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University of Toronto Music Library
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Interview with Tara Kannangara conducted by Hillary Chu

Item is a video recorded interview between Hillary Chu (interviewer, representative of FoMARA) and Tara Kannangara (interviewee). Tara Kannangara is a vocalist and instrumentalist known for her diverse sound. She is a Juno-nominated artist, and holds a degree in Jazz studies from the Unviersity of Toronto. Tara has performed across North America at venues including the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, D.C., and New York City's Jazz Gallery. Tara is currently a sessional teacher at the University of Toronto in the Faculty of Music's Jazz program. Tara and Hillary's conversation covers topics including assimilation, gender disparity, music pedagogy, racial inequity, and systemic discrimination.

Interview with Ricardo Ferro conducted by Rosemonde Desjardins

Item is a video recorded interview between Rosemonde Desjardins (interviewer, representative of FoMARA) and Ricardo Ferro (interviewee). Ricardo Ferro is a Venezuelan-Canadian composer and multi-instrumentalist based in Toronto, Ontario. As an emerging composer, Ricardo has written music for and worked with North American ensembles and performers such as the Calidore String Quartet, Oakville Youth Symphony Orchestra, and Younggun Kim. He has written award-winning music for film and theatre for the Sundeis Film Fastival in Boston and the National Theatre School Festival in Canada. In 2019, Ricarod co-founded the Green Room Sound Collective, a contemporary music organization dedicated to the creation and performance of new dramatic and multimedia works of music, and is currently their artistic director. Ricardo is currently pursuing a degree in composition at the University of Toronto Faculty of Music. Ricardo and Rosemonde's conversation covers topics including eurocentrism in music, music pedagogy, Black Lives Matter, and representation.

Interview with Dr. Melissa Morgan conducted by Claire Latosinsky

Item is a video recorded interview between Claire Latosinsky (interviewer, representative of FoMARA) and Dr. Melissa Morgan (interviewee). Dr. Melissa Morgan is the Assistant Professor of Choral Music in the department of Media, Arts, and Performance at the University of Regina, where she conducts the Chamber Singers and Concert Choir, in addition to teaching courses in vocal diction and choral conducting. Previously, she was the Pfeifer Memorial Chair of Music at Luther College High School, and was founder and artistic director of the former community ensemble, Prairie Chamber Choir. Dr. Morgan holds a doctorate of Music Performance in Choral Conducting from the University of Toronto, and is also an Associate of the Toronto Royal Conservatory of Music in piano, voice, and flute. Dr. Morgan and Claire's conversation covers topics including access to information, music pedagogy, and racism.

Interview with Leighton Harrell conducted by Hillary Chu

Item is a video recorded interview between Rosemonde Desjardins (interviewer, representative of FoMARA) and Leighton Harrell (interviewee). Leighton Harrell is a bassist and composer from Raleigh, North Carolina, currently attending the University of Toronto's Jazz Performance program. Leighton has held a biweekly residency at Poetry Jazz Cafe with his quartet since 2019. He has also performed at venues such as The Toronto Jazz Festival, the Kensington Market Jazz Festival, and Toronto Meridian Centre for the Arts. As a composer and artist, Leighton draws inspiration from hymns and spirituals, folk music, and various traditions of Black American Music. Leighton and Hillary's conversation covers topics including Black AMerican Music, colonialism, cultural appropriation, performative diversity, and music pedagogy.

Interview with Dr. Farzaneh Hemmasi conducted by Claire Latosinsky

Item is a video recorded interview between Claire Latosinsky (interviewer, representative of FoMARA) and Dr. Farzaneh Hemmasi (interviewee). Dr. Farzaneh Hemmasi (in Persian orthography فرزانه حمصی ) is as Associate Professor of Ethnomusicology at the University of Toronto. Her research interests include Iranian popular music, the politics of popular culture, and transnationality. Her book, Tehrangeles Dreaming: Intimacy and Imagination in Southern California’s Iranian Pop Music, published in April 2020, examines the postrevolutionary pop music of the Iranian diaspora in Los Angeles as a site of transnational identity creation. She holds a doctorate from Columbia University and has held fellowships with the University of Pennsylvania’s Penn Humanities Forum and Columbia University’s Middle East Institute as well as its Institute of Social and Economic Policy and Research. In the summer of 2020, Prof. Hemmasi was co-chair of the Faculty of Music’s Anti-Racism, Equity, Diversity and Inclusion (AREDI) Workgroup. Dr. Hemmasi and Claire's conversation covers topics including performative diversity, tokenization, music pedagogy, and Black Lives Matter.

Interview with Bruce A. Russell conducted by Elizabeth Robinson

Item is a video recorded interview between Elizabeth Robinson (interviewer, representative of the U of T Music Library) and Bruce A. Russell (interviewee). Bruce A. Russell, (aka Ibrahim El Mahboob) is a composer and self-taught pianist living and working in Toronto. He studied at York University with James Tenney and Phillip Werren, and has composed music for the Madawaska String Quartet, Modetn Times Stage Company, and McMaster dancers and choreographers Pan Johnson and Tracy Renee Stafford. Bruce is particularly interested in 20th and 21st century music, especially posminimalism, and music of the African diaspora, including notated and non-notated forms. Bruce and Elizabeth's conversation covers topics including tokenization, performative diversity, Black Lives Matter, racial politics, and police violence. Tigger warning: this interview includes discussion of discriminatory terminology used to classify Black people. The interview includes mentions of suicidal depression, mental health, and institutionalization.

Interview with Beverley McKiver conducted by Elizabeth Robinson

Item is a video recorded interview between Elizabeth Robinson (interviewer, representative of the U of T Music Library) and Beverley McKiver (interviewee). Beverley McKiver is a music teacher, composer, accompanist, and performer based in Ottawa, Ontario. Beverley's compositions have been performed at Native Earth Performing Arts, Jumblies Theatre, and Soundstreams. In 2020 she premiered a suite of piano solos representing the provincial and territorial emblems, which she composed as a result of a Digital Originals grant from the Canada Council. Beverley and Elizabeth's conversation covers topics including economic disparity, music pedagogy, and violence towards Indigenous communities. Trigger warning: this interview includes discussion of Residential Schools.

Interview with Andrew Balfour conducted by Hillary Chu

Item is a video recorded interview between Hillary Chu (interviewer, representative of FoMARA) and Andrew Balfour (interviewee). Andrew Balfour is a Cree composer, conductor, singer, and sound designer whose works include choral, instrumental, and orchestral music. As a result of the Sixties Scoop, Andrew was raised in a non-Indigenous family in Alberta. Today he is a highly sought-after composer known for fusing Classical music traditions with Indigenous texts and themes to highlight the unsettling sociopolitical pressures and commentary that have surrounded Indigenous peoples in Canada for many years. Andrew and Hillary's conversation covers topics including education, equitable access to opportunities, violence against Indigienous peoples, and systemic discrimination. Trigger warning: the interview includes discussion of Residential Schools, and mentions of addiction.

Interview with Andrew Adridge conducted by Rosemonde Desjardins

Item is a video recorded interview between Rosemonde Desjardins (interviewer, representative of FoMARA) and Andrew Adridge (interviewee). Andrew Adridge is a Guyanese-Canadian vocal performer, and a graduate from the University of Toronto opera program. He works as the Operations Associate for Opera.ca, and is the Co-Founder of Opera InReach, an initiative aimed at examining the civi impact of opera, creating an authentic Canadian identity for it, and engaging the next generation of performers with equitable and diverse digital programming and mentorship. Andrew and Rosemonde's conversation covers topics including tokenization and diversity, the arts, Black Lives Matter, and systemic discrimination.

Collection of interviews with BIPOC musicians

  • CA OTUFM 65
  • Collection
  • 2020

Collection consists of 9 recorded interviews, both audio and video. The interviews were held by members of the design team for the exhibit Polyphony: Diversity in Music, and feature students and faculty from the University of Toronto Faculty of Music and musicians based in Ottawa, Ontario; Toronto, Ontario; and Regina, Saskatchewan. Interviewers used questions to help the interviewers share their experiences with diversity in music. Questions included whether they identified with current categories in racial discourse (i.e. BIPOC), whether their culture or identity has impacted their opportunities, and what advice they would offer to emerging BIPOC musicians. Themes within the interviews cover a broad range of topics, including systemic discrimination, imposter syndrome, racism, identity, and music pedagogy.

University of Toronto Music Library

Index, typed manuscripts

Index of Zuckerkandl's typed manuscripts held at the Austrian National Library, with titles and numbers of pages. Includes essays and lectures. Dates indicated range from 1930 to 1950, though many have no date indicated.

Index, published essays

Index of Zuckerkandl's printed essays held at the Austrian National Library, with titles, dates, publication information, and number of examples. From 1944 to 1965.

Locations of unpublished manuscripts of "Der musikalische Mensch"

Typed document stating Zuckerkandl's dates and the locations of unpublished manuscripts (New York Public Library [NYPL] and Austrian National Library [ONB]). Handwritten note about "Der musikalische Mensch" [i.e., Sound and Symbol, vol. 2: Man the Musician] shows dates of acquisition and directors at NYPL (20 July, 1994, Jean Bowen) and ONB (28 July, 1994, Helmut W. Lang).

Das deutsche Volkslied (The German Folk-Song)

Zuckerkandl compiles music examples. Page one contains [8?] examples; several are copied from the journal Das deutsche Volkslied: Zeitschrift für seine Kenntnis und Pflege, edited by Josef Pommer. Page two contains a version of "Brader Tantz zu Wien" from the Partitur ex Vienna, copied by hand from an unspecified source.

Biographical notes

Biographical note on Viktor Zuckerkandl and his works. Top of first page reads “for last page(s) of book” [possibly Sound and Symbol II: Man the Musician].

Memorandum of agreement between Hermine Müller-Hofmann [born Zuckerkandl] and Princeton University Press for the second volume of Sound and Symbol [Man the Musician].

The memorandum of agreement outlines the terms agreed upon between Müller-Hofmann and Princeton University Press. 1. Müller-Hofmann grants exclusive rights to publish and 2. guarantees that [Viktor] Zuckerkandl is the sole author of the work and the work does not infringe any copyright, contain any unlawful or libelous matter, and does not invade the privacy of any other individual. 3. The Press assumes all publishing and printing expenses [paragraph substantially crossed out]. [Fourth point in the contract missing or omitted, see Memorandum of 1956-06-12]. 5-6. Müller-Hofmann commits to deliver the entire manuscript and associated materials [Both paragraphs completely crossed out]. 7. Both Müller-Hofmann and the Press agree to full cooperation in the editing process, as well as in the event of 8. author’s alterations or editing errors [both paragraphs completely crossed out]. 9. Müller-Hofmann agrees to revise subsequent editions and to supply additional material if necessary [paragraph completely crossed out]. 10. The Press provides insurance of materials to the amount provided by Müller-Hofmann. 11. Müller-Hofmann and the Press agree to a bi-annual royalty payment rate and schedule on U.S. and international sales. 12. Müller-Hofmann grants exclusive sales and licensing rights to the Press. 13. Müller-Hofmann is entitled to 10 free copies and discounted copies. 14. Müller-Hofmann and the Press agree to the terms of termination of contract. 15. Müller-Hofmann agrees to present the Press the first offer of publication on Zuckerkandl’s next work [paragraph completely crossed out]. 16. Müller-Hofmann and the Press agree to the terms of transfer or assignment of rights to heirs and/or others [signed by Müller-Hofmann and Rudolf Ritsema].

Agreement of Sale

Document of sale of Zuckerkandl's property in Anne Arundel County, Maryland, to William H. Russell for $23,000.

Memorandum of agreement between Viktor Zuckerkandl and Princeton University Press for The Sense of Music

The memorandum of agreement outlines the terms agreed upon between Zuckerkandl and Princeton University Press. 1. Zuckerkandl grants exclusive rights to publish and 2. guarantees that he is the sole author of the work and the work does not infringe any copyright, contain any unlawful or libelous matter, and does not invade the privacy of any other individual. 3. The Press assumes all publishing and printing expenses. 4. Zuckerkandl agrees not to publish the same or similar material with any other publisher and 5-6. commits to deliver the entire manuscript and associated materials. 7. Both Zuckerkandl and the Press agree to full cooperation in the editing process, as well as in the event of 8. author’s alterations or editing errors. 9. Zuckerkandl agrees to revise subsequent editions and to supply additional material if necessary. 10. The Press provides insurance of materials to the amount provided by Zuckerkandl. 11. Zuckerkandl and the Press agree to a bi-annual royalty payment rate and schedule on U.S. and international sales. 12. Zuckerkandl grants exclusive sales and licensing rights to the Press. 13. Zuckerkandl is entitled to 10 free copies and discounted copies. 14. Zuckerkandl and the Press agree to the terms of termination of contract. 15. Zuckerkandl agrees to present the Press the first offer of publication on his next work. 16. Zuckerkandl and the Press agree to the terms of transfer or assignment of rights to heirs and/or others.

Report by an anonymous reviewer

A reviewer for Princeton University Press notes their impressions of Zuckerkandl's Law and freedom in the tonal world (eventually published as The Sense of Music). They suggest corrections to the manuscript. Zuckerkandl's responses to the suggestions appear as marginalia.

Report by Roger Sessions

Sessions completes a Princeton University Press Reader's Report regarding Zuckerkandl's manuscript, Law and Freedom in the Tonal World (eventually published as The Sense of Music). Sessions recommends that the manuscript should be published and suggests that Zuckerkandl revise the chapter on meter and rhythm. Sessions states that he has been in contact with Zuckerkandl about this issue.

The educational power of music

Zuckerkandl presents music theory to non-professionals. He begins by working "one note at a time," introducing concepts such as the construction of scales, major and minor modality, scale degrees, and meter and rhythm. Zuckerkandl then builds on this foundation, discussing ornamental tones and introductory Roman numeral analysis. By the end of the book, readers should be able to read simple [Schenkerian] “skeletons.”

[Appendices for The educational power of music]

Appendix A provides a visual way of explaining the creation of seven-note scales. Appendix B supplies an introductory discussion of rhythm and meter. Appendix D is a supplementary pedagogical example in which Zuckerkandl demonstrates how he would approach presenting the first movement from Beethoven's Appassionata to students. Appendix D contains many score examples and [Schenkerian] "skeletons" from the movement.

Das Leben der Töne[:] Eine neue Elementarlehre der Musik

Zuckerkandl presents music theory to non-professionals, focusing on relating listening experience to concepts from music theory. In the first half of this book, Zuckerkandl describes the behaviour of pitches within the diatonic system, explains major/minor modality, explores intervals, shows the construction of tertian chords, and introduces the relationship between rhythm, meter, and pitch. Zuckerkandl then builds on this foundation in the second half of the book, discussing ornamental tones and Schenkerian concepts such as "the fundamental line" and foreground, middleground, and background layers.

On musical education at the American University

Zuckerkandl explores why there is such "widespread dissatisfaction with musical education in the American college." He asserts that the American music education system was adopted from nineteenth-century Europe and explores problems with this practice. Specifically, Zuckerkandl asserts that European schools were concerned with producing professional musicians rather than listeners or audiences. Nineteenth-century German education thus "fits less perfectly the needs of twentieth-century America," where the "chief demand is for an understanding of the music made."

Books

Subseries contains digitized book manuscripts by Zuckerkandl.

[Thoughts after Faust Seminar]

Possibly a letter draft (to Jung?), written after a seminar on Faust. Zuckerkandl writes that Faust refuses to be understood as part of certain fundamental categories; not because he is an exception, but because he reflects the reality of experience. Goethe thus provides an alternative framework to understanding the self, of polarity, i.e. a dynamic event or interaction between two poles, rather than dualism, i.e. a static identification with one of the two poles. To this Goethe adds a vertical axis of "Steigerung" (increase or improvement). Zuckerkandl then lists examples of events which establish Faust as a character defined as tension between two poles. Zuckerkandl corrected typos and added page numbers in pen.

Thoughts on a Music Appreciation Record

Zuckerkandl muses on the advent of the LP and its potential applications in music education. He suggests recording an “elementary music course” that would help non-professionals deepen their appreciation of music.

Musikbücher in der FB (Music books in the library) [Version B]

Zuckerkandl speculates about how music books available to interested non-professional individuals can be improved. He suggests that while readers wish to understand their experience of music (they seek a particular kind of "Verstehen"), books presently offer approaches that are either too technical, or focus on biographical and historical scholarship. Zuckerkandl acknowledges that a book that discusses musical experience for lay people does not exist. To remedy this, Zuckerkandl suggests a book that presents music similarly to literature and art history. In addition, Zuckerkandl recommends a multimedia approach that includes both written text and audio examples so that the listener need not rely on their imagination or recollection of music. Zuckerkandl then briefly explores ways of connecting book and LP (referred to as "die Verbindung von Buch und Platte").

Musikbücher in der FB (Music books in the library) [Version A]

Zuckerkandl speculates about how music books available to interested non-professional individuals can be improved. He suggests that while readers wish to understand their experience of music (they seek a particular kind of "Verstehen"), books presently offer approaches that are either too technical or focus on biographical and historical scholarship. Zuckerkandl acknowledges that a book that discusses musical experience for lay people does not exist. To remedy this, Zuckerkandl suggests a book that presents music similarly to literature and art history. He recommends a multimedia approach that includes both written text and audio examples so that the listener need not rely on their imagination or recollection of music. Zuckerkandl then briefly explores ways of connecting book and LP (referred to as "die Verbindung von Buch und Platte").

Das Neue einer Epoche

Short outline of a proposal to summarize what is new in the modern era via the field in which it is most clearly expressed, i.e., philosophy. Zuckerkandl proposes works on the following thinkers, under the collective title "creators of the modern intellectual world": Bergson, Husserl, Scheler, Dacque, Frobenius, Spengler, Jung, Klage, Schroedinger, Stefan George, and Goethe.

Vorrede (Nur sämtliche Menschen leben das Menschliche)

Essay on the search for understanding. The only way to understand the world is to think and experience the world without criticizing or interpreting, instead simply aiming for a complete generalist knowledge. A single person can only experience a part of the whole; the rest can only be understood by communicating with others. Language, however, acts like a mirror to the world, showing different images based on different perspectives. The innermost self, meanwhile, can only be expressed in the language of music.

Ein Bach'sches Praeludium als Formproblem

Formal analysis of the prelude from Bach's Partita no. 3 in E major, BWV 1006. Zuckerkandl writes that, according to traditional ideas of form (e.g., sonata, rondo, etc.), the prelude is formless; however, this cannot be true because we know it is a great work of art, and all art requires form. In analyzing the form, Zuckerkandl instead views it as an elaboration of a descending line from E6 to E5, driven by three processes: a steady pulling of the descending line, an alternating rhythmic structure between strong and weak steps of the descending line, and an ongoing increase of musical forces. Through these processes, the form is developed organically. Contains minor edits to phrasing in pencil.

Über Logik der Rede und Logik der Töne

Essay on the connection between logic and music. One could conclude that a sense of logical connection in a melody is based purely on convention, unlike speech; by interrogating other forms of logic (e.g. shape, dance), Zuckerkandl concludes that music is the representation of purely temporal (as opposed to spatial) movement. The movement itself is a necessary logic, but the system within which it functions is based on convention. Musical logic is therefore both necessary and conventional. Minor edits to phrasing.

Umriss (Zur Frage: Was ist Musik?)

Essay on the question "what is music," and by extension, what is music's place in human culture. Zuckerkandl writes that there has never been civilization without music, but the music of the past 250 years (since Bach) is set apart from all previous music because Bach's music was the first to illuminate humanity's inner world. The language of tones is emancipated from other modalities (e.g., speech, dance) and overcomes the division between inner and outer world. The inner world is culture-specific; therefore, the music of other cultures is much more difficult to understand. Writes that this period of great creations ended with Bruckner, as current music has reverted to a dependence on the outer world via text, dance, etc. Minor edits to correct phrasing, typos.

Gedanken zu den Fugen des späten Beethovens

Essay draft that addresses the idea that Beethoven could not write fugues. Compares Beethoven's fugal technique to Bach's, sets out two principal forces (polarity and intensification), and analyses these principles at work, together with the concept of sonata form, in the Grosse Fuge. Light handwritten edits in Zuckerkandl's hand to phrasing; no edits in content.

Music and Reality

Zuckerkandl explores the relationship between music and concepts of reality. He differentiates between “outer” and “inner” worlds, relating the “outer” to scientific inquiry and materialist approaches in philosophy. Zuckerkandl asserts that music is more closely connected to “inner” rather than “outer” reality. In the document, Zuckerkandl refers to a copyright case in which a popular music singer was accused of plagiarism by a colleague; the courts found that both had "plagiarized" Schubert. An analysis comparing this unnamed German pop song and Schubert's "Die böse Farbe" is included in Appendix I.

To the Editor of the New York Times (Music Section)

Letter addressed to the editor of the music section of the New York Times, arguing against the critic's disappointment with Karajan and the Berlin Philharmonic's first of five all-Beethoven programs. Zuckerkandl writes that modern audiences have lost sight of the "impersonal spiritual event" of musical performances. Original article by Raymond Ericson, published in the Times on January 20, 1965.

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