Showing 1174 results

People and organizations
Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, University of Toronto

Anderson, Anne

  • Person
  • 1906-1997

Dr. Anne Gairdner Calihoo Anderson (1906-1997) was a Métis Elder, cultural advocate and champion of the Cree language. Anne Anderson was born near St. Albert, Alberta in 1906 as Anne Calihoo Gairdner to William Gairdner and Elizabeth Calihoo, who was Métis. Anderson was the oldest daughter of ten siblings and grew up speaking Cree at home. She was educated in english at a nearby Grey Nuns convent before returning to work on the family farm after the death of her father in 1922. Anderson married, had children of her own and worked as a nurse’s aid throughout her adult life. In 1965, Anne’s mother, Elizabeth died and, on her deathbed, urged her daughter to teach and preserve the Cree language. While Anne had no formal training as a teacher or educator, she published her first Cree language manual in 1969 and would go on to write 93 books on the Cree language and Métis history before her death in 1997. She petitioned the Alberta school board to teach Cree in schools and taught language classes for sixteen years before opening the Dr. Anne Anderson Native Heritage and Cultural Centre in Edmonton in 1984. Anderson’s Centre provided Cree classes for children and adults, was a community hub for cultural events, boasted a library and museum, and also sold Indigenous and Métis arts and crafts. Anderson also organized programs to teach Cree at the University of Alberta, patients in local hospitals, inmates at the Fort Saskatchewan Correctional Centre and children and young adults in the fostercare system. Anderson published her books independently through her own organization, Cree Productions, and she is most well-known for her Cree-English dictionary, Dr. Anne Anderson’s Metis Cree Dictionary (1975, republished 1997) which translated 38,000 words into Cree. Anderson also wrote a history of the Métis in Alberta, The First Métis – A New Nation in 1985. Anderson received many accolades during her lifetime including the Alberta Achievement Award and a honourary Doctorate from the University of Alberta in 1975, the Order of Canada in 1979, and as a valued Elder in the Métis Nation. Anderson died in 1997.

Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada

  • Corporate body
  • 1957-2015

The Indian-Eskimo Association (I.E.A.) was first established as a commission for the Canadian Association for Adult Education (CAAE) in 1957 to study issues in Indigenous communities and issues faced by Indigenous individuals living off reserves. In 1960, the commission withdrew from the CAAE and formed the Indian-Eskimo Association with the purpose of providing national services to Indigenous communities and individuals including housing, community, and economic development, as well as fundraising and to provide a forum for research on Indigenous issues by both Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, scholars, activists, organizations, and governmental entities. The I.E.A had a mixed membership and Indigenous individuals formed at least 25% of the membership of the I.E.A, and sat on the Board of Directors. One of the services of the I.E.A was a library, which actively collected books, as well as amassing reports, periodicals, speeches, and pamphlets by or relating to Indigenous communities and issues. The library provided research resources and reproduced speeches, press releases, offprints and reports, and developed and shared bibliographies and booklists. The I.E.A’s headquarters was originally in Toronto, but in 1973, they moved to Ottawa and changed their name to the Canadian Association in Support of Native Peoples. The association dissolved in 2015.

Scott, Duncan Campbell

  • Person
  • 1862-1947

Duncan Campbell Scott (1862-1947) was a Canadian civil servant, poet and short story writer. Scott was a member of a group known as the "Confederation poets" which also included Charles G.D. Roberts, Bliss Carman, and Archibald Lampman. This term was first applied to them by scholar and editor Malcolm Ross when he collected their work in the anthology Poets of the Confederation (McClelland & Stewart, 1960). The Confederation poets were the first Canadian writers to become widely known after Confederation in 1867. Scott’s legacy as one of Canada’s preeminent poets has been overshadowed by the prominent role he played in supporting the forced assimilation of Indigenous children through the residential school system.

In 1880 Scott joined the Canadian Department of Indian Affairs as a third-class clerk. In 1893 he was promoted to Chief Accountant. He was made superintendent of Indian Education in 1909 and was deputy superintendent-general from 1913 to 1932. As deputy superintendent, Scott oversaw and expanded the residential school system for Indigenous children stating his goal was to “get rid of the Indian problem.” In its 2015 report, Canada’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) stated that that residential schools were “part of a coherent policy to eliminate Aboriginal people as distinct peoples and to assimilate them into the Canadian mainstream against their will.” The establishment and operation of residential schools has been labelled by the TRC as cultural genocide.

Additional information on the legacy of Duncan Campbell Scott can be accessed here: https://fncaringsociety.com/sites/default/files/duncan_campbell_scott_information_sheet_final.pdf.

Plessner, Jacob

  • https://viaf.org/viaf/308264628/
  • Person
  • 1871-1936

Paterson, G. R.

  • http://viaf.org/viaf/104822214
  • Person
  • 1920-

Bata, Thomas J.

  • Person
  • 1914-2008

Thomas J. Bata (1914-2008) was the son of Tomáš Baťa (1876-1932), who founded the Bata Shoe Company in Zlin, Czechsolovakia in 1894. Thomas J. Bata was the Chairman and CEO of the Bata Shoe Organisation from 1944 until 1984, becoming Chairman from 1984 to 1994, and remaining as Honorary Chairman until his death in 2008. In 1939, the company’s Czech holdings were nationalized during the Second World War. Thomas J. Bata immigrated to Canada with his wife Sonja Bata (1926-), where he established Bata Limited, the Canadian offshoot of the Bata enterprise, as well as the company town ‘Batawa’ (located outside of Trenton, Ontario). Batawa employed and housed some 1500 people before closing in 2000. In 1962, the Bata Shoe Organization moved its headquarters from London, UK to Toronto, where it was based until 2003. Since then, the company’s head operations have gradually shifted back to Europe, to Bata Brands SA (based in Lausanne, Switzerland). Thomas J. Bata was involved with almost all of Bata’s international companies (from North America and South America, to Europe, Asia, South Asia and Australia). He also served on numerous external committees, including the Business Industry Advisory Council and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

The Provincial Marine

  • MS Coll. 00022B
  • Corporate body
  • 1788-1792

Traders and merchants based in Quebec and the Thirteen Colonies had been successfully advancing the fur trade in the Great Lakes region since the mid-1760s, largely through the assistance of privately-owned commercial vessels to ship trade merchandise to western posts and retrieve bales of peltries to be sold for handsome profits. The trade had only recently transitioned from the old French structure to a modified system under British management, and was gaining momentum and efficiency. But all that changed with the onset of the American Revolution in 1775. The British government at Quebec responded to the war threat with plans to prevent American incursions into the Great Lakes region and ensure that weapons, ammunition, and provisions were not smuggled to the American side through the fur trade network. To that end, Governor Guy Carleton (1724-1808) outlawed the use of private vessels on the Great Lakes in the spring of 1777.

According to Governor Carleton’s 1777 announcement, vessels taken into the King’s service would be armed and manned by the Crown, be the exclusive carrier of troops and stores for the war effort, and maintain absolute control over the Great Lakes. The service was also the official conveyor of United Empire Loyalists relocating to British territory in the Province of Quebec. The fleet of King’s Ships of the Provincial Marine would be on constant military patrol between British garrisons at Carleton Island and Fort Niagara on Lake Ontario (employing Snow Seneca, Ship Limnade, and Sloop Caldwell), Fort Little Niagara, Fort Schlosser, Fort Erie, and Detroit on Lake Erie (employing Schooner Faith, Snow Rebecca, Schooner Hope, Brig Gage, Schooner Dunmore, Sloop Felicity, and Sloop Wyandot), and Detroit and Mackinac Island on Lake Huron (employing Sloop Felicity, Sloop Wyandot, Sloop Welcome, and Sloop Angelica).

The fur trade was at the heart of the young Canadian economy. Prior to Carleton’s 1777 orders, traders and merchants had their merchandise and peltries shipped over the Great Lakes on private vessels, many of which were owned and operated by the traders and merchants themselves. The new regulations dealt a serious blow to the fur trade when all private vessels on the lakes were effectively taken out of service and purchased or leased by the Crown for the exclusive use of the Provincial Marine. Traders, merchants, and agents were assured of services for the transport of their goods on board the King’s Ships, provided there was sufficient room available and military manoeuvres were not impacted.

The Provincial Marine thus became the sole means of transporting commercial goods on the Great Lakes. When merchandise and peltries were consigned for transport aboard the King’s Ships, promissory freight notes were issued to confirm the nature of the cargo and formalise a commitment to pay freight charges at some later date to Provincial Marine officials at Detroit, Carleton Island, or Quebec. Private transport of goods between Montreal and Carleton Island along the Saint Lawrence River was still permitted, but only in canoes and flat-bottomed cargo boats or bateaux.

Under the British system for managing the fur trade, the transport of trade merchandise to western depots was heavily regulated, and required a license from the governor (of which there was only a limited number issued each year). Ownership, origin, and destination of cargo was heavily scrutinized along the way by garrison commandants and ship masters, who had the authority to seize unauthorized shipments and prohibited goods. Strict supervision ensured that American traders were entirely excluded from the trade.

By the summer of 1778, Frederick Haldimand (1718-1791) had been installed as the new Governor of Quebec, and wasted no time in refining the organisation of the Provincial Marine. According to his General Orders and Regulations for the Better Government of His Majesty’s Armed Vessels Employed on the Different Lakes, issued on 1 July 1778, the fleet of vessels on the Great Lakes was divided into geographic commands: Lake Ontario constituted its own jurisdiction, and Lake Erie and the three upper Great Lakes (being lakes Huron, Superior and Michigan) constituted another, each with its own senior naval officer. In addition to organisational details for manning and operating the King’s Ships, Haldimand’s directive required that the British Articles of War be read on board each vessel at least once every month, to maintain order and discipline. Unfortunately, the chain of command between land- and lake-based officials was poorly defined, and led to quarrels that impacted the ability of the Provincial Marine to assist with the army’s land operations and properly fulfill commercial shipping obligations to those in the fur trade.

At the height of the war in 1779, during a period of particular difficulty for the fur trade, nine trading partnerships strategically combined their assets and resources to form the first consortium that would become the North West Company. The 16-share syndicate, composed of leading traders and merchants operating out of Montreal and Mackinac Island, eventually developed into the principal fur trade concern in Canada in opposition to the Hudson’s Bay Company. Another similar 16-share agreement was made in 1783, which was expanded to a 20-share agreement in 1787. A few of the traders included in the North West Company agreements are represented on promissory freight notes as the shippers and receivers of merchandise and peltries carried by the Provincial Marine, most notably George McBeath and Normand McLeod who were among the first British traders in the Great Lakes region after the British conquest
Forced to conform with the regulations for shipping their merchandise and peltries only on the King’s Ships, traders, merchants, and agents were at the mercy of the fleet’s management, staff, schedules, and performance, the weather and sailing conditions, and the physical state of the vessels. The lack of suitable storage facilities for goods held at garrisons added to the impact on trade, and other serious problems were numerous and widespread. Trade merchandise and peltries were delayed at transfer points for extended periods of time, damaged through improper storage, sodden by transport aboard leaky vessels, lost and misplaced through incompetence, and ransacked by unscrupulous military staff. Delays were particularly injurious to the trade, owing to the inherently tight trade cycle of shipping goods (which were usually obtained on credit from merchant-outfitters) to the interior and receiving furs the following year for sale at Montreal. Goods sometimes lay for months at Carleton Island, Fort Niagara, and Fort Erie, and were sometimes delayed so long that they could not be sent until the following season. Disruptions in the cycle equated to monetary losses through higher interest payments, damage to credit ratings, and strained relations with outfitters and investors. Petitions and Memorials complaining of unfair treatment and exorbitant freight charges were drawn up by traders, merchants, and agents, and sent to the governor and council at Quebec, but were largely ignored.

In the end, a large proportion of freight notes were not voluntarily settled: traders and merchants were summoned to court and sued for full or partial payment, whereas others were pardoned on the basis that negligence by the Provincial Marine caused financial losses that exceeded freight charges.

Kolnik, Arthur

  • https://viaf.org/viaf/44419202/
  • Person
  • 1890-1972

Talpir

  • Person
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