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Books

This series documents Conacher’s publishing activities relating to his major works including:

The Aberdeen Coalition, 1852-1855 : A Study in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Party Politics (1968)

The Peelites and the Party System 1846-1952 (1972)

Waterloo to the Common Market, Borzoi History of England Vol 5. 1815
to the Present (1975)

Britain and the Crimea, 1855-56: Problems of War and Peace (1987)

Included are files arranged chronologically by title of publication and contain correspondence and contracts with publishers, comments, reviews, partial drafts of chapters and revisions for his first three books. There are three drafts of manuscripts for his final book “War and Peace”, - its title during the writing phase.

Talks, addresses and articles

This series contains correspondence and manuscripts relating to talks and papers many given at symposiums, conferences and meetings. There are also drafts of some published articles as well as a copy of his M.A. thesis from Queens (1939) and a draft of his Ph.D. Thesis from Harvard. Files are arranged chronologically.
His writings on British history are found in two main files containing mainly drafts, as well as a file documenting his contributions to Encyclopedia Americana. On various occasions Conacher gave tributes to many well known Canadian historians. There are typescripts for his tribute to Donald Creighton, C.P. Stacey, Arthur Lower and close friend Kenneth McNaught. Also included in this series are notes prepared for an oral history interview in the early 1980s as well as a draft copy of his unpublished memoirs. Both are interesting for their insights on the University administration and the Department of History in particular.

Reviews

This series documents Conacher’s role as an external assessor and reviewer. At times it is other historians he has been asked to assess for promotion or act as external reviewer of a Ph.D. candidate. At other times it is a review at the institutional level, as in the case of his role in reviewing the Dalhousie Graduate History Department (1977) and the University of Western Ontario, Graduate Department of History (1986). There are also files relating to Conacher acting as referee for articles most of which are filed in four chronological files covering his entire career (1947-1991). These files contain correspondence with publisher as well as drafts of published reviews.

Disraeli Project

The Disraeli project had begun in 1972 as a large research project aimed at searching out Disraeli letters and related primary and secondary materials for publication. Conacher joined the pared down second phase of the project in 1982 recruited by Senior Editor M.G. Wiebe (Queen’s University). From 1982 to 1993, the group comprising of Wiebe, Conacher, John Matthews and Mary S. Millar published Volumes 3 and 4. Correspondence, reviews, grant applications, minutes of meetings, revision notes, drafts document the groups efforts and Prof. Conacher’s particular involvement.

Professional activities

Records in this series document Conacher’s active involvement in several professional associations including: the Canadian Historical Association, the American Historical Association, the Council of Conference on British Studies, the Champlain Society and the Canadian Catholic Historical Association. There is one file relating to his early involvement in the Canadian Association of University Teachers (1950-1957). Finally there are also files that document his time on the editorial committee of the John Stuart Mill Project (1960- 1990) and the Journal of Modern History (1971-1973). Files are arranged alphabetically by name of association. Canadian Historical Association files are boxed in B2005-0011/022.
Associated Material: Original Editorial files (1951-62) for the Champlain Society have been moved to the Champlain Society Papers (MG 50) in the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library.

University of Toronto

Throughout his career, Prof. Conacher was active on various University administrative committees. In some cases, he was a member of the committee, in other cases he corresponded with committee members or wrote memos on behalf of both the Dept. of History and/or the Faculty Association. There are files for the following committees on which he served: Plateau committee, sub-committee on staff (1955-56), Policy and Planning committee (1961), Presidential Committee on Appointments (1964-1965), Presidential Advisory Committee on Academic Appointments and Tenure also known as the Haist Committee (1968-1971), Presidential Search Committee (1971). There are also several files on the Faculty of Arts General Committee (1970-74) as well as one file relating to a proposed restructuring of the Faculty of Arts (1976)

There are also several files on University structure including records relating to the Duff Berdalh Report (1963), general memos and correspondence (1965-69),the Committee of Concerned Faculty (1971), the Dumphy Committee for Participation of Faculty in Governance (1976), the Ad Hoc Committee on Academic Freedom (1977), the Budget Advisory Committee (1978-79), the Governing Council, Academic Affairs Committee (1980), and the Decanal Promotion Committee (1981),

He made submissions to Committee on Graduate Studies (1964-65), Placement Services 1967, MacPherson Committee (1967), Robarts Library fundraising letter (1973), review of Scarborough College (1970), the PACE Committee (1971), Library Advisory Committee (1981). There is documentation on a meeting organized by Conacher with Minister of Finance Donald Macdonald relating to university and research funding and his part in proposing an Emeritus College Retirement Complex (1983-1986).

Department of History

General correspondence, business files and various committee files document Prof. Conacher’s career in the Department of History. General correspondence covers the period just prior to his hiring in 1948 to his post retirement period up to 1988. Business files are specific to his time as Chairman and relate to managing budgets, general administrative issues and more specific issues being referred to the Chair by various departmental committees.

Finally there are files relating to 40 years of committee work within the Department many dealing with curriculum and the development of the graduate program including the 1968 Graduate Appraisal Committee on re-organization of the graduate department, the Dyck Committee dealing with student staff ratio (1973-1975), the Curriculum Committee (1948- 1966) and perhaps most importantly the Appointment and Tenure Committee (1960-1974). Correspondence and related documents from this last committee are boxed in B2005-0011/026.

University of Toronto Faculty Association

This series documents Conacher’s active involvement in both the U of T Faculty Association of which he was president in 1971-72 and its predecessor the Association of Teaching Staff, for which he was V.P. in 1964-65. Files include minutes, agenda, notes, correspondence, memos and briefs. There are several files relating to University governance and specifically the measures to ensure representation of Faculty on the Board of Governors and after 1970, Governing Council. Files are arranged chronologically.

Non-Professional activities

Correspondence, memos, reports, minutes of meetings document Prof. Conacher’s involvement in non-professional associations. Several files relate to his life as a Roman Catholic, including files on the Committee on Higher Education for Catholics (1960-61), Parish Council for Our Lady of Perpetual Help Church 1967-68 and several files relating to his long-time work in the St. Vincent de Paul Society. During the 1950s and 1960s, Prof. Conacher belonged to the Atlantic Treaty Organization. Files contain correspondence with Edgar McInnis, president of the Canadian Institute of International Affairs and with Ronald Ritchie, chairman of the Canadian Atlantic Coordinating Committee Ronald Ritchie. Finally there is one file for an anti-nuclear organization called Third Track for Peace (1984) that included many from the University of Toronto community.

Teaching

This series contains course lectures, outlines, reading lists for courses taught by Conacher throughout his career including: 1c European History to 1648 (1947-); 2a History of Great Britain (1947- 195-); 3c British History since 1763 and 2d British History 1485- 1763 (1950s); Britain and 1st WW (1979); History 330 and 337 (1970s , 80s); History 1430 Party Politics (198-). Also included are lectures while visiting professor at Notre Dame 1964-66.

For History 330 and 337, there are course evaluations by students for the 1982-83. Also for these later years are Conacher’s comments on student essays and notes on graduate seminars (1980-85).

Ph.D. student files

These Ph.D. files document Conacher’s on-going relationship with many of his Ph.D. students. Files contain mainly correspondence, examiners’ comments, thesis reports, as well as recommendation for grants, appointments and promotions. There is also one file of miscellaneous notes regarding graduate theses. Arrangement is alphabetical by the name of the student.

Thesis

Copy of James Conacher's doctoral thesis from Harvard University, entitled "Canadian participation in the Sicilian campaign, 1943: the role of the 1st Canadian Infantry Division."

Talks and addresses

This series documents Prof. Hume’s talks and addresses on various subjects. General interest topics often discussed the growth of computers in society, changes in technology, and the development of computer languages. These were written for general public consumption at invited lectures. There are also a few talks on physics.

More technical talks and addresses focused on computer programming, computer graphics, and computer languages such as TRANSCODE, FORTRAN and Turing. These were most often delivered at professional meetings and symposiums. Prof. Hume recorded a series of lectures with accompanying slides on FORTRAN and another computer language called LISP. These were recorded as a type of tutorial on how to use the University’s computer and were designed to teach computer programming to a wide range of academic users at the University of Toronto. This series contains a copy of the tapes on reel to reel as well as some of the accompanying slides - although it is not clear exactly how they originally matched up. Of particular note are the very early views of the Computer Center and its computers that were included in the slide lecture showing the IBM 650, the IBM 7090 and the IBM 7094.

Files are arranged chronologically with undated talks placed at the end. They contain notes, copies of the talks, overhead transparencies, related event programs and correspondence. In addition, there is a card index of talks that essentially gives outlines and notes. Some of these are related to files in this series while others are unique talks. Apart from the FORTRAN lectures, there is one taped lecture of Prof. Hume giving a key note address at the New College Honours Students dinner.

Professional activities

This series has some documentation on various activities and groups that Prof. Hume was involved with including the Royal Society of Canada, Massey College, and the Department of Computer Science. There are a few files on professional association such as the Canadian Information Processing Society (CIPS) and reviews done for the Association of Computing Machinery’s (ACM) journal Computing Reviews. Finally some files document contract work or agreements with private companies.

Teaching

This series includes lectures, notes, course outlines, assignments for courses taught by Prof Hume, mainly through the 1970s and 1980s: CSC 108, CSC 201, CSC 280, CSC 354, CSC 2205. There is also documentation on early Physics courses he taught in the 1950s and one course for the Department of Extension on Programming Digital Computers 1957-63. They are arranged by course with Physics and Extension courses files first followed by Computer Science courses.

There are also two taped class lectures: Mikowski Diagrams or the K Calculus and Relativity and Electromagnetism.

Broadcasting and film

Prof. Hume and Prof. Donald Ivey of the Department of Physics were pioneers in educational television, having developed their first 12 part program “Focus on Physics” in 1958. This was co-sponsored by CBC and the University of Toronto. The success of this series was followed up the next year by “Two for Physics”. Both series eventually aired on the National Educational Television (N.E.T.) in the United States. Other programs that followed include:

1960 – 15 short programs on Physics for children produced by CBC in cooperation with N.E.T. for joint use in Canada and United States

1962 – “The Ideas of Physics” – 4 programmes
1963 – “The Nature of Physics” – 5 programmes
1966 – “The Constant of Physics” – 4 programmes
All of these were for in-school broadcasts to Canadian high schools produced by CBC with the National Advisory Council on School Broadcasts

1960-1965 – 18 programmes for “The Nature of Things”, produced by CBC.
The program “The Nature of Things” is still today a staple of Canadian educational television. Hume and Ivey helped lay the foundation for such a successful broadcast run.

By 1960, their success in educational television spilled over into film where they were commissioned by the Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC) in the United States to do four films: “Frames of Reference”, “Periodic Motion”, “Universal Gravitation” and “Random Events”. All of these were created for distribution in high schools. In 1962, “Frames of Reference” won Edison Foundation award for the best science film and “Random Events” received a silver medal from the Scientific Institute in Rome.

This series contains a fairly complete set of scripts for all the titles noted above. Moreover, there is a 16 mm release print for each of the four films and one sound recording of one program from “The Constant of Physics” series. There are also still images from “Frame of Reference” and a file on the Edison Award.

For a good overview, researchers should begin by consulting reports written by Hume and Ivey for most of the television series. They detail the development of each theme. In addition, there is correspondence and contracts with CBC, correspondence with Educational Services Incorporated and the PSSC as well as program guides, clippings, published reviews, correspondence from viewers, and one 1962 audience response report for a “Nature of Things” programme.

Art and Letters Club

Since the 1960s, Prof. Hume has been an active member of the Arts and Letters Club of Toronto, serving as its President from 1976-1978. This series documents his participation especially in the Annual Spring Review which he often helped to write, direct and produce.

General documents on the Arts and Letters Club include some correspondence, memorabilia and one file on applications for membership. Most records however relate to the Annual Spring Review. Included are notes detailing concepts and organizational matters, scripts, music scores, programs and correspondence.

Many shows are well documented beginnings in 1965 to 1992, with only a few gaps. Also included in this series is an audio recording of Prof. Hume playing the piano and singing various pieces he composed for Spring Reviews.

Artifacts

Acquired with this fonds are two artifacts from early computers. A vacuum tube from FERUT and a tape spool winder.

Doctoral thesis, University of Michigan

In the mid-1960s, Milton Israel undertook graduate work in history at the University of Michigan. This series contains research notes, drafts of footnotes, and copies of archival documents compiled while preparing his thesis “The Anglo-Indian in defense of authority, 1905-1910”. Also included is Prof. Israel’s personal bound copy of his thesis presented to his parents.

University of Toronto

This series documents some of Prof. Israel’s activities as teacher and administrator at the University of Toronto. It includes correspondence regarding his tenure as a University of Toronto professor, especially during the period when he was vice provost (1974-1979), Director of the Graduate Centre for South Asian Studies (1981-1991), and Chairman of the Robert F. Harney Memorial Trust. Also included are files relating to the Sikh studies program, initiated after the Conference on Sikh History and Religion in the Twentieth Century (1987) organized by the Centre for South Asian Studies. According to Prof. Israel “the program became quite controversial and attracted attacks from orthodox Sikh critics both in Canada and outside”. The material on the Sikh community also includes his 1990 report prepared for the 5 Ks Interministerial Committee Government of Ontario entitled “Sikhs and their religious symbols: an Ontario perspective”.

Professional activities

This series documents Prof. Israel’s external activities relating to the South Asian community in Ontario. It includes correspondence from his role as Chair of the Board of Directors of the Multicultural History Society of Toronto. Also included are documents relating to the application of South Asian Television for a CRTC license (1996), ideas for a film on modern commonwealth and notes on his study of Urdu.

South Asian settlement and migration

This series documents Prof. Israel’s research, teaching and external activities relating to the South Asian community in Ontario. The majority of files are course materials for the University of Toronto History 394 course on South Asian migration and settlement including bibliographies and collections of articles as reading material. Some of this material was also used in the preparation of his book In the further soil: a social history of Indo-Canadians in Ontario. (See Series 4). Also included are documents relating to the application of South Asian Television for a CRTC license (1996).

Publications

Over his 38-year career, Prof. Israel has written extensively on the history of South Asian people. This series contains records relating primarily to three publication projects: the Safe Haven project for the Multicultural History Society of Ontario (MHSO) and Royal Ontario Museum, Encyclopedia of Canada’s Peoples (1999; also sponsored by the MHSO) and In the future soil: a social history of the Indo-Canadians in Ontario (1994). (See Series 3 for general correspondence related to the MHSO). There is also one file of correspondence and partial manuscript relating to publication of selected articles from History Today, and published as Pax Britannica (1968). Prof. Israel was editor and wrote the introductory essay.

The records relating to “Safe Haven. The refugee experience of five families” consist entirely of the manuscript for the book submitted to Prof. Israel in 1994 for his comments. Prof. Israel also prepared the Preface (not included) and undertook research on the Tamil community. At this time Prof. Israel was Chairman, Board of Directors of the Multicultural History Society. An exhibition was also produced by the MHSO for the new Heritage Gallery of Canada’s peoples at the Royal Ontario Museum.

The records relating to the Encyclopedia of Canada’s Peoples include manuscripts of articles on South Asian people edited by Prof. Israel and files on three of the four articles he prepared for this publication: the Ismailis, South Asians and Pakistanis. The manuscript relating to the article on Ahmadis is not included.

The records relating to In the further soil: a social history of the Indo-Canadians in Ontario consist of correspondence, manuscript, and research notes.

The remaining records deal specifically with his publications on India and Indian migration, especially to Canada. These include notes and correspondence regarding his contribution of chapters in the books, The Congress and Indian Nationalism: Historical Perspectives and Reformers, Writers and Editors: Social Transformation in Maharashtra 1830-1940. They also include notes and research regarding an incomplete work entitled Violence and Empire: James Neill in the Indian Mutiny.

Photographs

B2002-0009/001P(01)-(05): Sikh Studies Conference: photographs taken at a dinner in the home of Prof. Israel.
B2002-0009/001P (06)-(07): Photographs of the office in the Centre for South Asian Studies, room 2054 Sidney Smith, 1985
B2011-0004/001(18): Photographs of M. Israel at the Indo-Canadian Institute, 1980, with Canadian students, and Resident Director

Biographical information

This series highlights Professor Israel’s academic and professional achievements. It includes a copy of his curriculum vitae and other biographies (current to 1999), his official University of Michigan transcript, and letters of recognition, and a journal account of his first trip to India in 1963. It also includes personal and other professional correspondence, other than correspondence dealing with his tenure at the University of Toronto, Department of History (see Series 2) and in his role as Chair, Multicultural History of Ontario (see Series 3).

University of Toronto: Lecture notes and teaching materials

This series documents courses taught by Professor Israel in the Department of History Faculty of Arts and Sciences. It consists of correspondence, course outlines, reading lists, examination questions, and lecture notes. The arrangement is by ascending course number and by lecture topic.

The courses documented in this series are:

HIS 101 : The Emergence of the Third World n.d.
HUM 101 : South Asian Civilization 2001
HIS 232 : The British Imperial Experience 1997
HIS 282 : The History of India 1978-2002
HIS 364 : Studies in the History of Modern India 1986-2005
HIS 394 : South Asian Migration 1996-2004
HIS 491/JHA 1690 : Nationalism in India 1981-2002

Addresses, talks and seminars

This series consists of research notes and background materials regarding India, South East Asia and Kashmir. It is arranged by subject.

Research

This series consists of research notes and background materials regarding India, South East Asia and Kashmir. It is arranged by subject.

Course materials and notebooks

This series contains one file of course materials such as outlines, reading lists, lecture schedules for courses Acland taught at various institutions. Courses for the University of Toronto School of Architecture include 2.23 The European Tradition of Framed Building, 2.24 Mediterranean Tradition, 2.26 The House, 2.27 Residential Patterns 222 and 322 History of Architecture.

Acland’s notebooks, which he most certainly used for lectures, document the subject matter of the courses and the way in which Acland organized his lectures. There are eight in total, illustrated with his original sketches.

Photographs

Photographs document Prof. Stephen K. Sim ,first Chinese professor in the Faculty of Pharmacy at the University of Toronto. Includes photos taken at conferences, with professional group such as the American Society of Pharmacognosy (1964-1965) and the Canadian Pharmaceutical Society (1958), Prof. Sim at UBC in the and the University of Washington 1950s, informal snapshots of colleagues as well as many documenting the Sims family. There is also one oversize portrait of the 1961 Undergraduate Pharmaceutical Society Executive at the University of Toronto.

Manuscripts and publications

Professor Dean, in collaboration with his colleagues on the Atlas project, began speaking and writing about it almost as soon as it began. These addresses and articles helped maintain scholarly interest in the project as it proceeded and also created a wider public awareness. Both are reflected in the reviews that the Atlas received, and the articles that were written about it, particularly after the Leipzig prize was awarded.

Correspondence

This series contains, in addition to letters, a wide range of material associated with the ongoing production of the Atlas: notes, memoranda, reports, brochures, partial drafts of the manuscript, photoprints and maps. The arrangement is generally chronological, except where otherwise noted.

Professional activities

Throughout his career, Prof. Irving was involved in many associations relating to sociology, archaeology and anthropology both in Canada and the United States. Files in this series contain correspondence, manuscripts of papers, and other documents relating to his activities with the American Anthropological Association, Canadian Archaeological Association, Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Association, Council for Canadian Archaeology (of which he was chair 1968-1970), and Society for American Archaeology. Also included are records relating to some conferences such as the Conference on Japanese Thought and Culture (1975).

Education

This series documents William Irving’s university education at University of Alaska where he received a Bachelor of Arts in Anthropology in 1952, Harvard University (1953-1957) and University of Wisconsin (1959-1964) where he undertook graduate studies, receiving a Ph.D. in Anthropology in 1964. Included are course notes relating to anthropology, statistics, linguistics; correspondence; copies of term papers, research proposals.

University of Toronto

Prof. Irving joined the University of Toronto as professor of anthropology in 1968 after four years at the National Museum of Canada. The files in this series document, among others, include activities of the South West Campus Users Committee, a committee established in 1978 as a result of the report of the South-West Campus Redevelopment Task force. The Task Force reported on space needs and sharing of resources among academic units. The Department of Anthropology was one of many in the “Social Sciences” group who submitted briefs. The Task force recommended the relocation of the Department of Anthropology to Sidney Smith Hall.

There is only on file of lecture notes for ANTH 417, 418 (1973-1974).

Northern Yukon Research Programme

This programme, based at the University of Toronto, received a grant from the Canada Council in 1975 for a five year project to study the remains of early man near the village of Old Crow in northwestern Yukon. Prof. Irving was director of the programme and led a team of scientists from various disciplines. This series includes correspondence, budgets, notes, and interim report (1977) relating to the work of this programme while Irving was director.

Early biographical information

The records in this series provide biographical information on Marion Walker’s early life, 1921-1942. Series includes 7 photographs. Subjects are: 5 portraits of Marion Walker; the Phi Beta sorority, 1940; and the University College graduating class, 1942. Also included is a scrapbook of newspaper clippings concerning Ms. Walker’s amateur golfing activities, 1937-1941.

Personal correspondence

This series consists of chronologically arranged, incoming personal correspondence, documenting Ms. Walker’s personal life from 1936 to 1998. Correspondents include family, friends, Hart House Theatre colleagues, sorority sisters and fine art students. Major correspondents are: Burgon Bickersteth, Pat Carson, Norman Endicott, Robert Gill and James Reaney. The letters, mostly written in the 1950’s, document Ms. Walker’s friendships, romances, interest in theatre, and travels throughout Europe.

Department of Fine Art

Between 1957 and 1985, Marion Walker was a professor in the history of stage and costume design in the Department of Fine Art and its Graduate Centre for the Study of Drama. In this capacity, she taught Stage Design (FAS 333Y) and 18th Century Stage Design (FAS 435). She also assisted in the staging of the Graduate Centre for the Study of Drama’s 1974 productions of Marsh Hay and T’is a Pity She’s a Whore.

The records in this series document Ms. Walker’s teaching and research activities in the Department of Fine Art. The textual records mainly consist of subject files containing research and lectures notes. Topics covered include: correspondence, Baroque theatre, Ferdinando Bibiena, Comedia dell’ Arte, Elizabethan theatre, Fratelli Galliari, Greek theatre, Filippo Juvarra, Renaissance theatre, opera, research grants and Wagner’s The Ring. Also included is a scrapbook commemorating Ms. Walker’s retirement from the Department in 1985.

This series also consists of approximately 130 slides used to teach the History of Stage and 18th Century Stage Design. Subjects include the stage designs of Marsh Hay, Ferdinando Bibiena, Filippo Juvarra, Fratelli Gallieri and Pietro Gonzaga.

Also included are 10 stage plans created by Ms. Walker for the Graduate Centre for the Study of Drama’s 1974 productions of Marsh Hay and T’is a Pity She’s a Whore.

The series also contains one scrapbook of costume designs for the Graduate Centre for the Study of Drama’s production of Fuente Ovejuna (The Sheep Well), [n.d.].

Fiction

The series documents Ms. Walker’s creative writing and includes correspondence with publishers, research notes, as well as drafts of short stories and poems.

General correspondence

This series is made up of general correspondence files, arranged alphabetically by the name of the correspondent or by the name of the person about whom Prof. McNeill is corresponding. Incoming and outgoing correspondence cover such areas as research, supervision of graduate students, editing of papers, trips, as well as numerous letters of reference for past students and colleagues seeking recommendations for appointments, tenure, awards and grants. Some correspondence relates to consultancy work such as files on the Ministry of the Solicitor General, Advanced Medical Systems, Inc., and Scintrex Ltd.. There is extensive correspondence with colleagues in Australia regarding his involvement in the development of a body compositional laboratory at Prince Henry Hospital in Melbourne.

The files often contain attached documentation to the correspondence. This is most often the case when corresponding with or about students under his supervision. Files may include drafts of thesis, research reports and Ph.D. oral assessments.

Articles and addresses

This series includes correspondence, research data, draft manuscripts, figures, referees' comments and abstracts relating to published academic papers and addresses given at conferences or meetings. Files are titled either by the title of the article or by subject and are arranged more or less alphabetically.

Research projects

This series contains files relating to specific research projects in the Departments of Physics and Medicine in which Prof. McNeill was an active participant. Most of the files relate directly to the building and use of a "low background" room, called the Steel Room used to measure low level radiation in humans. He was instrumental in having it built at the university and for providing administrative support for its research use. Included is correspondence, memoranda, research data, grant files, measurements and progress reports. There are also minutes, correspondence and reports of the President's Committee on Background Radiation from which came the impetus for such a laboratory. Experiments and readings conducted in the Steel Room were some of the earliest examples of research in the field of nuclear medicine undertaken at the University of Toronto.

Later research files relate to his research on radon levels, his work developing and patenting a land mine detention device and his personal interest in Stonehenge.

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