed away. The impact and influence of Davis’ work has been written about extensively, often noting how his intellect, compassion, creativity, and integrity manifest throughout his work and relationships.

He was survived by Natalie Zemon Davis (1928 - 2023), and their three children, Aaron Davis, Hannah Davis Taieb, and Simone Weil Davis.

University of Toronto. Dynamic Graphics Project

  • Corporate body
  • 1967-

The Dynamic Graphics Project was founded in 1967 by Professor Leslie Mezei. He was joined by Professor Ron Baecker in 1972, who coined the name Dynamic Graphics Project in 1974. The lab’s name was intended to imply the spirit of the place, and to encompass both Computer Graphics and Dynamic Interaction Techniques, which was subsumed by the new field of Human Computer Interaction in the early 1980’s. The lab is now home to several faculty members and dozens of post-docs, visiting researchers, graduate students, undergraduate research assistants, and staff. The lab’s alumni are now on faculty at top universities throughout the world and at major industrial research labs, and have also won academy awards for their groundbreaking work.

Ostry, Sylvia

  • Person
  • 1927-2020

Biographical Summary
-1927: Born in Winnipeg
-1944: Entered University of Manitoba as a student in 1st year medicine, having taken two years pre-medicine.
-1945: Transferred to McGill University, entered BA programme
-1948: BA (Hons) in economics, McGill
-1950: MA, McGill University
-1954: PhD, Cambridge University and McGill
-1948-1950, 1951-1954: Lecturer, Sir George Williams University
-1951-1953: Sessional lecturer, McGill University
-1951-1953: Undertook research on urban development in Quebec for Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation
-1953-1955: Lecturer, McGill University
-1954: Research on unionism in a modern industrial society for National Film Board
-1954-1955: Research on third-party intervention in the Canadian railway industry for Universities Research Programme, Department of Labour, Ottawa
-1955-1957: Research officer, Institute of Statistics, Oxford University
-1958-1959: Research officer, Department of Labour, Economics and Research Branch, Ottawa
-1958-1959: External lecturer, Carleton University
-1958-1962: Assistant professor, McGill University
-1959-1960: Commissioned to undertake study on definition and measurement of unemployment, Senate Committee on Manpower and Employment
-1961-1962: Commissioned to undertake study on population, labour force and wages for Government of Manitoba Committee on Manitoba's Economic Future
-1962: Commissioned to write census monograph on the labour force for Dominion Bureau of Statistics
-1962-1964: Associate professor, Université de Montréal
-1964: Assistant Director (Research), Labour Division, Dominion Bureau of Statistics
-1964-1965: Consultant on manpower studies, Economic Council of Canada
-1965-1969: Director, Special Manpower Studies and Immigration, Dominion Bureau of Statistics
-1966-1969: Department of Manpower and Immigration
-1969-1972: Director, Economic Council of Canada
-1972-1975: Chief Statistician of Canada, Statistics Canada
-1975-1978: Deputy Minister, Consumer and Corporate Affairs Canada and Deputy Registrar General
-1978-1979: Chairman, Economic Council of Canada
-1979-1983: Head, Department of Economics and Statistics, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
-1984-1985: Deputy Minister, International Trade and Co-ordinator, International Economic Relations
-1985-1988: Ambassador for Multilateral Trade Negotiations and the Prime Minister's Personal Representative for the Economic Summit
-1989: Volvo Distinguished Visiting Fellow, Council on Foreign Relations, New York
-1989: Senior Research Fellow, Centre for International Studies and Visiting Professor, Department of Economics and Political Science, University of Toronto
-1990: Chairman, Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto
-1990-1994: Chairman, National Council of the Canadian Institute of International Affairs
-1991-1997: Chancellor, University of Waterloo

Russell, Peter H.

  • Person
  • 1932-2024

Peter H. Russell was born in Toronto on November 16, 1932. He received his early education at University of Toronto Schools (1946-1951) and studied philosophy and history at the University of Toronto from 1951 to 1955. After receiving his Bachelor of Arts degree, he was awarded a Rhodes Scholarship and attended Oxford University from 1955-1957. He continued his studies in philosophy, politics and economics graduating with a BA in 1957.

Following graduation and his return to Toronto, he was employed as an assistant at Gilbert E. Jackson & Associates. He moved to Montreal that same year to take a position with Aluminum Company of Canada. In July, 1958 he resigned his position in the Personnel Department to join the University of Toronto as a lecturer in the Department of Political Economy.

Prof. Russell progressed through the ranks as a faculty member, advancing to Assistant Professor in 1962, Associate professor in 1965 and full professor in 1968. At the same time as he was appointed full professor, he was also appointed acting Principal for Innis College for one year. In 1971 he was confirmed as principal for a five year term. During his career at the University of Toronto, Prof. Russell participated in other university committees, including, among others, Chair of the Academic Appeals Board (1981-1983) and Director of Graduate Studies in the Department of Political Science (1987-1993).

While undertaking these administrative responsibilities, Prof. Russell continued to research, teach and publish. In the mid 1960’s he was a Research Fellow, Dept. of Government at Harvard University and was visiting professor from 1969-1971 at Makerere University, Uganda. This latter involvement led to an effort to develop a project between Makerere University and University of Toronto in the early 1990s. He was also visiting fellow at Osgoode Hall Law School, York University (1976-1977), Australian National University (1986 and 1994), and European University Institute, Fiesole, Italy (1993). His involvement in numerous professional associations such as the Canadian Bar Association, Canadian Political Science Association, Royal Society of Canada, to name just a few, included sitting on boards and committees, planning conferences, producing studies and reports. His publications include 13 books, dozens of articles in scholarly journals, and chapters in books. As an expert in judicial, constitutional and Indigenous politics , he was in demand by both government and special interest groups as a consultant, advisor and researcher. In particular, he worked for the Dene Nation Southern Support Group, the Royal Commission on certain activities of the RCMP, the Government of Canada’s Task Force to review comprehensive native land claims, the Judicial Appointments Advisory Committee of Ontario, the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples and the Ipperwash inquiry (Ontario), to name just a few. He was also Canada’s ‘Envoy’ to the Deh Cho Dene in the NWT.

In addition to his academic and professional duties, Prof Russell was also active in local community groups such as the Wychwood Park Rate Payers Association (President 1974-1976), the Legal Aid Committee of Ontario (1976-1988) and University Settlement House (1976-1985), Chairman of the Churchill Society for Parliamentary Democracy and founding president of RALUT (Retired Academics and Librarians of the University of Toronto and CURAC (College and University Retiree Associations of Canada).

For this work and his academic achievements, Prof. Russell received numerous awards and recognition such as Officer, Order of Canada (1986), Fellow, Royal Society of Canada (1988), Honorary Doctor of Laws, from University of Calgary (1990) and University of Toronto (2001) and Honorary Doctor of Science, University of Guelph.

Prof. Russell was appointed University Professor in 1994 and retired in 1996. He continued to write and lecture from his home in Toronto until his death on January 10, 2024.

Paikin, Marina Suzanne

  • Person
  • 1936-2023

Chairperson, Governing Council, University of Toronto (1976-1980)

University of Toronto. Faculty of Information (iSchool)

  • Corporate body
  • 1928-current

The University of Toronto's Faculty of Information (iSchool) was established in 1928 as Ontario's first formal library school with a full-year academic program in Library Science within the Ontario College of Education. In 1965, the department separated from the Ontario College of Education and became the School of Library Science. In 1972 the School of Library Science attained Faculty status, and became the Faculty of Library Science (FLS). In 1982, the Faculty was renamed the Faculty of Library and Information Studies (FLIS) and in 1994 became the Faculty of Information Studies (FIS). Finally, in 2008, FIS became the Faculty of Information, the iSchool at the University of Toronto. The name change reflects its closer alignment with the iSchool movement. Additional information on the Faculty's history, including a timeline, can be found here -

Grant, Judith Skelton

  • Person
  • 1941-

Judith Skelton Grant (1941–) is a writer, editor and biographer, whose career has largely focused on the life and work of Robertson Davies. Notably, she is the author of the authorized biography, Robertson Davies: Man of Myth (Toronto: Viking, 1994). She received her BA, MA and PhD in English Literature from the University of Toronto in 1965, 1966, and 1974 respectively. Most recently, she wrote a comprehensive history of Massey College (Robertson Davies was the first Master of the College until 1981) from its inception in 1962/63 through to 2013, entitled A Meeting of Minds: The Massey College Story (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2015). She lives and works in Toronto.

Brown, Egerton

  • Person
  • 1904-1998

(Graham) Egerton Brown was the youngest son of Newtown Harcourt Brown. At the University of Toronto, Brown was the President of the University College Literary and Athletic Society. He received a BA in Political Science from the University of Toronto in 1926. Egerton Brown married Hazel Kingsworthy in 1927. He worked for Sun Life Assurance Company in Montreal for many years beginning as a clerk in 1921 (which he left to attend University of Toronto), returning in 1925, and eventually became Senior Vice-President in 1963. He was also a Fellow and President of the Life Insurance Institute of Canada. He died in 1998.

Brown, Elizabeth

  • Person
  • 1902-1990

(Agnes) Elizabeth Brown, the daughter of Newton Harcourt Brown, received a BA from the University of Toronto in 1928 (she was elected vice-president of the 2T8 University College class) and a MA in Personnel and Guidance from Columbia University in 1939. Prior to WWII, she worked for the department stores, Simpson’s and Eatons, and in New York, at Greenwich House. During the war, Elizabeth Brown initiated a program to recruit women into industries for the federal Department of Labour. Brown was the Chief of Mission for the UN Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) in Palestine (1945-1947). She later served as the Regional Officer for the National League of Nursing. When in Germany, she served as Director of Repatriation for the US zone for the International Refugee Organization (IRO) (1948-1952). Brown later became Director of Foster Parents Plan (1963-1969) in Ho Chi Ming City, Vietnam, formerly known as Saigon. She helped establish a Foster Parents Plan in Australia (1971-1972) before retiring. The Elizabeth Brown Travel Award was established in her name to support University College students provide humanitarian aid internationally. Brown died in 1990.

Cunningham, Frank A.

  • Person
  • 1940-2022

Frank Arthur Cunningham (5 August 1940 – 4 February 2022) was a white Professor of Philosophy and Political Science at the University of Toronto and the 6th Principal of Innis College. His research and activism focused on issues related to democracy, equity, and urban politics. He was also instrumental in establishing philosophy courses in the Ontario Secondary School curriculum.

Early Life and Education

Prof. Cunningham was born to a white, middle-class Republican family in Evanston, Illinois. Growing up in a small town with little cultural and racial diversity, he was frequently exposed to the racist opinions held by the community. In 1958, Prof. Cunningham left home to attend Indiana University where he began to challenge the racist stereotypes he learned from his upbringing. He received his B.A in 1962 and continued on to the University of Chicago where he received his M.A. in 1965. During his graduate studies, he fell in with a group of Jewish students who furthered his awareness of the prejudice faced by racialized people which led him to begin embracing a Marxist perspective. Shortly after, Prof. Cunningham moved to Toronto with his first wife to pursue his doctoral studies at the University of Toronto. At this time, he was introduced to the work of C. B. Macpherson, a leading political theorist at the University’s Department of Political Economy. Prof. Cunningham then established a relationship with C. B. Macpherson who provided counselling and support throughout his studies. The views of C. B. Macpherson went on to heavily influence Prof. Cunningham and his work throughout the rest of his career. In 1970, Prof. Cunningham completed his Ph.D. in Systematic Philosophy for his dissertation Objectivity in Social Science. He remained in Toronto and received his Canadian citizenship in 1973.

Academic Appointments

While working on his doctorate, Prof. Cunningham was hired as a lecturer by the University of Toronto Department of Philosophy in 1967. He continued to teach at the Department, becoming an Assistant Professor (1970), Associate Professor (1974), and Professor in (1986). Following his tenue, he was cross appointed to the Department of Political Science (2000), the University’s Cities Centre (2007), and as an Associate Instructor of History and Philosophy of Education at OISE (2007). Prof. Cunningham has also held several visiting positions internationally at the University of Amsterdam (1990), Lanzhou University (1991), Ritsumeikan University (1994, 1997, 2007), and the University of Rome (1999). In 2009, he retired to Professor Emeritus status and remained active in the academic community. Post-retirement, Prof. Cunningham became an Adjunct Professor at the Simon Fraser University’s Urban Studies Program.

Much of his research and courses focused on social and political philosophy, with a later focus on urban philosophy, including topics such as democratic theory, Marxism, environmental philosophy, feminist philosophy, racism, and urban politics. Prof. Cunningham was known as a dedicated, thoughtful, and inspiring teacher who challenged students to envision a more democratic and egalitarian future.

University of Toronto

In addition to teaching, Prof. Cunningham was an active participant in the University of Toronto community where he attempted to bring about social change at the university and beyond. During his early career he was a founding member of the University’s Faculty Reform Caucus and Faculty Committee on Vietnam. He also held several administrative positions, including Associate Chair (1977 – 1978), Chair (1982 – 1988) and Acting Chair (1991 – 1992) of the Department of Philosophy; Principal of Innis College (2000 – 2005); and Interim Director for the Centre of Ethics (2011). As Principal of Innis College, he established a column in the Innis College Herald and helped develop the University of Toronto-Regent Park Learning Exchange Program which provided free, non-credit courses for adults on a wide range of interdisciplinary topics to small classes of adult residents of Regent Park. He also contributed to the establishment of the University’s Bioethics program as well as its Cities Centre, which operated from 2007 to 2013. Additionally, Prof. Cunningham has served on more than 80 University committees including the Transitional Year Programme (TYP) Evaluation Committee (1975), the Provost’s Committee on Teaching Assistant Workloads (1991 – 1992).

Activism and Professional Activities

As a political activist, Prof. Cunningham was committed to advancing equity, social justice, and democratic socialism. He became increasingly involved in numerous anti-racist, anti-imperialist, feminist, and socialist movements beginning in the mid ‘60s. In 1964, he campaigned for the presidential candidate Lyndon B. Johnson against Barry Goldwater, who Prof. Cunningham believed was willing to start a nuclear war. He also protested the Vietnam War and apartheid in South Africa, the latter of which led to his arrest. Around the later 2000s, he also began to get involved with neighborhood-level politics within his local communities. He became a Board Member of the Annex Resident’s Association (2007 – 2013) and the Chair of its Planning and Zoning Committee (2009 – 2013). After moving to the West End of Vancouver in 2013, he also cofounded the neighborhood association Denman and West Neighbours (DAWN) to establish communication with Vancouver’s City Council and Park Board to ensure local residents could have input on upcoming changes to their community.

Being passionate about education and philosophy, Prof. Cunningham helped lead the campaign to introduce philosophy courses to Ontario’s secondary school curriculum. Prior to 1986, he co-organized the Secondary School Philosophy Committee which led to the creation of the Ontario Secondary School Philosophy Project. Prof. Cunningham was also a founding member of the Ontario Philosophy Teachers’ Association which helps further the development of the curriculum. Similarly, he was Vice-President (1996 – 1997) and President (1997 – 1998) of the Canadian Philosophical Association.

Research and Publications

Prof. Cunningham is the author of 7 books and many more publications in academic journals and public press. His early works include Objectivity in Social Science (1973), his thesis re-worked for a broader audience, and Understanding Marxism: A Canadian Introduction (1977) which became widely used in post-secondary institutions across Canada. Shortly after, his research became focused on democratic theory and led to the publication of Democratic Theory and Socialism (1987), The Real World of Democracy Revisited and Other Essays on Socialism and Democracy (1994), and Theories of Democracy: A Critical Introduction (2002). In 2019, he published The Political Thought of C. B. Macpherson: Contemporary Applications in which Prof. Cunningham describes and analyzes Macpherson’s core theories and applies them to contemporary issues including neoliberalism, racism, intellectual property, globalization, and urban challenges. In his final book, Ideas in Context: Essays in Social & Political Theory (2020), Cunningham provides a selection of essays together with a brief narrative on the personal and political contexts in which they were written.

Honours and Awards

Prof. Cunningham has been recognized for his work with numerous fellowships and awards. Throughout his post-secondary studies, he was the recipient of a Ford Foundation Fellowship (1961 – 1962), Woodrow Wilson Fellowship (1962 – 1963), School of Letters Fellowship (1964 – 1965), and a Mary Beatty Fellowship (1965 – 1966). He was a Faculty Teaching Fellow at the University of Toronto from 1974 – 1975, and he later became a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 1995 and a Senior Fellow at Massey College in 1999. Prof. Cunningham was also the recipient of a Queen’s Golden Jubilee Medal (2002) and a U of T SAC/APUS Undergraduate Teaching Award (2005).


Prof. Cunningham was the eldest of three children born to Art and Mary (née Gaskins) Cunningham. His siblings were Candice and Larry. He met his first wife, feminist and fellow student Charnie Guettel, during his studies at Indiana University. Together, they moved to Toronto in 1965 and gave birth to a son, Will, in 1967. Five years later in 1972, he married Maryka Omatsu, who eventually became the first woman of East Asian descent to be appointed a Judge in Canada in 1993. The couple remained together for 50 years until his death.

Prof. Cunningham died in Vancouver at the age of 81 on February 4, 2022.

Baines, Andrew D.

  • Person
  • 1934-

Dr. Andrew DeWitt Baines (b. 17 July 1934) is a white Professor Emeritus of Laboratory Medicine at the University of Toronto and former Principal of New College, Vice-Dean of Education at the Faculty of Medicine, and Biochemist-in-Chief at The Toronto Hospital (now part of the University Health Network). Academically, he is best known for his nephrology research and for developing the Stowe-Gullen Stream of the Vic One Program at Victoria College. Dr. Baines was also involved in the development of health-related educational programs and culturally relevant services for Indigenous students at the University of Toronto.

Raised in Toronto, Dr. Baines attended high school at Lawrence Park Collegiate Institute. In 1953, he enrolled in the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine’s pre-medicine program. While in medical school, he was rugby player and team captain for the Varsity Blues. Dr. Baines received his M.D. in 1959, where he was awarded the Cody Silver Medal for achieving the second highest cumulative average grade in his graduating class. In 1960, Dr. Baines returned to U of T as doctoral student under the supervision of Dr. T. F. Nicholson and Dr. James A. Dauphinee. He achieved a Ph.D. (1965) in Pathological Chemistry and a Starr Medal for his research on the relationship between the structure and function of the kidney. Afterwards, he completed postgraduate fellowships at the University of North Carolina Department of Medicine (1965 – 1967) and the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre Department of Physiology in Paris, France (1967 – 1968).

University of Toronto Appointments
Upon completing his postgraduate research, Dr. Baines returned to the University of Toronto as an Associate Professor at the Department of Pathological Chemistry in July 1968. He was later appointed as Professor of Clinical Biochemistry and Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology between 1973 – 2005. Afterwards, Dr. Baines developed the Augusta Stowe-Gullen Stream of the Vic One Program at Victoria College which he coordinated and co-taught from 2005 to 2018. In 2013, he was appointed the first James and Anne Nethercott Professor at Victoria College.

Dr. Baines has also held several additional administrative appointments, including: Assistant to the Dean of Undergraduate Affairs, Faculty of Medicine (1973 – 1974); Principal of New College (1974 – 1979); Chairman of the Department of Clinical Biochemistry (1988 – 1994); Vice-Dean of Education, Faculty of Medicine (1994 – 1999); and Acting Program Director of the University of Toronto Sioux Lookout Program (1997 – 1998).

Likewise, he has chaired numerous committees at the University of Toronto, including the Undergraduate Education Committee for the Department of Clinical Biochemistry (1968 – 1972) and the Faculty of Medicine (1972 – 1974); Advisory Committee on the Hannah Chair for the History of Medicine (1982 – 1984); Presidential Committee on Professional Faculty Education for Native Students (1983 – 1986); Advisory Committee (1986 – 1991) and Management Committee (1991 – 1993) for the Aboriginal Health Professions Program; as well as the Clinical Long Range Planning Committee (1991).

Hospital Appointments
Beginning in the early 1970s, Dr. Baines concurrently practiced as an Associate Physician at the Toronto General Hospital (TGH). He was later appointed as Biochemist-in-Chief at TGH and The Toronto Hospital (after the merger between the Toronto General and Toronto Western Hospitals in 1986) from 1984 – 1994. Additionally, Dr. Baines has served on several committees including the Council of Heads of Laboratory Departments (1984 – 1988), Joint Council of Laboratory Directors (1987 – 1994), Medical Advisory Board (1977 – 1998), Medical Education Committee (1988 – 1994), Committee for Coordination of Downtown Genetic Services (1989 – 1992), The Toronto Hospital Laboratory Committee (1990 – 1992) at TGH and The Toronto Hospital; the Planning Committee for Women’s College Hospital (1989); the Molecular Diagnosis Laboratory Steering Committee (1991); and the Board of Trustees at the Hospital of Sick Children (1994 – 2004, 2019).

Research and Publications
Dr. Baines has published over 80 articles, reviews, and chapters throughout his academic career. Much of his early work relates to the structure, function, and physiology of kidneys. He later expanded his research to include studies on the effects of the sympathetic nervous system on kidneys and heart, methods in laboratory medicine, as well as clinical research related to hypertension and blood substitutes. Dr. Baines’s research appears in numerous high-impact academic journals including Kidney International, the American Journal of Kidney Diseases, and the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. As of 2024, more than twenty of his most cited articles have over 50 – 200 citations.

Honours and Awards
Dr. Baines has received numerous awards, fellowships, and honours in recognition of his work. In addition to the Cody Silver Medal (1959) and Star Medal for Outstanding Scholarship (1965), he was elected a Senior Fellow at Massey College in 1981 followed by the Canadian Society Clinical Chemists Cybermedics Award in 1982 and the Medical Award from the Kidney Foundation of Canada in 1994. He also became a Fellow of the Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Canada in 1988 and has been awarded several major research grants from NSERC, the Medical Research Council of Canada, the Kidney Foundation, the Heart and Stroke Foundation, and Hemosol.

Dr. Baines is married to Dr. Cornelia Baines (neé van Erk) who is known academically for her work on the Canadian National Breast Screening Study. The couple met and married while in medical school at the University of Toronto. They have two kids: Nicole and Nigel.

Macdougall, Donald V.

  • Person

Donald V. Macdougall began his studies at the University of Toronto in 1966. He received his B.A. (Hons.) from Victoria College in 1970. He later received an LL.B. (1973) from Queen's University and and LL.M. (1985) from Cornell.

Brown, Joshua Price

  • Person
  • 1805-1904

Joshua Brown was born and educated in Manchester, England on 7 April 1805. Brown was a police superintendent and amateur scientist in Stockport and Manchester. In 1841, he briefly moved to New York to look for employment with the police service before travelling back to Manchester. In 1854, Brown wrote System of the Universe, a text based on his understanding of the principles and internal laws of the earth’s matter. He positioned his viewpoint in opposition to the Newtonian philosophy of how motion affects matter . He married Sarah Price Brown in 1833 and his family, including five sons and four daughters, emigrated to Canada in 1855. Once here, they settled in Simcoe County, Ontario. Brown was part of Lynedoch Lyceum, a debating society in Ontario. He died in 1904.

Wilton, Murray Alexander

  • Person
  • 1911-2000

Murray Alexander Wilton graduated with a Bachelor of Commerce degree in 1932. For many years, as an Alumnus, he was active in the University of Toronto Athletic Association including the Advisory Board and the T-Holder's Association. He held various positions on both bodies and was involved in organizing events, writing reports, and maintaining membership lists.

Howell, Nancy

  • Person
  • 1938 -

Nancy Howell is a sociologist best known for her demographic research on the !Kung San in Botswana. Howell was born in 1938 and grew up in Michigan. Howell graduated with her B.A. in 1963 from Brandeis University and with her Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1968. Her doctorate research centred on the study of the abortion network in the United States prior to Rowe vs Wade ruling. Her thesis was published in 1969, titled The Search for an Abortionist and was since re-released in 2014 as an e-book.

It was at Harvard where she met and married anthropologist Richard Lee. The two spent nearly two and half years living among the !Kung San in Botswana from 1967 to 1969. The couple divorced in teh early 1970s but this fieldwork was the source of her lifelong interest in the !Kung San. She is the author of numerous articles on the !Kung San and has published two books focusing on these hunter gatherer peoples including The Demography of the Dobe !Kung (1979 and 2nd edition 2000) and Life Histories of the Dobe !Kung (2010).

In 1985, the tragic death of Lee and Howell’s son Alex while in Botswana with Lee on a field trip shifted her research for the half decade. Howell wrote and researched extensively on the health and safety of anthropologist working in the field. The result of this effort was the publication of a report of the American Anthropologist Association in 1990, Surviving Fieldwork: Health and Safety in Anthropological Fieldwork.

Howell taught sociology at Princeton University (1970-1972) before moving to the University of Toronto in 1972. She was a Faculty member of the Department of Sociology from 1972 to 2004 and served as Associate Dean of the School of Graduate Studies from 1982-1985. During her years at the University of Toronto, she had stints as visiting professor at the University of California Berkeley (1977-1978) and the University of Botswana in Gaborone (1991-1992). She has also held several fellows at Stanford University. Nancy Howell is retired from teaching but continues to publish and lecture occasionally. She lives in Fort Meyers Florida.

Hollander, Samuel

  • Person
  • 1937-

Samuel Hollander was born in 1937 in London England. He grew up in an orthodox Jewish family where at the age of 16 he was sent to Gateshead-on-Tyne for Talmudic training. After returning to London in 1953 and completing “Advanced Level” requirements at Hendon Technical College and Killburn Polytechnic, he entered the London School of Economics. There, he was taught by well known economists, Lionel Robbins, Bernard Corry and Kurt Klappholz, to name a few. He graduated with a B. Sc. in Economics in 1959 and went to Princeton University where he completed his A.M. and Ph.D. by 1963.

He was recruited by Vincent Bladen to come to the University of Toronto to teach the history of economic thought and received his first appointment as Assistant Professor in 1963, rising through the ranks to Professor in 1970. In 1984 he received the distinction of University Professor, a lifetime honorary title held by only 14 professors at any one given time. Other prestigious honours include being named a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 1976 and the First Bladen Lecturer, 1982 and Innis Lecturer, 1982. Hollander’s research has been recognized by the support of various fellowships and grants including the Guggenheim Fellowship (1968-69), Senior Canada Council Grant (1969-71), the Killam Senior Research Fellowship (1974-75), Connaught Senior Fellowship (1984-85) as well as numerous Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada Grants.

Hollander’s diligent research and innovative interpretations of the British classical economists have earned him distinction and recognition internationally in the field of the history of economic thought. Since the publication of The Economics of David Ricardo in 1979, Hollander’s works (numerous books and over 100 articles) have been the subject of unprecedented debate among academics. In a review of one of his recent books The Economics of Thomas Robert Malthus, the author, Walter Eltis of Oxford, refers to a possible “Hollanderian approach to the history of economics” (History of Economic Thought Newsletter, No. 59 Winter 1997 pp.20-23). In 1991, a campaign to procure Hollander a Nobel Prize was initiated. Nobel laureate Paul Samuelson of MIT wrote to University of Toronto President Robert Prichard in support of this campaign and noted that “Professor Hollander of your university, by virtue of the depth and breadth of his writings on classical economics, I have to regard as virtual dean of his discipline”. At Hollander’s request, this endeavour was put on hold until the publication of his Malthus manuscript. In September 1998, in view of his early retirement from the University of Toronto, a two day conference was organized in his honour.

Since 2000, Hollander has been a professor, lecturer and research associate in the Department of Economics at Ben-Gurion University in Beer-Sheva, Israel. He remains an active member in the political economy community, and continues to write extensively. He has published The Economics of Karl Marx: Analysis and Application in 2008, Friedrich Engels and Marxian Political Economy in 2011, and Essays on Classical and Marxian Political Economy in 2013, John Stuart Mill: Political Economist (2015), A History of Utilitarian Ethics: Studies in Private Motivation and Distributive Justice (2020), and Immanuel Kant and Utilitarian Ethics (2022).

Hacking, Ian

  • Person
  • 1936 - 2023

Dr. Ian MacDougall Hacking (18 February 1936 - 10 May 2023) was a white analytic philosopher whose work drew from multiple disciplines, including the history of science, statistics, physics, and psychology. Recognized as an influential contemporary thinker, Dr. Hacking is noted for his examination of the relationships between the physical and social sciences.

Raised in Vancouver, British Columbia, Hacking received his B.A. in Physics and Mathematics (1956) from the University of British Columbia. He later became a student at the University of Cambridge’s Trinity College, studying moral sciences. Here, he received a BA (1958), followed by an M.A. and PhD (1962). Between the 1960s and early 1980s, Hacking held academic teaching positions at universities internationally. These included his alma maters, the University of British Columbia (1964-1967) and the University of Cambridge (1969-1974), as well Princeton University (1961-1962), Makerere University College in Uganda (1967-1969), Stanford University (1975-1982), and Germany’s Bielefeld University (1982-1983).

In 1982, Hacking accepted a position at the University of Toronto Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology and, in 1991, was awarded the title of University Professor. Following his tenure at the University of Toronto, he was appointed Chaire de philosophie et histoire des concepts scientifiques at the Collège de France. His term from 2000 to 2006 marked the first time an Anglophone philosopher was awarded the prestigious position. Subsequently, Hacking taught at the University of Chicago (2007), the University of California, Santa Cruz (2008-2010), and the University of Cape Town (2011) as a visiting professor. He numerous year he continued his work as University Professor Emeritus at the University of Toronto and Professeur honoraire at the Collège de France.

Hacking published fourteen books in addition to numerous reviews, articles, and editorials. The books he authored comprise both his academic writing as well more popular texts directed to general audiences. His early text, The Emergence of Probability (1975), explores the influence of a 17th century concept of probability in contemporary thought. Logic, statistical theory, and the history of mathematics are also the central topics of Hacking’s Logic of Statistical Interference (1965), Taming of Chance (1990), An Introduction to Probability and Inductive Logic (2001), and Why is There Philosophy of Mathematics at All? (2014).

Hacking’s later texts, Rewriting the soul: Multiple personality and the sciences of memory (1995) and Mad travelers: Reflections on the reality of transient mental illnesses (1998), discuss psychiatric illness and the behavioral and social effects of diagnosis. These texts also reflect Hacking’s longstanding interest in ‘human kinds’ and the relationship between individuals and social categories.

In response to the philosophical debates surrounding the objectivity of scientific inquiry and theory, often referred to as ‘the science wars’, Hacking published The Social Construction of What? (1999). A collection of Dr. Hacking’s writing was published in the volume Historical Ontology (2002) taking essays authored throughout Hacking’s career to discuss the philosophical uses of history.

Hacking was recognized for his work with numerous awards, fellowships, and honours. In 1991, he was selected to present the Tarner Lectures at Trinity College, Cambridge University and is a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences among other institutions. He was the recipient of the Canadian Council of the Art’s Molson Prize (2000), the inaugural Killam Prize for the Humanities (2002) and the Holberg International Memorial Prize (2009). Hacking was named a Companion to the Order of Canada in 2004.

Ian Hacking had three children, Daniel Hacking, Rachel Hacking, and Jane F. Hacking. Following two previous marriages, Dr. Hacking married Judith Baker (nee Polsky, 1938-2014) in 1983. Prof. Baker was a professor of philosophy at York University, Toronto. Following a period of declining health, Hacking died on May 10, 2023.

Bruce, George Nigel

  • Person

Rev. Dr. George Nigel Bruce began his studies at the University of Toronto in 1864. He later went on to establish St. Andrew's College in the former home of Sir David Macpherson at Chestnut Park, Toronto in 1899. Dr. Bruce acted as the school's first headmaster from 1899-1990 before stepping down due to illness.

Carland, John M.

  • Person
  • 1942-

Dr. John Michael Carland (b. 1942) is an author, professor, and former historian for the United States Department of State.

Carland grew up in Little Rock, Arkansas. He received an undergraduate degree in political science and history from the University of Arkansas at Little Rock and an M.A. in political science from the City College of New York. Afterwards, Carland pursued doctoral work under the supervision of Archibald Paton Thornton at the University of Toronto. He received is Ph.D. in 1977 for his thesis, Colonial Office Staff and Nigeria: 1898 to 1914.

From 1985 to 2002, Carland worked as a historian the U.S. Army Center of Military History as where he became a subject specialist on US Army operations in the Vietnam War. He then moved to the Office of the Historian at United States Department of State where he remained until 2013. Carland has also taught at the University of Kentucky and George Mason University on topics such as Imperial, English, Canadian history as well as the history of the Vietnam War.

Carland has published works related to militaries, imperial history, and the Vietnam War, including: The Colonial Office and Nigeria, 1898–1914 (1985); Combat Operations: Stemming the Tide, May 1965–October 1966 (2000); Vietnam, January--October 1972 (2010); Vietnam, October 1972–January 1973 (2010); and Vietnam: The Kissinger-Le Duc Tho Negotiations, August 1969–December 1973 (2017).

Rakoff, Vivian M.

  • Person
  • 1928-2020

Dr. Vivian Morris Rakoff is a noted psychiatrist who served as Chair of the University of Toronto Department of Psychiatry and Psychiatrist-in-Chief of the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry from 1980 to 1990. Dr. Rakoff’s research has pertained to a wide range of issues, including alcoholism, childhood and adolescence, family dynamics, obesity, and the challenges faced by children of Holocaust survivors. He has also co-authored and co-edited a number of general textbooks and clinical handbooks for students and practitioners.

Dr. Rakoff was born on April 28 1928 in Cape Town, South Africa and received his BA (1947) and MA (1949) from the University of Cape Town. He then moved to England, where he received an MBBS from the University of London (1957), at which point he joined the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of London and England and returned to Cape Town as a Senior Intern in Neurology and Psychiatry and Psychiatric Resident at Groote Schuur Hospital.

Dr. Rakoff married a physician, Dr. Gina Shochat-Rakoff, and they had 3 children: Simon (1960-), Ruth (1962-) and David (1964-2012).

Dr. Rakoff moved to Montreal and received a diploma in Psychological Medicine from McGill University (1963) and became a member of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada in 1964. He worked in the Department of Psychiatry at the Jewish General Hospital in Montreal, becoming Staff Psychiatrist (1963), Assistant Director of Research (1965), and Director of Research (1967). During this time, he also worked in the department of Psychiatry at McGill University, as a Lecturer (1964), Assistant Professor (1966), Associate Professor and Director of Postgraduate Education (1968-1971), and Professor and Director of Postgraduate Education (1971-1974). He then moved to Toronto to become the Coordinator of Education at the Clarke Institute (1977) and Head of the Department of Psychiatry at Sunnybrook Medical Centre (1978).

In 1980, he became Professor and Chairman of the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Toronto and Director and Psychiatrist-in-Chief of the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry (a position he held until 1990). He received an honorary degree from the University of Toronto in 2008 and was appointed as a Member of The Order of Canada in 2015. The Rakoff Centre for Positron Emission Tomography at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health is named in his honour.

Dr. Rakoff is also the author of a number of plays, radio plays, poems, and essays. He has appeared on radio and television programs to discuss problems of current concern, most particularly as a regular contributor to CBC Ideas. Dr. Rakoff is also a prolific sketcher.

He died on October 1, 2020 in his home in Toronto at the age of 92.

McPhedran, Marie Green Duncan

  • Person
  • 1900-1974

Marie McPhedran was born in Sault Ste. Marie in 1900 and had attended University College for the academic year 1921-1922, before leaving for Normal School to help put her brothers through university. In 1927 she married Gordon George Duncan, captain of the Varsity intercollegiate football champion team in 1921 and a 1923 graduate in mining engineering. In the latter year he was appointed field engineer for the Mining Corporation of Canada in the new mining town of Flin Flon, Manitoba. At the time of his marriage he was in charge of exploration work for the Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting Company. Marie was one of the first women to live there, and it was her experiences during these happy years that she drew on in writing her first book, Golden North. About 1928 Gordon made the first aerial flight into Bathurst Inlet. In 1929 he became director of field operations for the Northern Aerial Mining Exploration Company. He died in April, 1932. Having lost one kidney from a football injury, he succumbed when the other became tubercular. He was survived by his wife and a daughter, Kittie-Marie.

By the time she married Harris McPhedran in 1926, Marie was already writing short stories and had recently had published one about her experiences in the north. Over the next decade she wrote a large number of short stories for children, for which she had difficulty finding publishers. Her breakthrough came with her first novel, Golden North, the runner-up for the 1948 Governor-General's Award for juvenile fiction. Other books followed, including Cargoes on the Great Lakes, for which she won the 1952 Governor-General's Award. Later she began work on a biography of Jeanne Mance, but never completed it. She died on 1 September, 1974.

Franceschetti, Antonio

  • Person
  • 1939-2021

Antonio Franceschetti (13 October 1939 – 11 May 2021) was Professor Emeritus in Italian Studies at both the University of Toronto, St. George Campus, and the University of Toronto Scarborough. A scholar in literature, he published extensively on Italian literature and poetry from the Middle Ages to the 19th century, with particular focus on works from the Renaissance and Baroque periods, and on Italian Canadian writing and culture.

Franceschetti was born in Padua, Italy. He studied at the University of Padua where he received his Dottore in Lettere in 1963. His thesis, L’Arcadia e la ricerca di un nuovo linguaggio, was the first of many papers he wrote on Sir Philip Sidney’s Arcadia. Franceschetti began teaching at the University of Reading in 1964 and lectured in Italian at Barnard College, Columbia University from 1964 to 1969. During this time, he also received his PhD in Italian (1968) from Columbia University. His thesis, Per una lettura dell’Orlando Innamorato, formed the basis of a significant portion of his later research and writing.

In 1969, Franceschetti was hired as an assistant professor of Italian at Scarborough College, University of Toronto. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 1978 and Professor at the St. George campus in 1995, when he became acting head of the department. Professor Franceschetti lectured at universities and other institutions in Canada, the United States, Italy, England, France, Yugoslavia, Belgium, Denmark, Switzerland, Hungary and Poland. In the year before his retirement in 2004, he taught as a visiting professor at the Ca' Foscari University of Venice.

At the University of Toronto, Professor Franceschetti taught numerous courses in Italian at the undergraduate and graduate level on the St. George and Scarborough campuses. He has also held numerous administrative positions: In the 1970s, he was Discipline Representative for Italian studies at Scarborough College and at various times in the 1970s and the 1980s, a member of the Senior Committee and the Scholarly Initiatives Committee (chair, 1989-1991) in the Department of Italian Studies. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, he served as a member of the Promotion and Tenure Committee of the department. In these years he was frequently also a member of the Graduate Admissions, Fellowship and Awards Committee, and the Goggio Committee. Between 2001 and 2002, he served as a member of the Conference and Research Grants Committee and Supervisor of Reading Knowledge Examinations in Italian, and a member of the Committee on Faculty Appointments at the Toronto School of Theology.

Professor Franceschetti was very active as an editor and member of multiple professional associations. His interest in Dante was reflected his term as secretary of the Società Dantesca Italiana from 1961-1963 and president of the Dante Society of Toronto from 1971-1974. He held numerous administrative positions in the Associazione Internazionale per gli Studi di Lingua e Litteratura Intaliana (AISSLI): he was a member of the organizing committee of its conferences in New York (1973), Toronto (1985), Odense, Italy (1993) and Turin (1994), a member of its executive board (1976-1982, 1994-2003), vice-president (1982-1985, 1991-1994) and co-president (1985-1988). At the Canadian Society for Italian Studies (CSIS), he was president from 1980-1982 and has chaired various sections at a number of its conferences. He served as associate editor of its journal, Quaderni d’italianistica, from 1985 to 1989 and editor from 1990 to 1999.

Franceschetti served as a member of the publications committees of the Humanities Research Council of Canada (1977-1980) and the Canadian Federation for the Humanities (1980-1983). He served on the latter’s board of directors for 1982-1983. In 1980-1981, he sat on the advisory board of the Canadian Academic Centre in Italy of the newly established Canadian Mediterranean Institute. In 1982-1983, he was regional representative for Canada at the American Boccaccio Association. He chaired a section at the conferences of the American Association of University Professors of Italian (now the American Association of Italian Studies) and the annual Symposium on Italian Canadiana in Toronto (1988 and 1989). He also helped organize or chair sessions at a number of other international conferences, including commemorating the sixth centennial of the death of Petrarch (Washington, 1974), ‘Italian literature in North America: pedagogical studies’ (Toronto, 1989), ‘La litteratura dell’emigrazione de lingua italiana nel mondo’ (Lausanne, 1990), the 500th anniversary of the death of M. M. Boiardo (New York, 1994), and two conferences on Pirandello (Toronto, 1994 and 1997).

Professor Franceschetti published a book on Matteo Maria Boiardo’s Orlando Innamorato (1975), edited the three-volume proceedings of the 1985 Toronto conference on Letteratura italiana e arti figurative (1988), and co-edited and co-translated La Moschetta by Angelo Beolo (Ruzante) (1993).

Professor Franceschetti died on May 11, 2021.

Sloane, John Andrews

  • UTA 2012
  • Person
  • 1940-

Dr. John Andrews Sloane, born September 20, 1940, is a Canadian Psychiatrist and Assistant Professor at the University of Toronto, Faculty of Medicine. He maintains a private practice emphasizing intensive long-term psychotherapy and psychoanalysis.

Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer. Office of the Camp Wardens

  • Corporate body

The Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer, also known as the Kipling Ritual, or the Iron Ring Ceremony, is a private ceremony to initiate newly qualified engineers to the social and ethical responsibilities of the profession. The text for the ceremony was written by Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) in 1922, at the request of Professor Herbert Edward Terrick Haultain (1869-1961), and was adapted in consultation with several past-presidents of the Engineering Institute of Canada (EIC) for use in the first ceremonies held in Montreal and Toronto in 1925. Integral to the Ritual is the wearing of the iron ring, which is worn on the little finger of the writing hand, as a reminder of the engineer’s sworn professional obligation.

The issue of creating a graduation ritual for new engineers was first presented at the 36th annual meeting of the EIC, held 25 January 1922, in Montreal, Quebec. As the luncheon speaker at the meeting, Professor Haultain gave a talk entitled “The Romance of Engineering”, after which he suggested the development of an oath, in the form of the Hippocratic Oath, but for engineers. The idea was an extension of Haultain’s involvement with the transformation of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineers into the EIC in 1918, a transformation that sought to formalize the licensing process of engineers, while increasing their professional and public standing.

The difficulty of drafting an appropriate ritual led Haultain to correspond with Kipling for help with authoring a text. Kipling showed considerable interest in the idea and drafted the initial ceremony, which was formalized, after considerable consultation between Haultain and the seven past presidents of the EIC. These seven would ultimately become co-opted as the original Corporation of Seven Wardens by the authority of their seniority in the profession. They were John Morrice Roger Fairbairn (1873-1954), George Herrick Duggan (1862-1946), Phelps Johnson (1849-1926), George Alphonso Mountain (1861-1927), Robert Alexander Ross (d.1936), William Francis Tye (1861-1932) and Henry Hague Vaughan (1868-1942). Fairbairn was the original chairman, or Chief Warden, of this governing body.

The first “ceremony”, also referred to as a “preliminary rehearsal”, was held on 25 April 1925, in Montreal. Ross, acting as the Senior Supervising Engineer (SSE), administered the obligation to himself and Fairbairn, as well as Harold Rolph, Norman M. Lash, Jim M. Robertson and John Chalmers, all graduates of the class of 1893 from the University of Toronto. In Toronto on 1 May 1925, fourteen officers of the University of Toronto Alumni Association were obligated in the Senate Chambers of the University of Toronto by the newly obligated senior engineers from Montreal. This ceremony was followed on the same day by another in which the University’s graduating class of 107 engineering students was obligated.

Kipling envisoned a camp ritual, a gathering in the spirit of camaraderie. The original Wardens of Camp One subsequently established a formal structure to administer the Ritual in Toronto. This was confirmed on 22 February 1926, by correspondence between Fairbairn and Robert John Marshall (1884-1970). The original Camp Wardens were Haultain, Marshall, William D. Black (d.1961), Arthur D’Orr LePan (1885-1976), Charles E. MacDonald, Thomas H. Hogg, and William A. Burke. The full names of the original Wardens of the first nine Camps are listed following the Administrative history.

Camp One’s authority to administer the Ritual was confirmed when it was issued the Book of Authority by Fairbairn in 1927; it included the full text of the Kipling Ritual. Although the Ritual could be said to have originated with Haultain, he took no more than an informal role in the ceremonies because of his conviction that the ceremony should be conducted by working engineers. Students should not associate the ceremonies with the awarding of academic credentials. From its inception, attendance at the Ritual has been voluntary and does not confer any professional qualifications on the wearer of the ring.

The iron rings were initially made from puddled wrought iron, sometimes called cold iron, hand-hammered by convalescing First World War veterans at the Christie Street Military Hospital, under the care of the Military Hospitals Commission which became the Department of Soldiers’ Civil Re-establishment (DSCR). Haultain had a longstanding association with the DSCR; he arranged for the rings to be manufactured and delivered to the various camps. After 1948 the responsibility for their manufacture was taken over by the Corporation of the Seven Wardens, based in Montreal. Camp One continued to manufacture its own rings, considering them to be Ancient Landmarks. While many members still wear a rough iron ring, most of the rings manufactured today are made from stainless steel.

Kipling regarded the ring as a symbol. It is rough, not smoothed, and hammered by hand as, in the words of Kipling, “the young have all their hammering coming to them.” The ring has no beginning or end. Kipling’s use of cold iron as a symbolic metal for the Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer stems from his interest in iron as a metal of power and a symbol of human innovation. Likewise, the Ancient Landmarks upon which the obligation is taken are made of cold iron of “honourable tradition” without inscription. Landmarks have typically included anvils, chains and hammers. A frequently circulated myth about the iron rings is that they were made from the pieces of the collapsed Pont de Quebec Bridge that killed 76 people in 1907. The rings, however, have always been made from commercial sources. While the Ritual is not a secret initiation, tradition has called for the ceremony to be private and has been solemnized by its not being publicized. The ceremony is conducted at each university by obligated engineers for students who are about to graduated from an accredited engineering program. In Camp One only family members and friends who themselves are obligated may attend and participate as ring presenters. Persons with foreign education who are professional engineers in Canada may apply to be obligated at a special ceremony known as the “Seniors Ceremony”.

The Kipling Ritual was registered in Ottawa on 5 June 1926, under copyright number 6831. Obligation certificates have been printed and given out at or after the ceremony since 1927. The “Hymn of Breaking Strain”, a poem written by Rudyard Kipling, was at times recited as a homily at the end of the Ritual to be delivered by the SSE. Kipling had intended the Wardens to own the copyright of the poem but that plan proved legally impractical and instead it was assigned to himself and published in The Engineer in 1935 to secure the rights. Kipling’s poem “The Sons of Martha” was written in 1907 and has also been recited as a homily. The Corporation of the Seven Wardens was incorporated as the custodial organization and administrative body of the Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer, under federal letters patent on 18 March 1938. The Ritual was officially registered in the United States in 1941. Miniature obligation cards were given to obligating engineers as portable keepsakes in 1943, at the suggestion of Harold Johnston, the secretary of Camp Seven in Halifax. The trademark for the ring design was registered in 1961 in Canada and 1965 in the United States.

Attempts have been made to make the Ritual available outside of Canada. Some Wardens felt that the Ritual to be extended to engineers in Commonwealth countries and in the United States. Some wardens have rejected numerous attempts to adapt the ceremony for other jurisdictions outside of Canada. Nonetheless, certain highly distinguished foreign engineers have taken the obligation in Canada, upon the invitation of the Chief Warden.

Kipling was opposed to such extension. He wrote “I did it for the Canadians and with the Canadians I wish it to remain.” Within Canada, the Iron Ring Ceremony has become immensely popular. By 2007 twenty-five camps located in every region of the country serving the needs of thirty-eight university campuses. The text of the Ritual has been translated into French as “L’engagement de l’ingenieur”, as have the poems “The Sons of Martha” and the “Hymn of Breaking Strain”, both of which are included in the French ceremony as in the English. Camp One has expanded its reach beyond the University of Toronto, so that it now serves Ryerson University (added in 1992), York University and the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (both added in 2007).

The Order of the Engineer in the United States has modelled an obligation ceremony on the Canadian Ritual. The U.S. camps are called “Links”. Candidates wear plain stainless steel rings to show that they have been obligated. This programme was approved by the American Society of Civil Engineers in 2003 and has been condoned by the Corporation of the Seven Wardens. Though the ceremony bears little resemblance to the Kipling Ritual, the American ceremony clearly acknowledges its Canadian origin.


  • Camp 1 (1925): William D. Black, William A. Bucke, Herbert E.T. Haultain, Thomas H. Hogg, Arthur D'Orr LePan, Charles A. MacDonald, Robert J. Marshall
  • Camp 2 (1926): DeGaspé Beaubien, F.B. Brown, N.M. Campbell, F.S. Keith, J.C. Kemp, J.J. Ross, F.P. Shearwood
  • Camp 3 (1927): John M. Campbell, William Casey, John Donnelly, Stanley N. Graham, Thomas A. McGinnis, Edward J.C. Schmidlin, Henry L. Sherwood
  • Camp 4 (1928): R.N. Blackburn, H.S. Carpenter, A.C. Garner, A.M. MacGillibray, J.R.C. Macredie, C.J. Mackenzie, L.A. Thornton
  • Camp 5 (1930): E. Carpenter, E.A. Cleveland, Victor Dolmage, A.E. Foreman, W.H. Powell, G.A. Walkem, A.E. Wheatley
  • Camp 6 (1930): R.B. Baxter, L.C. Charlesworth, W.J. Cunningham, J.B. de Hart, A.W. Haddow, S.G. Porter, B.L. Thorne
  • Camp 7 (1930): H.F. Bennett, W.P. Copp, H.W.L. Doane, A.F. Dyer, J.B. Hayes, H.S. Johnston, J.H. Winfield
  • Camp 8 (1930): C.H. Attwood, Donald J. Birse, George E. Cole, J.S. DeLury, H.B. Lumsden, J.W. Sanger, Fred V. Seibert
  • Camp 9 (1934): J.R. Freeman, A. Gray, C.C. Kirby, Gilbert G. Murdock, Geoffrey Stead, G.H. Thurber, G.A. Vandervoort

Moggridge, Donald E.

  • Person
  • 1943-

Donald E. Moggridge was born in 1943 and grew up in Windsor Ontario. From 1961 to 1965, he was a student in the Department of Political Economy at the University of Toronto where he studied economic history under Karl Helleiner, John Dales, Tom Easterbrook and Ian Drummond. He graduated with his Honours B.A. in 1965 and subsequently went onto to do graduate work at the University of Cambridge where he obtained his M.A. in 1968 and his Ph.D. in 1970. While at Cambridge, he was mentored by well known economists Joan Robinson, Richard Kahn, who was his thesis advisor, and Austin Robinson.

It was also at Cambridge that he was first introduced to the papers of John Maynard Keynes which would influence his research interests throughout his entire career. In 1969, Prof. Moggridge began working with an established editorial team from the Royal Economic Society on The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes. What began as a job for a finishing Ph.D. student became a 20-year endeavour, and, in the end, Moggridge was responsible for editing 24 of the 30 volume set. His interest in Keynes resulted in two books on the famous economist: a small version Keynes which saw three editions and was translated into several languages and Maynard Keynes: An Economist’s Biography a large version that is considered the definitive account of Keynes’s work as an economist. He has published countless papers and chapters in books not only on Keynes but on other areas in economic history and the history of economic thought. Along with Susan Howson, he edited the diaries of James Meade and Lionel Robbins. He also wrote a biography on Canadian economist Harry Johnson – Harry Johnson: A Life in Economics (2008).

In 1974, Prof. Ian Drummond enticed Prof. Moggridge back the University of Toronto with a full professorship. His early years were spent teaching undergraduate courses at Scarborough College and graduate courses on the St. George campus. Over the years, Prof. Moggridge taught courses in such subject areas as North American and British economic history, 20th century economic history, the history of economic thought, and the economics J.M. Keynes. He supervised 11 Ph.D. theses.

Throughout his career at the University of Toronto, Professor Moggridge also held various administrative roles including assistant Chair for Economics at Scarborough (1977-79, 1985-85), member, treasurer and chair for the Conference on Editorial Problems (1981-1991), Acting Associate Dean, Social Sciences for the School of Graduate Studies (1994-1997) as well as Vice Dean of SGS (1997-2000) and member of the Board of Trustees, Trinity College (1998-2004). He has worked on numerous review and planning committees throughout the University.

Moreover, he has been an active member of the several professional associations including the Economic History Association, Economic History Society and the Canadian Economics Association. He has been most involved with the History of Economic Society (HES) including serving a term as president 1987-1989. In 2008, he was honoured as a distinguished fellow by HES.

Today, Professor Moggridge is still a professor in the Department of Economics and is a Fellow of Trinity College.

Stoicheff, Boris Peter

  • Person
  • 1924-2010

Boris P. Stoicheff was a Professor Emeritus in the Department of Physics at the University of Toronto, a leading authority on Ramen Spectroscopy, and a pioneer in the use of lasers in optical physic and spectroscopy. Stoicheff was also the President of the Optical Society of America and the Canadian Association of Physicists, as well as being a member of the Order of Canada. During his career, Stoicheff published more than 180 papers on the subject of lasers, optical physics and spectroscopy, and was the author of a biography on the life and work of physicist Gerhard Herzberg.

Boris Peter Stoicheff was born in Bitola, Macedonia in 1924. In 1931 he and his family immigrated to Canada and settled in Toronto. Stoicheff attended Jarvis Collegiate Institute (1938-1943) where he excelled in both mathematics and in athletics (he was ranked fifth in Ontario for cross-country while in high school). After high school Stoicheff enrolled in the Engineering Physics program at the University of Toronto where he obtained his B.A.Sc. (1947) and his M.A. (1948) in physics. In 1950, under the supervision of Professor Harry Welsh, Stoicheff completed his Ph.D. on the subject of Ramen Spectroscopy of Gases at High Temperature at the University of Toronto.

In the early 1950s, Stoicheff began working for the National Research Council (N.R.C.) in Ottawa under the general direction of Gerhard Herzberg (Herzberg would go on to win the Noble Prize for Chemistry in 1971). During his time at the National Research Council, Stoicheff became well-known in the world of optical physics for his very precise, high-resolution Ramen spectra and for his patience in obtaining the highest quality spectroscopic results. In all, Stoicheff published more than thirty papers on the topic of Ramen Spectroscopy while working for the National Research Council. In 1954 Stoicheff married Joan Ambridge and in 1956 they had a son, Peter. Near the end of his time at the N.R.C., Stoicheff took an interest in Brillouin scattering; more specifically, how the emerging technology of MASERS and LASERS could aid in carrying out Brillouin spectroscopy. In the early 1960s Stoicheff constructed the first (ruby) laser in Canada. The use of lasers in spectroscopy would become Stoicheff’s primary area of research for the remainder of his career.

After fourteen years at the N.R.C. Stoicheff accepted a position at the University of Toronto as a Professor of Physics.; in 1977 he was promoted to the position of University Professor. From 1964 until his retirement in 1989 Stoicheff worked out of his lab at the University of Toronto’s Department of Physics, where he completed pioneering research in the area of optical spectroscopy. During his career Stoicheff held numerous positions on various university, national and international committees and boards including: Member of Council of the Royal Society of Canada, Vice-President of the Canadian Association of Physicists, Canadian Correspondent to The Royal Society (London), and Co-Chairman of the 5th International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, among many others. Stoicheff also received a number of honours and awards. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, Honourary Fellow of the Indian Academy of Sciences, U.K./Canada Rutherford Lecturer for The Royal Societies of London and Canada, the recipient of Centennial Medal of Canada, the Canadian Association of Physics Medal of Achievement, and several honorary degrees from Canadian and international Universities.

After his retirement, Stoicheff remained active in the scientific community and continued to lecture, publish and research in the field of optical physics and spectroscopy. In addition to physics, Stoicheff had a great interest in the humanities, and pursued subjects such as religion, psychology, art and biography. After his retirement, Stoicheff created a course titled “The Riddle of Light” where students explored both scientific and artistic interpretation of light. He was also the author of a biography on the life and career of his former supervisor and mentor Gerhard Herzberg titled Gerhard Herzberg: A Illustrious Life in Science, published in 2002. Boris Stoicheff died in Toronto on April 15, 2010.

McTaggart, Douglas Graham

  • Person
  • 1931-2011

Douglas Graham McTaggart was born in Toronto on September 30, 1931. He attended Rawlinson Public School and Forest Hill Collegiate prior to earning a B.A. in 1951 from Victoria College at the University of Toronto. Throughout high school and university, he participated in intramural football and track and field. He was also a chartered member of the Sports College Canadian Testing Group founded by Lloyd Percival and competed at Madison Square Gardens in New York as well as various other arenas in Chicago, Montreal, and Hamilton. He died on July 22, 2011.

Slater, John Greer

  • Person
  • 1930-2022

John Greer Slater was born in the United States on June 1st, 1930 and immigrated to Canada in the mid 1960’s. His major research interest is the philosopher Bertrand Russell. During his time at the University of Toronto, Professor Slater assembled the world’s largest collection of print material by and about Bertrand Russell. The collection comprises approximately 10,000 items, and helped establish the University of Toronto as a major centre for Russell studies. He also donated 8,500 philosophy books to the Fisher Rare Book Library in 1990 that form a complete collection of American, Canadian and Australian philosophy from 1870 to the time of donation.

Professor Slater earned a B.A. with High Honours from the University of Florida in 1955, followed by an M.A. in Philosophy from the University of Michigan in 1956. He completed his Ph.D. in Philosophy at the University of Michigan in 1961. The title of his Ph.D. thesis was A Methodological Study of Ordinary Language of Philosophy.

Following his doctoral studies, Professor Slater was a teaching fellow, instructor, and part-time lecturer at the University of Michigan between 1956 and 1961. He was then an instructor at Wayne State University for the spring term of 1960 and 1961. Following those positions, Professor Slater was an assistant professor of Philosophy at the University of Houston, before being awarded tenure and being appointed to the Graduate School at the University of Toronto in 1964. Professor Slater was an associate professor of Philosophy from 1964 until 1988, when he was promoted to Professor.

Professor Slater mainly taught courses on the history of philosophy, logic, and the foundations of mathematics. He taught Logic, Knowledge and Reality; Modern Symbolic Logic; Bertrand Russell; and Introduction to Political Philosophy at the undergraduate level as well as Political Philosophy; Modern Logic; and Bradley and Russell at the graduate level.

At the University of Toronto Professor Slater held a number of administrative positions. Between 1969 and 1974 he served as chairman of the Department of Philosophy, chairman of the Graduate Department of Philosophy, and chairman of the Department of Ethics at University College simultaneously. Between 1981 and 1985 he was acting chairman of the Department of Philosophy, and he also served on all of the department’s standing committees as well as a number of its ad hoc committees.

Professor Slater was also active in a number of professional associations, including the American Philosophical Association, the Canadian Philosophical Association, where he served on the Executive Committee between 1969 and 1972, and the Ontario Philosophical Society.

Throughout his career, Professor Slater edited five volumes of The Collected Papers of Bertrand Russell, for which he won three SSHRC grants. He also edited five other books, including Pragmatism and Purpose: Essays Presented to Thomas A. Goudge (1981), and wrote a chapter of the book Russell in Review (1976). Professor Slater wrote a number of articles, book introductions, book reviews, papers and addresses, the majority of which reflected his research on Bertrand Russell as well as Logic and Philosophy. Between 1970 and 1983, Professor Slater served on the Bertrand Russell Archives Advisory Committee, and he has been a member of the Editorial Board of Russell since 1970.

Professor Slater has received honours for his work, including National Science Foundation Fellowship, Woodrow Wilson Fellow. He is also a member of Phi Beta Kappa, Phi Kappa Phi, and Phi Eta Sigma. Professor Slater retired officially on July 1, 1995. He died on November 19, 2022.

Morgan, Kathryn Pauly

  • Person
  • 1943-2022

Kathryn Pauly Morgan (1943-2022) was a white feminist philosopher and Professor of Philosophy and Women’s Studies at the University of Toronto, where she taught from 1974-2013. She played a prominent role in the development of Women’s Studies as an academic discipline at the University of Toronto, from its early days as an undergraduate program (one of the first in Canada) through to the launch of the Graduate Collaborative Program in Women’s Studies in 1994-95, the creation of the Institute for Women’s Studies and Gender Studies in 1999 (now Women & Gender Studies Institute) and the admission of graduate students in Women & Gender Studies. She researched, published, and taught in the areas of philosophy of education, feminist ethics and bioethics, women and health, feminist philosophy of the body, and gender and techno-science.

Morgan was born on August 20th, 1943 in Sheboygan, Wisconsin. She earned a B.A. from Alverno College (Milwaukee, WI) in 1965 and subsequently pursued graduate studies in philosophy at Johns Hopkins University. She obtained her PhD in 1973, writing her dissertation on Descartes, Merleau-Ponty, and the knowledge of the self. She also earned an M.Ed. in Educational Foundations from the University of Alberta in 1972.

In 1974, Morgan began working at the University of Toronto on sessional contracts, first in the Department of Philosophy, and later also in Women’s Studies. In 1980 she was the recipient of the Ontario Council of University Faculty Associations (OCUFA) Award for Excellence in Teaching. She was appointed Associate Professor (with tenure) in 1983 and Full Professor in 1989. In addition, she became a member of the Joint Centre for Bioethics in 1990 and was cross-appointed to the Institute of Medical Science from 1992-1998.

Alongside Kay Armatage and Sylvia Van Kirk, in the early 1980s, she helped develop and co-taught Introduction to Women’s Studies (NEW 260). She also taught courses on the topics of Scientific Perspectives on Sex and Gender, Women in Western Political Thought, Women and Health, Philosophy of Feminism, Philosophy of Human Sexuality, Gender and Disability.

From 1989-1993, she chaired the School of Graduate Studies (SGS) Gender Issues Committee which was tasked to advance gender equity at SGS and raise retention rates for women. The committee undertook a large empirical research project, surveying all female graduate students at the U of T (approximately 4000) and 1000 male graduate students.

Morgan was active in numerous professional organizations including the Society for Women in Philosophy (SWIP), the Canadian Society for Women in Philosophy (CSWIP), the Philosophy of Education Society (PES), the National Women’s Studies Association (NWSA), the Canadian Women’s Studies Association (CWSA), and the International Network on Feminist Approaches to Bioethics (FAB). She was also involved in the establishment of the journal Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy in 1984.

She published numerous papers on her diverse research interests, which included sexuality, gender, cosmetic surgery, reproductive technologies, and romantic love. Some of her most highly regarded and creatively titled papers are: “The Paradox of the Bearded Mother: The Role of Authority in Feminist Pedagogy”, “Women and the Knife: Cosmetic Surgery and the Colonization of Women’s Bodies”, “Of Woman Born? How Old Fashioned! Reproductive Technology and Women's Oppression”, “From Ugly Duckling to TechnoSwan: a Foucauldian Analysis of Biomedicalized Aesthetics”, and “Gender Police”. Published books include The Gender Question in Education: Theory, Pedagogy and Politics (1996), co-authored with Ann Diller, Barbara Houston, and Maryann Ayim (Westview Press/Harper Collins) and The Politics of Women's Health: Exploring Agency and Autonomy (1998), a co-authored, collaborative book with the SSHRC-funded Feminist Health Care Ethics Research Network (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1998).

Morgan retired from University of Toronto in 2013, the same year the first class of doctoral students were admitted to the Women & Gender Studies Institute. She died on 16 September 2022 in Toronto.

University of Toronto. Faculty of Forestry

  • Corporate body
  • 1907-current

The Faculty of Forestry was established in February 14, 1907. The name was changed to the Faculty of Forestry and Landscape Architecture on July 1, 1975 upon the merger of the Faculty of Forestry with the Department of Landscape Architecture. On July 1, 1979, the name of the faculty was changed back to the Faculty of Forestry when the Department of Landscape Architecture attaining independent standing.

Blake Wrong family

  • Family

Family members include Samuel H. Blake and his wife Rebecca Blake, Edward Blake and Gerald Blake, as well as cousins Murray, Hume and Harold Wrong.

Samuel H. Blake is the brother of Edward Blake (1833-1912). Rebecca Blake is the sister of Margaret Blake (1837-1917).

Blake, Margaret

  • Person
  • 1837-1917

Margaret Blake was born in 1837, the daughter of the Right Reverend Benjamin Cronyn, Bishop of Huron, and in 1858 married Dominick Edward Blake, the eldest son of William Hume Blake, a lawyer who was chancellor of Upper Canada (1849-1862) and of the University of Toronto (1853-1856). Her sister, Rebecca, married Edward’s brother, Samuel Hume Blake, who was a partner in his law firm and later sat on the senate of the University of Toronto. Edward Blake was a prominent lawyer and politician, sometime premier of Ontario (1871-1872), leader of the federal Liberal Party (1879-1887) and chancellor of the University of Toronto (1876 to 1900) who in 1892 was returned to the British House of Commons as an MP for South Longford. His health in decline, Blake resigned his seat in 1907 and he and Margaret returned to Toronto. Soon after he suffered a debilitating stroke and died on 1 March 1912. Margaret followed on 2 April 1917.

The Blakes had four children: Sophia Hume, Edward William Hume, Edward Francis (Ned), and Samuel Verschoyle. Sophia married George MacKinnon Wrong. Hume Blake attended University College at the University of Toronto (BA1884) and was a prominent Toronto financier and sportsman who died in 1930. Ned was born in 1866; his wife was Ethel Mary Benson. (Another member of this family was Clara Cynthia Benson, the first woman professor at the University of Toronto; the Bensons were also related to the family of John Galbraith, first dean of the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering.) Ned’s eldest son, Gerald Edward Blake, attended University College (BA 1914), fought in France during World War I and was killed on 23 July 1916. Samuel Blake was born in 1868, attended University College (1887-1888)and Osgoode Hall, and moved to London, England with his parents, where he practiced law and pursued his love of literature. He married Florence Cameron, daughter of John Cameron of London, Ontario and sometime editor of the Globe. They had no children. He dropped dead from a heart attack on a golf course in 1923. A similar fate awaited his cousin, William Hume Blake (BA 1882), a year later on a golf course near Victoria, BC.

The Blakes owned two houses, Le Caprice and Maison Rouge, in Murray Bay (now La Mal Baie), about 160 kilometers downriver from Quebec City. Here the extended family spent most summers. William Hume Blake and his family were among the first to summer there regularly, perhaps from the early1860s (Edward Blake had ‘Maison Rouge’ built in 1874). The place was also popular with American families from the mid-west, such as the Harlans and Tafts –they produced a future Supreme Court justice and President, respectively. William Howard Taft and his wife were family friends and correspondents. The residences were sited on the west side of the bay at Pointe-au-Pic. Le Caprice, in particular, figures in the family photo albums; it burned down in a spectacular blaze in the summer of 1914 as the male Wrongs and Blakes threw furniture out the windows. In England, Edward Blake rented, as a retreat from London, rooms at Bamburg Castle near Whitby from the Duke of Northumberland. This arrangement was continued for a time after World War I by the next generation of the family.

Wrong, George MacKinnon

  • Person
  • 1860-1948

George MacKinnon Wrong, the son of Gilbert and Christina MacKinnon Wrong, was born on a farm at Grovesend, Elgin County, Canada West on 25 June 1860. In 1886 he married Sophia Hume Blake, the eldest daughter of Edward Blake, chancellor of the University of Toronto and leader of the Liberal Party of Canada. They had five children, Margaret (Marga), Murray, Harold, Hume and Agnes (Polly). His wife died in 1931 and two years later he married Elizabeth Durgwynne, an Englishwoman with extensive nursing experience who had come to Canada two years earlier.

Wrong was educated at Wycliffe College and the University of Toronto (BA 1883, MA 1886), taking post-graduate work at Oxford and Berlin. He was ordained a minister of the Church of England in 1883 and from 1883 to1892 was lecturer in history and apologetics at Wycliffe College. In 1892 he was appointed lecturer in history at the University of Toronto and promoted to professor and head of the department in 1894. He remained in that position until his retirement in 1927 and was recognized as a superb lecturer. He introduced Canadian history into the curriculum and in 1904 founded the University of Toronto Historical Club, with its dominant interest in public affairs. His three sons were all to be members of the Club, though never at the same time. In retirement, Wrong devoted himself to writing, community and educational causes. In January 1929 he was elected president of the Ontario division of the Canadian Red Cross Society. Later that year he represented Canada at the 3rd Institute of Pacific Relations Conference in Kyoto, Japan.

He founded, in 1897, the Review of Historical Publications Relating to Canada, predecessor to the Canadian Historical Review. In 1905 he helped found the Champlain Society, was its editorial secretary until 1922, and its president from 1924-1928. Besides several text-books on British and Canadian history, he was the author of The Crusade of 1383 (1892), The Earl of Elgin (1906), A Canadian Manor and its Seigneurs (1908), The Fall of Canada (1914), Washington and his Comrades in Arms (1921), The Rise and Fall of New France (1928), Canada and the American Revolution (1935) and The Canadians (1938). He edited for the Champlain Society Sagard's Long Journey to the Country of the Hurons (1939) and was co-editor with H.H. Langton of The Chronicles of Canada (32 volumes, 1914-16). For a complete list of his publications see W. Stewart Wallace, “The life and work of George M. Wrong” Canadian Historical Review, 29, 3 (Sept.1948) 238-239.

Wrong was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 1908 and received the honorary degree of LLD from McGill University in 1919 and University of Toronto in 1941. In 1936 his portrait, painted by Sir Wyly Grier, was presented to the Department of History at the University. In 1944 he was elected an honorary member of the American Historical Association, the third person to receive that honour. Professor Wrong died in Toronto on 29 June 1948.

The Wrongs had residences in Toronto at 467 Jarvis Street and later at 73 Walmer Road, where they were generous and hospitable hosts. After the death of Edward Blake, George bought property that included a miller’s house on a pond at Canton north of Port Hope. In the summer of 1929 he offered to sell the rights to the mill and dam to his former pupil, Vincent Massey, but no agreement was reached until the early 1930s, when George was suffering financially from the stock market crash. Vincent Massey then erected his residence, Batterwood, on the property.

Wrong, Sophia Hume

  • Person
  • 1859-1931

Sophia Hume Wrong, the eldest daughter of Edward Blake and Frances Margaret Cronyn, was born in Toronto in 1859. She was educated privately (women were not allowed to attend the University of Toronto until the autumn of 1884) and in September 1886 married George MacKinnon Wrong. For much of her married life she lived at 467 Jarvis Street. She was described as “a little withdrawn in manner, almost shy…[but] with great strength and sweetness, courage and singleness of mind…she was the centre of gravity of the gay and many-sided life of that home.” In 1917, the family moved to 73 Walmer Road. From about 1923 her health declined and she died of pneumonia on 17 February 1931.

Nevitte, Neil

  • Person
  • 1948-

Dr. Neil H. Nevitte (b. November 10, 1948) is a Canadian political scientist and Professor Emeritus at the University of Toronto. His major areas of focus are public opinion, political participation, and electoral behaviour. Nevitte is known for his work on the World Values Survey and developing the Quick Count method for detecting election fraud.

Education and Family
Nevitte was born on November 10, 1948. He has two children, Lee and Alex, with his former wife Susan Bloch-Nevitte. Nevitte attended McMaster University where he graduated summa cum laude with a B.A. (Hons.) in 1972, followed by an M.A. in 1973. He then attended Duke University where he achieved his Ph.D. in Political Science (1978) for his dissertation Religion and the ‘New Nationalisms’: The Case of Quebec.

Academic Career and the University of Toronto
Between the 1979 and the early 1990s, Nevitte held academic teaching positions at institutions internationally. He began his postgraduate academic career as a Research Fellow and lecturer at Harvard University (1978 – 1980) where he was hand-picked by sociologist and political scientist Seymour Martin Lipset to help develop initiatives on comparative survey research. During this time, he lectured at Harvard’s Department of Government (1978 – 1979) and Kennedy School Institute of Politics (1979). Nevitte subsequently held positions at Memorial University in Newfoundland as an Assistant Professor (1979 – 1980); the University of Calgary as an Assistant Professor (1980 – 1982), Associate Professor (1982 – 1987), Professor (1990 – 1995), and the Director of the Research Unit for Public Policy Studies (1989 – 1990); and the University of Windsor as a Professor (1988 – 1989). Between 1985 – 1986, Nevitte also spent some time as a visiting professor and researcher in France at the University of Paris I (Sorbonne) and in the United Kingdom at the University of Leeds, University College Cardiff, and the ESRC Data Archive (University of Essex).

In 1995, Nevitte accepted a position at the University of Toronto’s Department of Political Science where he was later cross appointed as a Professor at the School of Public Policy and Governance in 2007 and the Munk School of Global Affairs in 2010. During his time at U of T, Nevitte taught several courses at the undergraduate and graduate levels on topics such as research design, public opinion and values, and electoral behaviour. He also served on the Department of Political Science’s Promotions and Tenure Committee (2004, 2008) and the University’s Connaught Fellow Review Committee (2007 – 2009). Nevitte retired to Professor Emeritus in 2020.

Technical Advising
Between 1992 and 2020, Nevitte worked as a technical advisor to the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI) and similar domestic and international NGOs. He primarily provided consultations on the prevention and detection of election fraud as well as the conditions for fair and free elections. He worked on several voter registry audits, election supervision, and democracy survey projects in over 25 countries. During this time, Nevitte developed the Quick Count methodology to quickly and reliably detect election fraud. The method is described in his coauthored handbook: Quick Count and Election Observation: An NDI Handbook for Civic Organizations and Political Parties (2002) and has since become an international standard for assessing the legitimacy of elections.

Research and Publications
Throughout his career, Nevitte has participated in several major research endeavors at the international, national, and local levels. Most notably, Nevitte has served as the Principal Investigator for the Canadian segment of the World Values Survey (WVS), the largest non-commercial cross-national, cross-time social survey program in the world. He has also served as a co-investigator for several Canadian-specific projects including the Canadian Referendum Study (1992), the Canadian Elections Study (CES) (1993 – 2011), and Political Ethics in Canada (1993 – 2020). From 1998 – 2001, Nevitte partnered with Seymour Martin Lipset (Harvard University) and Stanley Rothman (Smith College) to conduct the Cross-National Universities Study which examined how students, faculty, and administrators viewed policies and practices across universities in Canada and the United States. Additionally, around 1999, Nevitte was selected to lead one of eight teams of academics for the Policy Research Initiative’s Project on Trends (also known as the Trends Project); his team was responsible for reviewing and synthesizing the current literature on value change in Canada.

Nevitte has written and contributed to over 100 papers, chapters, books related to his research. He has published several books which primarily focus on the findings of the WVS, CES, and Political Ethics projects including Convergencia en Norte America (1994), The Challenge of Direct Democracy (1996), The North American Trajectory (1996), The Decline of Deference (1996), A Question of Ethics (1998), Unsteady State (2000), Anatomy of a Liberal Victory (2002), The Democratic Audit of Canada (2004), and Dominance and Decline (2011). He has also edited 6 other books including The Future of North America (1985); Ethnic Preference and Public Policy in Developing States (1986); Introductory Readings in Government and Politics (1995); Political Value Change in Western Democracies (1997); and Value Change and Governance in Canada (2002). Many of his other works appear in several high-impact political science journals such as Political Communication, European Journal of Political Research, British Journal of Political Science, Comparative Political Studies, and Political Psychology.

Professional Activities
Outside his academic career, Nevitte was involved in several professional activities. He has held positions on advisory boards for the WVS (since 1995), Centre on Democratic Performance at Binghamton University (since 2000), and Vote Compass Canada (since 2010); editorial boards for the Journal on Race, Ethnicity and Government Policy (1989 – 1992), Este Pais (since 1991), and the International Journal of Comparative Sociology (since 1999); on the CPSA Board of Directors (1997 – 1990); and as the Chair of the WVS Strategic Planning Committee (since 1999). He has also served as a referee for more than 10 academic journals including the Canadian Journal of Political Science and International Organization. Additionally, Nevitte has provided expert testimony for several Canadian court cases about topics such as survey methods, federal election financing, and methods for detecting election fraud.

Honors and Awards
Nevitte has been recognized for his work with numerous research grants, fellowships, and awards. For his publications and conference papers, he was awarded the Ithiel de Sola Pool Award for the Best Paper on Political Communication presented at the APSA Annual Meetings (1994); APSA for Best Paper on Public Opinion and Voting Presented at the 1996 APSA Annual Meeting (1997), and the CPSA John McMenemy Award for the Best Article (2001). He was the recipient of a Fulbright Senior Research Fellowship (1997 – 1998), a Connaught Research Fellowship in Social Sciences (2003 – 2004), and numerous research grants 1985 and 2009. Nevitte was elected as a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 2008, and in 2018 he was awarded the Ludwick and Estell Jus Memorial Human Rights Prize from the University of Toronto for his work on the detection of elections fraud and ensuring conditions for free and fair elections around the world.

For additional biographical information see Nevitte’s CV and biography in B2021-0011/001(02) of the Neil Nevitte fonds.

Ezrin, Hershell

  • Person
  • 1947 -

Hershell Elliott Ezrin (b. 1947) is a former diplomat, political advisor, and senior corporate executive. With his background in both provincial and federal politics and later involvement in the corporate sector, he is highly regarded for his expertise in strategic communication and public policy.

Ezrin was born in Toronto and attended the University of Toronto (Honours B.A., 1968). He later received his Masters in History and Economics from Carlton University (M.A. 1969) where his graduate work focused on developments within the Conservative Party of Canada. Following his studies, Ezrin joined the Department of External Affairs (1969) where he worked as a diplomat in offices including New Delhi, Los Angeles, and New York. As Canadian Consul in New York (1978-1981), Ezrin managed media relations with American and foreign press through the sovereignty debates and the 1980 Quebec referendum.

In 1981, Mr. Ezrin returned to Ottawa when seconded to the role of Executive Director of the Canadian Unity Information Office. The federal office managed communications around public policy and, in the period of Ezrin’s tenure, was focused on publicizing the Constitution Act and the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. During this period, he was also a member of the federal-provincial relations team within the Privy Council Office under Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau.

Ezrin transitioned to Ontario provincial politics in 1982, accepting the position of Chief of Staff to the Leader of the Opposition, David Peterson. Subsequent to the Liberal’s successful 1985 electoral campaign, in which Ezrin was responsible for policy and communications, he was appointed the Deputy Minister to the Premier and later, Senior Strategist for the following 1987 campaign.

Following his time in politics, Ezrin moved to the corporate sector accepting a position as Senior Vice-President with Molson Companies Limited (1988-1992). He subsequently worked with a number of businesses and organizations, including positions as President and CEO of Speedy Muffler Inc. (1995-1998), Chair and CEO of GPC Canada (1998-2003), and as founding CEO of the Canadian Council for Israel and Jewish Advocacy (CIJA, 2002-2010). He also served on the Board of Directors for corporations including Torstar, Suncor, SMK Speedy and Private Mortgage Insurers (PMI).

Ezrin currently serves as Senior Counsel with Global Public Affairs and Managing Director of Ezrin Communications. He also teaches at Seneca College and Toronto Metropolitan University in Toronto.

Throughout his career, Ezrin has also volunteered on numerous committees and boards including the Public Policy Forum of Canada, Canadian Journalism Foundation, the Joint Community Relations Committee of Canadian Jewish Congress, the Governor General’s Performing Arts Award Foundation and as Chair of the Toronto Symphony Orchestra. In acknowledgment of Ezrin’s continued dedication to community and public life, he was presented with a HIPPY (Home Instruction of Parents of Pre-school Youngsters) Award in 2011. In 2020, Ezrin was named Officer of the Order of Ontario. For a list of volunteer roles held by Mr. Ezrin, see Appendix.

Hershell Ezrin is married to Dr. Sharyn Salsberg Ezrin, a psychologist and author, and has two daughters and two grandchildren.

Roots, Betty I.

  • Person
  • 1927-2020

Dr. Betty Ida Roots was a zoologist who was born October 21, 1927 at South Croydon Surrey, England. She was responsible for initiating and developing the collaborative Ph.D. program in Neuroscience at the University of Toronto. Her research interests, which awarded grants from the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, included the response of animals to changes in their environment with special reference to the nervous systems and the structure and function of glial cells and neuron-glia relationships particularly from a phylogenetic point of view.

She attained her B.Sc. with Special Honours in Zoology in 1949 from University College at the University of London. Dr. Roots continued her education at the University College where she completed a Diploma in Education at the Institution of Education in 1950. Three years later, she gained a Ph.D. in Zoology, specializing in Comparative Physiology, from her alma mater. By 1981, Dr. Roots would be awarded a Doctorate of Science from the University of London for research in the fields of comparative physiology and neurobiology.

During and following her PhD, Roots worked at University College as a Demonstrator in Zoology between 1952-1953, and as an Assistant Lecturer in the Department of Biology and Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine between 1952-1959 and 1961-1962, a Lecturer in the Department of Anatomy from 1962-1966, and was a Research Neuroscientists for the Department of Neurosciences during 1968-1969. Roots was also visiting Assistant Professor in the Department of Physiology and Biophysics at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign from 1959-1961 and came back as Visiting Scientist from 1966-1967.

She then immigrated to Canada where she joined the University of Toronto as an Associate Professor of Zoology in 1969. In 1972, she was promoted to Professor and was also appointed Assistant Chair of Zoology until 1975. Roots spent 1976-1980 as Associate Dean of Sciences at Erindale College and in 1984, Roots was named Chair of the Department of Zoology at the University of Toronto, a position that she held for six years. In 1993, she was promoted to the rank of Professor Emeritus. Between 1998 and 2009 Roots was the Dean’s Designate for Academic Behaviour (Sciences).

Dr. Roots held many administrative positions including membership in the Canadian Committee of University Biology Chairmen from 1984 to 1990 and Chair of the Council of Heads of University Departments of Biological Sciences of Ontario from 1984-1987. Roots developed the Collaborative Ph.D. programme in Neuroscience at the University of Toronto and also planned, established, and was responsible for, the Electron Microscope Facility at Erindale College until 1987.

Dr. Roots primarily taught courses on subjects related to animal physiology, electron microscopy, photography for ecologists, biological chemistry, and neurobiology. Her teaching experience extends on all levels for science and medical students in Great Britain, the United States, and Canada. In March and April of 1976, she was a Visiting Professor in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Riyadh, Saudia Arabia, advising on the newly established Medical College for Women and teaching the students. She returned as a Visiting Professor in January 1978.

Throughout her career, Dr. Roots was very active in a number of professional associations and committees including the American Society for Neurochemistry, the Canadian Association for Neuroscience, the Canadian Federation of Biological Sciences where she served as a member of the Equal Opportunities Committee from 1990 to 1992, the Canadian Microscopical Society where she was a member of the Organizing committee of the Ninth International Congress on Electron Microscopy held in Toronto in August 1978, the Canadian Society of Zoologists, the International Society for Neurochemistry, the Royal Canadian Institute, where she was President in 1994 and chair of the 150th anniversary book committee, the Royal Microscopical Society, the Royal Society of Canada, Sigma XI and the Southern Ontario Neuroscience Association.

Roots published more than one hundred papers in scientific journals and authored, co-authored and edited a number of books including “Nerve membranes. A study of the biological and chemical aspects of neuron-glia relationships” with P. V. Johnston, published in 1972 by Pergamon Press, Oxford and Special Places: The Changing Ecosystems of the Toronto Region, published by University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver in 1999, for which she was Editor-in-Chief.

Dr. Roots passed away at the age of 93 on October 24th, 2020.

Marrus, Michael

  • Person
  • 1941-2022

Michael R. Marrus (1941- 2022 ) was a University of Toronto professor and historian who was an internationally-recognized expert on the Holocaust and Jewish and French history.

Born in Toronto, Prof. Marrus received his BA from the University of Toronto in 1963. He then received his MA (1964) and PhD (1968) at the University of California, Berkeley. He also received his Master of Studies in Law from the University of Toronto in 2005.

Prof. Marrus began his career at the University of Toronto as Assistant Professor of History in 1968. He became Associate Professor in 1973, full Professor in 1978, and Professor Emeritus in 2009. Prof. Marrus also served as the Chancellor Rose and Ray Wolfe Professor of Holocaust Studies from 2000 to 2006 (and since 2007, as Chancellor Rose and Ray Wolfe Professor Emeritus of Holocaust Studies). He also taught as an adjunct in the Faculty of Law since 2006.

In addition to his teaching and research duties, Prof. Marrus served the University of Toronto in many administrative capacities, including on Governing Council (1987-1996, 2002-2009, 2010-) and as Dean of the School of Graduate Studies (1997-2004).

Prof. Marrus was a visiting fellow of St. Antony’s College, Oxford and the Institute for Advanced Studies of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and a visiting professor at UCLA and the University of Cape Town, South Africa.

During his career, Prof. Marrus published numerous articles and books on the Holocaust and the treatment of Jewish people in France during the Second World War. Some of his most notable books include The politics of assimilation: a study of the French Jewish community at the time of the Dreyfus Affair (1971), Vichy France and the Jews (1981), The unwanted: European Refugees in the Twentieth Century (1985), The Holocaust in history (1987), Mr. Sam: the life and times of Samuel Bronfman (1991), and Some measure of justice: the Holocaust era restitution campaign of the 1990s (2009). He was also editor of a fifteen-volume work, The Nazi Holocaust: historical articles on the destruction of European Jews (1992). Prof. Marrus presented his research in both local and international settings, at numerous conferences, academic gatherings, and community group events.

Prof. Marrus was appointed to serve on the International Catholic-Jewish Historical Commission, which consisted of three Jewish and three Catholic scholars tasked with exploring the role of the Vatican during the Holocaust. The commission worked from 1999 to 2001, and issued a report in 2000. In 2008, Marrus was awarded the Order of Canada.

Prof. Marrus married Randi Greenstein in 1971 and had three children. Following a period of ill health, Marrus died on Dec. 23rd, 2022.

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