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Ursula Martius Franklin fonds
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Collegium Archaeometricum

Subseries consists of records relating to The Collegium Archaeometricum, an interdisciplinary group of scholars from the University of Toronto and the Royal Ontario Museum engaged in teaching and research in archaeometry. Dr. Franklin served as the Director of the Collegium from 1980-1987. Records include correspondence and planning documents, seminar announcements, and meeting minutes.

Day planners

Series consists of day planners and organizers kept by Dr. Franklin throughout much of her career. The planners typically contain a list of appointments and activities for each day. Some planners also include notes and recollections. Dr. Franklin often kept extra material tucked into in the planners, which reflect her activities during that given month. This material includes news clippings, letters, event programs, invitations, newsletters, address books, drawings by her children, business cards, and photographs.

Photographs

Subseries consists of various portraits taken of Dr. Franklin, including photographs of her sitting at her microscope. Subseries also includes a couple family photos.

Lawsuit

Dr. Franklin was one of a group of retired female faculty members who filed a class action lawsuit against the University of Toronto, for paying women less than men. The lawsuit was settled in 2002 and around 60 retired female faculty members received a pay equity settlement. Files in this subseries contain 2 press clippings on the lawsuit.

Museum of Carthage Project

Subseries consists of records relating to Dr. Franklin’s work with the University of Toronto-Museum of Carthage Project, along with that of the project field director, Vanda Vitali. The group undertook conservation of the Punic Collection at the Museum of Carthage and public education of local Tunisians. The group also developed museum displays that highlighted the conservation work done by the museum on the artifacts exhibited. This work is documented in a film, Carthage: Witness to the Past. Records include background material, documentation of funding from CIDA, collection reviews, reports, notes, exhibition material, and a publication entitled “Salvage conservation at the Museum of Carthage: a manual for artifact conservation.” There are also some records relating to the launch of the documentary film.

Voice of Women: Baby Teeth Study

Subseries consists of records documenting the work done by Dr. Franklin and VOW to test baby teeth for levels of Strontium-90, a radioactive isotope in fallout from nuclear weapons testing. From 1962-1964, women across the country collected milk teeth from their children which were submitted to the University of Toronto’s Faculty of Dentistry, together with information on the family’s residence, diet, etc. in order to be collected and analyzed for ‘natural’ radioactivity. According to Dr. Franklin, with the increased radioactive pollution caused by atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, the composition of children’s bones and teeth would be drastically altered because of the presence of the new radioactive pollutants. The milk teeth of children born before the massive atomic testing would provide the last evidence of bone and teeth laid down under pre-radioactive pollution conditions. Unfortunately these teeth were never analyzed as promised. They were shipped to Chalk River, however, those in power decided not to proceed and in spite of many attempts, the teeth were either not analyzed or the results were not made public. Dr. Franklin believes the analyses were never carried out. This was a severe disappointment to Dr. Franklin and members of the Voice of Women who participated in the program. Nevertheless, the work of VOW was a major contribution to the cessation of atmospheric weapons testing.

Records in this subseries include background material on fallout and Strontium-90; the VOW fallout brief background, draft, and final brief; research data, notes, and graphs; public education material; news clippings; and correspondence.

Notes and notebooks

Series consists of various notes and notebooks kept by Dr. Franklin. These notebooks are typically unlabeled/titled, and often undated. The notes they contain pertain to a wide scope of matters, and are not particularly organized.

Colleagues

Subseries consists of records pertaining to particular colleagues with whom Dr. Franklin worked closely at different points in her career, including Debbie Garfinkel (from the Collegium Archaeometricum and University of Toronto), J.E. Rehder (Senior Research Associate in the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science, University of Toronto), Moain Sadeq (a Palestinian expert in archaeology and Islamic art history), and Bruce Trigger (archaeologist/anthropologist at McGill). Records include correspondence, copies and drafts of papers, and research records.

The subseries also provides extensive documentation of work done with/by Vanda Vitali, who was one of Dr. Franklin’s PhD students and went on to be a colleague. Dr. Vitali worked with Dr. Franklin as a research assistant, and later on the Carthage project. Records include her CV, correspondence, thesis and research notes, and papers and drafts, articles.

Subseries also contains a number of files regarding Zdenka Volavka, Professor in Fine Arts at York University and specialist of African art and artifacts. Files contain correspondence, research material and data, notes, and academic work. Some files also include micrographs and samples.

October Crisis and the War Measures Act

Subseries consists of records documenting Dr. Ursula and Fred Franklin’s responses to the October Crisis, and specifically the enacting of the War Measures Act by Prime Minister Pierre Elliot Trudeau in October 1970. Records include a brochure, news clippings, press releases and submissions to the government from the Canadian Civil Liberties Association. Records also include telegrams, correspondence and drafts of letters with party leaders, including Pierre Trudeau, Tommy Douglas, and Robert Stanfield, as well as correspondence with the CBC regarding concerns about their coverage of the events.

Chronology files (keynotes, lectures, talks)

Series consists of what Dr. Franklin referred to as her ‘chronology files’: files kept on various events she attended – most of which she spoke at. Events include academic conferences, guest lectures, government meetings and hearings, public talks to community and religious groups, memorials, press conferences and panels.

Topics covered include science policy, technology, materials science, archaeometry, museums, women in engineering and science, the state of higher learning, the commercialization of universities, education, peace and violence, military research, human rights, feminism, faith, the nature of research, energy policy and the environment, and opposition to nuclear technology.

Records include correspondence, paper abstracts, notes, programs, brochures, posters, proceedings news coverage, transparencies, and contracts. Dr. Franklin typically spoke from handwritten notes, rather than a typed script. Where a transcript exists, the file title includes the word ‘[transcript]’. Occasionally, ‘transcript’ denotes the original text/paper created before the talk (ex: for the presentation of academic papers), but for the most case, these are transcripts sent to her after-the-fact by event organizers. Where Dr. Franklin’s speaking notes are typed and more coherent/complete, the file title will include the term ‘[typed notes’].

Series also includes files kept on declined speaking events, conferences, symposia, seminars, councils and focus groups.

Chemical and biological warfare

Subseries consists of records documenting Dr. Franklin’s concerns around chemical and biological warfare/weapons (CBW), as a scientist, a Quaker, and a member of VOW. Subseries includes background material on issues relating to the making, testing and use of chemical poisoning.

According to Dr. Franklin, both Voice of Women and some members of the scientific community were interested in clarifying Canada’s role in this area of research and development, including the role of universities. These groups were also active in public education to achieve a complete banning of research, production, testing and use of such weapons. There are several recurring issues: one is Canada’s official role in the research and testing of chemical weapons, particularly the use, on behalf of her allies, of the test station in Suffield, Alberta. Voice of Women in particular made many attempts to question the use of this large tract of land for testing highly poisonous agents. The Canadian government always responded that their work has been entirely defensive, i.e. the testing of protective clothing for soldiers who might be subjected to chemical attacks. The Canadian government has never attempted to suggest that it could protect civilians or that in fact protection was possible. The storage of small amounts of toxic gases on the grounds of Suffield was never denied, however subsequent inquiries showed that the military found it impossible to actually track down the existing location of their supplies.

Records in this subseries include background material from public sources, as well as unclassified Suffield documents. One of the strong forces in the Canadian scientific community who tried to expose research activities in Canadian universities has been Dr. Arthur Forrer of York University’s Department of Biology. He did much to assess the published papers of staff members from Suffield to ascertain their professional expertise so as to deduce the area of their classified activities.

See also: Relevant tapes can be found in Series 18 (Sound recordings), including the visit of VOW members to Suffield; an interview of Ester McCantiless by Dr. Franklin regarding work at the Suffield military base and recruitment of her students; an interview with chief of the Defence Research Board and Muriel Duckworth and Ursula Franklin; and Dr. Franklin’s recorded thoughts to Ann Gertler re the failure of the Chemical, Biological Warfare Control Workshop.

Travel

Series consists of records relating to 2 trips taken by Dr. Franklin: her return to Berlin in 1969 for the World Peace Congress, and her trip to China in 1981 for the International Conference of Early Metallurgy. See subseries descriptions for more information.

Publications

Series consists of records relating to Dr. Franklin’s publishing activities. See subseries descriptions for more information.

Other peace work and resources

Subseries consists of general records and resources related to peace, including papers, background materials, and news articles. Subseries also includes a file on the 1962 Ann Arbor Conference on Arms Control, the first of a series of conferences related to arms control and disarmament sponsored by the Centre for Conflict Resolution at the University of Michigan, held under the guidance of Kenneth Boulding. This conference, which brought together pacifist scholars and military and defence analysts, was very influential in shaping the various approaches of peace research and disarmament activities. The file includes conference summaries, lists of participants and Dr. Franklin’s notes.

Publicity and public education

Series consist of records relating to Dr. Franklin’s appearances in the media, including news clippings on Dr. Franklin and her work and activism; records relating to print, TV and radio interviews and appearances; and work done with CBC Ideas, including her 1989 Massey Lectures, The Real World of Technology. See subseries descriptions for more information.

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