Manuscript Collection MS COLL 00438 - Claude Stewart Collection of Kathleen Crowe/Angelica Balabanoff Papers 

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Reference code



Claude Stewart Collection of Kathleen Crowe/Angelica Balabanoff Papers 


  • 1940-1963 (Creation)

Level of description

Manuscript Collection

Extent and medium

1 box (13 cm)

Context area

Name of creator


Biographical history

Angelica Balabanoff, born at Chernigov, in Ukraine, Russian Empire, 14 August, 1877, was a Jewish-Italian Communist politician. She was a close friend of Benito Mussolini from 1904-1914, and attempted to complete his political education by lending him books, helping him earn money by translating a German Socialist tract into Italian and introducing him to other Italian socialists. She also associated with many of the Russian Socialist exiles in Switzerland, such as Vladimir Lenin, Julius Martov and Leon Trotsky. She died in Rome on November 25, 1965.

Archival history

Immediate source of acquisition or transfer

Gift of Claude Stewart, 2003.

Content and structure area

Scope and content

Collection consists of Angelica Balabanoff's personal correspondence to Kathleen Crowe.

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Conditions of access and use area

Conditions governing access

Material may be requested in person at the Fisher Library Reference Desk, or in advance using our online stack retrieval request form:

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Language of material

  • English

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Description identifier

Institution identifier

Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, University of Toronto

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