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University of Toronto Music Library
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Victor Zuckerkandl index

  • CA OTUFM 62
  • Collection
  • 1927-1994

This collection contains an indexing of selected unpublished materials related to the music theorist and philosopher Viktor Zuckerkandl (1896–1965). Included are descriptions of digitized correspondence, manuscripts, and miscellanea. The three archives that hold the physical media are cross referenced (ONB, Eranos, St. John’s).

Zuckerkandl, Victor

Index, typed manuscripts

Index of Zuckerkandl's typed manuscripts held at the Austrian National Library, with titles and numbers of pages. Includes essays and lectures. Dates indicated range from 1930 to 1950, though many have no date indicated.

Index, published essays

Index of Zuckerkandl's printed essays held at the Austrian National Library, with titles, dates, publication information, and number of examples. From 1944 to 1965.

Locations of unpublished manuscripts of "Der musikalische Mensch"

Typed document stating Zuckerkandl's dates and the locations of unpublished manuscripts (New York Public Library [NYPL] and Austrian National Library [ONB]). Handwritten note about "Der musikalische Mensch" [i.e., Sound and Symbol, vol. 2: Man the Musician] shows dates of acquisition and directors at NYPL (20 July, 1994, Jean Bowen) and ONB (28 July, 1994, Helmut W. Lang).

Das deutsche Volkslied (The German Folk-Song)

Zuckerkandl compiles music examples. Page one contains [8?] examples; several are copied from the journal Das deutsche Volkslied: Zeitschrift für seine Kenntnis und Pflege, edited by Josef Pommer. Page two contains a version of "Brader Tantz zu Wien" from the Partitur ex Vienna, copied by hand from an unspecified source.

List of contacts

List of contacts associated with Princeton University Press.

Biographical notes

Biographical note on Viktor Zuckerkandl and his works. Top of first page reads “for last page(s) of book” [possibly Sound and Symbol II: Man the Musician].

[Thoughts after Faust Seminar]

Possibly a letter draft (to Jung?), written after a seminar on Faust. Zuckerkandl writes that Faust refuses to be understood as part of certain fundamental categories; not because he is an exception, but because he reflects the reality of experience. Goethe thus provides an alternative framework to understanding the self, of polarity, i.e. a dynamic event or interaction between two poles, rather than dualism, i.e. a static identification with one of the two poles. To this Goethe adds a vertical axis of "Steigerung" (increase or improvement). Zuckerkandl then lists examples of events which establish Faust as a character defined as tension between two poles. Zuckerkandl corrected typos and added page numbers in pen.

Thoughts on a Music Appreciation Record

Zuckerkandl muses on the advent of the LP and its potential applications in music education. He suggests recording an “elementary music course” that would help non-professionals deepen their appreciation of music.

Musikbücher in der FB (Music books in the library) [Version B]

Zuckerkandl speculates about how music books available to interested non-professional individuals can be improved. He suggests that while readers wish to understand their experience of music (they seek a particular kind of "Verstehen"), books presently offer approaches that are either too technical, or focus on biographical and historical scholarship. Zuckerkandl acknowledges that a book that discusses musical experience for lay people does not exist. To remedy this, Zuckerkandl suggests a book that presents music similarly to literature and art history. In addition, Zuckerkandl recommends a multimedia approach that includes both written text and audio examples so that the listener need not rely on their imagination or recollection of music. Zuckerkandl then briefly explores ways of connecting book and LP (referred to as "die Verbindung von Buch und Platte").

Musikbücher in der FB (Music books in the library) [Version A]

Zuckerkandl speculates about how music books available to interested non-professional individuals can be improved. He suggests that while readers wish to understand their experience of music (they seek a particular kind of "Verstehen"), books presently offer approaches that are either too technical or focus on biographical and historical scholarship. Zuckerkandl acknowledges that a book that discusses musical experience for lay people does not exist. To remedy this, Zuckerkandl suggests a book that presents music similarly to literature and art history. He recommends a multimedia approach that includes both written text and audio examples so that the listener need not rely on their imagination or recollection of music. Zuckerkandl then briefly explores ways of connecting book and LP (referred to as "die Verbindung von Buch und Platte").

Das Neue einer Epoche

Short outline of a proposal to summarize what is new in the modern era via the field in which it is most clearly expressed, i.e., philosophy. Zuckerkandl proposes works on the following thinkers, under the collective title "creators of the modern intellectual world": Bergson, Husserl, Scheler, Dacque, Frobenius, Spengler, Jung, Klage, Schroedinger, Stefan George, and Goethe.

Vorrede (Nur sämtliche Menschen leben das Menschliche)

Essay on the search for understanding. The only way to understand the world is to think and experience the world without criticizing or interpreting, instead simply aiming for a complete generalist knowledge. A single person can only experience a part of the whole; the rest can only be understood by communicating with others. Language, however, acts like a mirror to the world, showing different images based on different perspectives. The innermost self, meanwhile, can only be expressed in the language of music.

Ein Bach'sches Praeludium als Formproblem

Formal analysis of the prelude from Bach's Partita no. 3 in E major, BWV 1006. Zuckerkandl writes that, according to traditional ideas of form (e.g., sonata, rondo, etc.), the prelude is formless; however, this cannot be true because we know it is a great work of art, and all art requires form. In analyzing the form, Zuckerkandl instead views it as an elaboration of a descending line from E6 to E5, driven by three processes: a steady pulling of the descending line, an alternating rhythmic structure between strong and weak steps of the descending line, and an ongoing increase of musical forces. Through these processes, the form is developed organically. Contains minor edits to phrasing in pencil.

Über Logik der Rede und Logik der Töne

Essay on the connection between logic and music. One could conclude that a sense of logical connection in a melody is based purely on convention, unlike speech; by interrogating other forms of logic (e.g. shape, dance), Zuckerkandl concludes that music is the representation of purely temporal (as opposed to spatial) movement. The movement itself is a necessary logic, but the system within which it functions is based on convention. Musical logic is therefore both necessary and conventional. Minor edits to phrasing.

Umriss (Zur Frage: Was ist Musik?)

Essay on the question "what is music," and by extension, what is music's place in human culture. Zuckerkandl writes that there has never been civilization without music, but the music of the past 250 years (since Bach) is set apart from all previous music because Bach's music was the first to illuminate humanity's inner world. The language of tones is emancipated from other modalities (e.g., speech, dance) and overcomes the division between inner and outer world. The inner world is culture-specific; therefore, the music of other cultures is much more difficult to understand. Writes that this period of great creations ended with Bruckner, as current music has reverted to a dependence on the outer world via text, dance, etc. Minor edits to correct phrasing, typos.

Gedanken zu den Fugen des späten Beethovens

Essay draft that addresses the idea that Beethoven could not write fugues. Compares Beethoven's fugal technique to Bach's, sets out two principal forces (polarity and intensification), and analyses these principles at work, together with the concept of sonata form, in the Grosse Fuge. Light handwritten edits in Zuckerkandl's hand to phrasing; no edits in content.

Music and Reality

Zuckerkandl explores the relationship between music and concepts of reality. He differentiates between “outer” and “inner” worlds, relating the “outer” to scientific inquiry and materialist approaches in philosophy. Zuckerkandl asserts that music is more closely connected to “inner” rather than “outer” reality. In the document, Zuckerkandl refers to a copyright case in which a popular music singer was accused of plagiarism by a colleague; the courts found that both had "plagiarized" Schubert. An analysis comparing this unnamed German pop song and Schubert's "Die böse Farbe" is included in Appendix I.

To the Editor of the New York Times (Music Section)

Letter addressed to the editor of the music section of the New York Times, arguing against the critic's disappointment with Karajan and the Berlin Philharmonic's first of five all-Beethoven programs. Zuckerkandl writes that modern audiences have lost sight of the "impersonal spiritual event" of musical performances. Original article by Raymond Ericson, published in the Times on January 20, 1965.

The Word-Tone Relation, Thomas Mann

Lecture on the development of the gap between tones and words, and how Thomas Mann's work is the only one to fully succeed in reconciling the two art forms. Mann incorporates music at three levels: 1. Music as form and construction, 2. Music as theme or symbol, and 3. Music as reality. Investigates these three parameters and how they play out in Mann's work alongside his musical and philosophical influences (Wagner, Schopenhauer). Incomplete or missing pages; final page ends in the middle of a sentence. Edited with annotations and edits to phrasing and structure in pencil. Annotations appear to be commenting on the text. Draft manuscript loosely corresponds to pp. 13–25 of the published lecture.

Bollingen Project

Outline of plans to work with Beethoven's sketchbooks to deduce objective knowledge of the creative process, which has been preserved in the sketches. Zuckerkandl sees the sketchbooks as examples of a universal creative process, and plans to extend the study to other composers, poetry, and myth. The project was is envisioned as a series of articles to be compiled into a book. With edits to phrasing and some additions handwritten in pencil.

Detailed statement of project

Outline of a project presenting a comprehensive investigation of the problem of artistic creation, based on Beethoven's sketches. Zuckerkandl reviews the history of Beethoven sketch studies and argues that they provide a concrete trace of the inner laws and logic of a universal creative process, which can be applied to other composers and possibly other art forms, like poetry and myth. Zuckerkandl lays out a timeline and process for the project, which will take at least two years and will be published as individual essays, which will be collected in a book.

Das Staunen. Verhältnis von Mensch und Musik

Essay on the relationship of man and music. Amazement at music is different from amazement at nature and other forms of art because music contains an element of humanity but is not decipherable. Music today is divided between specialist creators and layperson audiences, which implies a division of people into musical and non-musical. A truer vision of music's power can be seen in its origins (replicated in folk music), wherein everyone shares the functions of music, and music-making is communal and expresses the inner essence of humanity. Minor edits in pencil correcting typos.

Vom Wachstum des Kunstwerks

Zuckerkandl explores the creation of works of art. He is particularly concerned with the roles of “growth” and “work” (“Wachstum” and “Werk”). Using examples from music by Bach and Beethoven, Zuckerkandl demonstrates coalescing of growth (“Wachstum”) and work (“Werk”). Zuckerkandl considers if machines are capable of composing as humans do. This draft is very close to the published form.

Über Rang-Unterschiede in Tonwerken

Draft of lecture delivered at the Carl Friedrich von Siemens Foundation in Munich on March 6, 1961, with edits and annotations in Zuckerkandl's hand. Edits generally to phrasing rather than content; annotations occasionally refer to numbers (e.g., 5.5), possibly linking to musical examples. Explanatory lecture on the dynamic relationships between tones, and how this relates to the Schenkerian levels of structure (background, middleground, foreground). Also discusses Schenkerian theory's relationship to objectivity.

Der singende und der sprechende Mensch

Zuckerkandl examines the nature of singing and speaking via an investigation of space. He asserts that speaking is logical and concrete; it is connected to the visible world, whilst singing connects people to more abstract musical world. He asserts that both are needed in order for people to fully describe their relationship with the world.

Harmony

Short excerpt outlining the history and nature of harmony. Zuckerkandl uses examples from Palestrina's Super Flumina, Haydn's Symphony no. 93 in D major, and Bruckner's Symphony no. 4 in E-flat major to outline the conceptual development of harmony from a single tone, to octaves, to chords. Second page is a draft of p. 172 of The Sense of Music.

Die Raum-Erfahrung der Musik (The experience of space in music)

Zuckerkandl explores the experience of space through listening. Drawing from mathematics, philosophy, and psychology, Zuckerkandl compares ideas regarding objects in physical space to that of pitches in musical space. He claims that pitch space is a "place-less space" ("ortloser Raum"). Zuckerkandl concludes that the laws of nature are "only half" understood through numbers and mathematics; the world must also be musical.

Zeit und Raum der musikalischen Erfahrung (Time and space of musical experience) [Version B]

Zuckerkandl explores the spatial and temporal experience of music. The text is comprised of four sections: pitch, movement, time, and space. In the first section, Zuckerkandl explains that pitches “refer” to each other; they do not correspond to objects in the real world. Zuckerkandl’s discussion of movement outlines problems with conceptualizing pitch movement as an object "in different positions in pitch-space.” In the section on time, Zuckerkandl asserts that music is experienced in groupings of twos and threes. In the final section on space, Zuckerkandl explores issues regarding the “placelessness” of “audible space.”

Zeit und Raum der musikalischen Erfahrung (Time and space of musical experience) [Version A]

Zuckerkandl explores the spatial and temporal experience of music. The text is comprised of four sections: pitch, movement, time, and space; section headers have been pencilled in. In the first section, Zuckerkandl explains that pitches “refer” to each other; they do not correspond to objects in the real world. Zuckerkandl then explores issues in concepts of pitch movement. In the section on time, Zuckerkandl asserts that musical rhythm is experienced in groupings of twos and threes and is felt as a “wave” or “pulse.” In the final section on space, Zuckerkandl explores issues regarding the “placelessness” of “audible space.”

Zeit und Raum der musikalischen Erfarhung

An essay exploring the facets of music that make possible musical experience, including tone, movement, time, and space. Zuckerkandl writes that the experience of tone is always interpreted in relation to a tonal field, and that the difference between an acoustic event and a musical event is the dynamism of the latter. On movement, he writes that the idea of sound movement is problematic as sounds are not physical things that can move; the solution is to regard the movement of tones as pure movement that is separated from physical space. Time, on the other hand, is always pervaded by tactical experience through the experience of grouping; Zuckerkandl writes that we do not feel rhythm as equal division, but as a series of departures from and returns to an origin point, thus musical rhythm is felt as a wave, which can be felt at multiple levels. Musical time is thus felt qualitatively, not as absolute measurement. Finally, Zuckerkandl addresses musical space as a dynamic ordering of tones in relation to each other, rather than as a geometric concept, into which a person gains insight by placing themselves within the musical space as a participant. Zuckerkandl references prominent figures of Gestalt psychology throughout the article, including Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, and Geza Revesz, as well as other figures from psychology and philosophy. Minor edits in pencil to phrasing.

Musik als Quintessenz des österreichischen Wesens

Complete draft, eventually published as "Das Österreichische in der Musik" in Spectrum Austriae. Handwritten annotations are incoporated into the published version. Contains one unnumbered page of unused material that outlines previous attempts by others to write about Austrian music.

Mimesis

German-language version of “On Mimesis.”

On Mimesis [Version B]

Zuckerkandl explores Aristotle’s use of the word “mimesis” in relation to the arts. Zuckerkandl focuses on determining how the arts derive “significance” or develop meaning. Zuckerkandl determines that the arts can become meaningful 1) because they refer to or depict extant objects or situations in the real world, or 2) the medium utilizes its elements in such a way that the assemblage of parts becomes meaningful. Zuckerkandl dubs these “transcendent” and “immanent” meanings, respectively. He cites music as an example of an art form that possesses both transcendent and immanent meaning.

On Mimesis [Version A]

Zuckerkandl explores Aristotle’s use of the word “mimesis” in relation to the arts. Zuckerkandl focuses on determining how the arts derive “significance” or develop meaning. Zuckerkandl determines that the arts can become meaningful 1) because they refer to or depict extant objects or situations in the real world, or 2) the medium utilizes its elements in such a way that the assemblage of parts becomes meaningful. Zuckerkandl dubs these “transcendent” and “immanent” meanings, respectively. He cites music as an example of an art form that possesses both transcendent and immanent meaning.

On Mimesis

Draft of lecture "On Mimesis," given at St. John's College, Annapolis, 1955. Manuscript is almost identical to lecture, apart from minor changes to wording and paragraph grouping. Later published in German as "Mimesis," with minor changes to wording and format. Concerned with the nature of mimesis in the arts and the relationship of the art to the thing imitated.

Über Romano Guardinis “Ende der Neuzeit”

Letter addressed to the editors of the Swiss newspaper Die Tat on an excerpt from Romano Guardini's book "Ende der Neuzeit," published March 15, 1953. Zuckerkandl writes that Guardini's work captures the mentality of the day, but that he falls short in excluding the American perspective. Americans see the move towards mechanization as less sinister because, due to the value they place on democracy, they are more accustomed to see the possibility of freedom while functioning as a part within a mechanical whole.

Music in Germany from 1918 to 1933

A lecture providing an overview of the four major aspects of musical life in the Weimar republic: creation, performance and audience, the Youth Music Movement, and music education. Explains the massive changes that musical life underwent after the First World War, including the abandonment of tonality and the subsequent alienation of composers from their audiences, the counterbalancing dependence on older works, the push towards performative perfection, and the dissolution of the bourgeoisie as an audience. The Youth Music Movement emerges as a communitarian organization to restore the spiritual life of music but is adopted by the Nazis and transformed into propaganda. Music education undergoes significant reform to extend and standardize, which is retained after 1933. Zuckerkandl explains how the musical revolutionary spirit—a dissatisfaction with the norm, a push to restore power to the common people, and animosity towards the bourgeoisie, was also found and adopted in the Nazi movement, albeit to very different ends. Extensive edits in pen and pencil to phrasing; passage explaining how the lack of sufficient new music led to a rediscovery of older neglected works is cut from the final version.

Plans for Work

Zuckerkandl critiques the specialization endemic in the study of fine arts, writing that the full knowledge of art's place in human culture can only be seen with a unified approach. Describes a lecture series on "The Unity of the Arts in Civilization" that he presented twice in 1948 and lists the five main problems of a study of art: symbolism, 'Gestalt', Style, Creation, and Experience and Judgment. Last sentence: "It is for the purpose of undertaking this study and presenting the result in a book that I am applying for a 1951 Guggenheim [Fellowship]."

Project of a Central Treasure House of Music

After many artefacts were lost, stolen, or hidden during World War II, Zuckerkandl writes on the necessity of establishing a publicly accessible library of photographs of manuscripts by significant composers. Explains the value of manuscripts, as many published editions contain many errors, corrections, or alterations by editors which weaken the artistic integrity of the original piece of music. He writes that the only true reflection of the composer's original intentions can be found in the manuscript, so the effort should be made to recover and house these documents, possibly in the Library of Congress.

Preparing a Nation for the Life with Music - Partly Outline, Partly Rough Draft

Zuckerkandl drafts an outline for an essay that explores "how [...] people [should] be prepared for the function of [becoming] a musical audience." Zuckerkandl suggests the American people "need some kind of musical education" to accomplish this. He critiques current offerings at liberal arts colleges, namely, the "Music Appreciation" course. Zuckerkandl concludes by explaining and exalting the Great Books Program at St. John's College.

Preparing a Nation for the Life with Music

Rough draft/outline on how to adequately prepare a nation to participate as active audiences in musical life. Composition and performance are specialized skills, but the audiences are disappearing because the nation is unprepared for that role. The solution is in the education system; Zuckerkandl focuses mainly on liberal arts colleges and critiques the typical music appreciation class. Presents the music curriculum at St. John's College as part of the Great Books program as a possible solution.

Entwurf zu: Sound and Symbol (Wirklichkeit der Musik)

A summary of the contents and purpose behind Sound and Symbol, written when the first book was almost complete and the second had an overall plan and a single chapter. First book aims to rectify the perceived shortcomings of music theory and history curricula, which deal with facts but not the essence of music, which is spiritual and not based in feeling. The second half of the first book lays out a detailed plan for how theory should be taught, from the base elements to whole works. The second book addresses the way that we perceive and respond to music in three parts: music and reality, music and knowledge, music as a symbol. Music and reality principally addresses the role of time and movement within music; music and knowledge addresses how we understand music as meaningful, relating to Gestalt psychology; and music as symbol addresses the cultural and spiritual significance of music. Minor handwritten edits to phrasing.

Die Musik des Dr. Faustus

Manuscript of article on the role of music in Thomas Mann's "Doktor Faustus." Discusses the relationship of Leverkühn's music with contemporary music, the role of music in the idea of a German state, and the theological implications of the novel. Also draws on Mann's public speeches. Edited in Zuckerkandl's hand, lightest at the beginning and heavier toward the end. Edits change phrasing or add to the original draft, but without changes to the original ideas.

Theoretical Harmony and the Understanding of Music

Similar to "Harmonic Analysis and the Understanding of Music" (Misc100_V_24a). The general content and order of material is the same, but elaborates upon some concepts such as Ur-phenomena. Adds scientific understanding as a form of understanding, alongside linguistic and mechanical - music should be understood in this way, rather than as a non-signifying language. Adds some examples and includes citations of contemporary theorists' work, including that of Hindemith and Piston. Includes Schenkerian graphs and musical examples. Minor edits to phrasing.

Harmonic Analysis and the Understanding of Music

Essay analyzing how current understandings of harmony as they are practiced do not contribute to an understanding of music's actual nature. Zuckerkandl states that harmonic analyses often fail to discern what is and is not a chord, and further fail to differentiate between degrees of modulation. Explains mechanical (understanding causes) and linguistic (understanding meaning) forms of understanding. Argues against the mechanical in favour of the linguistic, which is expressed in Ur-phenomena of music—a Schenkerian view which unites chordal function with movement of tones. When an analysis is unclear, we should trust our ear's understanding of a chord's function over how the chord appears in isolation. Includes Schenkerian graphs and musical examples.

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