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University of Toronto Music Library
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Zeit und Raum der musikalischen Erfarhung [Time and Space of Musical Experience]

An essay exploring the facets of music that make possible musical experience, including tone, movement, time, and space. Zuckerkandl writes that the experience of tone is always interpreted in relation to a tonal field, and that the difference between an acoustic event and a musical event is the dynamism of the latter. On movement, he writes that the idea of sound movement is problematic as sounds are not physical things that can move; the solution is to regard the movement of tones as pure movement that is separated from physical space. Time, on the other hand, is always pervaded by tactical experience through the experience of grouping; Zuckerkandl writes that we do not feel rhythm as equal division, but as a series of departures from and returns to an origin point, thus rhythm is musical rhythm is felt as a wave, which can be felt at multiple levels. Musical time is thus felt qualitatively, not as absolute measurement. Finally, Zuckerkandl addresses musical space, rather than as a geometric concept, as a dynamic ordering of tones in relation to each other, into which a person gains insight by placing themselves within the musical space as a participant. Zuckerkandl references prominent figures of Gestalt psychology throughout the article, including Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, and Geza Revesz, as well as other figures from psychology and philosophy. Minor edits in pencil to phrasing.

Zeit und Raum der musikalischen Erfahrung (Time and space of musical experience) [Version B]

Zuckerkandl explores the spatial and temporal experience of music. The text is comprised of four sections: pitch, movement, time, and space; section headers have been pencilled in. In the first section, Zuckerkandl explains that pitches do not refer to objects in the real world, but rather, to other pitches. They form a self-contained "force-field" determined by the behaviour of the pitches ("Kraftfeld"). In his discussion of movement, Zuckerkandl outlines problems with conceptualizing pitch movement as an object "in different positions in space" ("an verschiedenen Stellen des Raumes"). In the section on time, Zuckerkandl asserts that music is particularly affected by time in the form of rhythm. In the final section on space, Zuckerkandl concludes that musical space is “directional” ("gerichteter Raum").

Zeit und Raum der musikalischen Erfahrung (Time and space of musical experience) [Version A]

Zuckerkandl explores the spatial and temporal experience of music. The text is comprised of four sections: pitch, movement, time, and space; section headers have been pencilled in. In the first section, Zuckerkandl explains that pitches in a diatonic scale form a self-contained "force-field" ("Kraftfeld"). Zuckerkandl’s discussion of movement outlines problems with conceptualizing pitch movement as an object "in different positions in pitch-space" ("an verschiedenen Stellen des Tonraumes"). In the section on time, Zuckerkandl asserts that music is particularly affected by time in the form of rhythm. In the final section on space, Zuckerkandl adapts Palagyi's idea of "fliessender Raum" and applies it to pitch-space.

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