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University of Toronto Archives and Records Management Services Series
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Personal files

This series contains biographical sketches compiled for internal University of Toronto purposes and for several biographical dictionaries (ca. 1960-1992), including a selection of photographs; a personal data file compiled by Professor Glass in July, 1986; certificates and diplomas for academic and honorary degrees and other awards (1947-1986); and press clippings (1977-1985).

Correspondence

Dr. Glass was a prolific letter writer and this series represents only a small portion of his total output. The remainder will be found in accession B94-0033. There are two "personal correspondence files" from his office, covering the years 1964-1966 and 1968-1971. The remaining eight files contain extensive personal correspondence for the months of April, 1981 to mid-July, 1982, and October, 1987 through October, 1988, witha few letters for 1983, 1985 and 1993.

The "personal correspondence files" from his office encompass the personal side of his professional work, such as invitations to conferences and speaking engagements, references, and internal reports and meetings.

The personal correspondence for 1981-1982 relates primarily to Dr. Glass being appointed a University Professor, to his part in the campaign on behalf of Andrei Sakharov and other Soviet refusniks and dissidents, to exchange programs between the University of Toronto and other universities, and to conferences. The files for 1987 and 1988 contain much correspondence by the Committee of Concerned Scientists on the extradition of Nazi war criminals, particularly Alois Brunner, and on the campaign to allow Soviet Jewish refusniks to emigrate. Most of the remaining letters are devoted to a discussion to Professor Glass's ongoing research and writings and to his interest in Jews in China.

The arrangement is chronological.

Addresses and public lectures

Dr. Glass was much sought after as a public lecturer and gave freely of his time. Most of the addresses relate to his professional work, but he also took time to share his private passions, especially the utilization of geothermal energy and his research on the Jews in China. The last arose from his invitations to visit China in 1980 and 1985, where he was awarded an honorary professorship from the prestigious Nanjing Aeronautical Institute.

The files contain drafts of addresses, covering correspondence, notes, programs, press coverage, photoprints and slides.

Professional associations and conferences

Dr. Glass belonged to many professional associations, in some of which he played a very active role. He was also much in demand as an adviser to and participant in conferences in his areas of specialization. This series reflects his involvement in these areas; additional information may also be found in the addresses in series 10.

There are extensive files are on the fluid dynamics divisions of the American Physical Society and NASA, on the aerodynamics committee of the National Research Council of Canada, and on the geothermal energy study of the Science Council of Canada, which Dr. Glass headed. The conferences represented are mostly international ones on gasdynamics and shock tubes. Dr. Glass also sat on a number of editorial boards and was the founder of the journal, Shock Waves.

The material in this series includes correspondence, programs, minutes, reports, lecture notes, addresses, press clippings, and photographs.

Manuscripts and publications

This series contains manuscripts and the occasional offprint of book reviews, articles, chapters of books, and books written by Dr. Glass. There is also covering correspondence, contracts, notes, reviews, and photoprints tipped in with the manuscripts. The arrangement is chronological.

This series is very incomplete; it contains material on only about 50 of the approximately 200 publications written or co-authored by Dr. Glass. There are no manuscripts or publications, for example, for the years 1954, 1960, 1963-1966, 1969, 1973, 1984, and 1987, and the years represented are not always complete. For some of the publications, there is only covering correspondence; for others, the manuscript is incomplete; and for a few, there is only an offprint.

Graphic material

This series consists of photoprints, photonegatives, and slides assembled by Dr. Glass in the course of his research, teaching duties, his writing, and for his public addresses and lectures, which are not specifically connected to manuscript material in other series.

The arrangement of the photographs and negatives is generally by topic. There is a representative sampling of images from the Institute for Aerospace Studies, of Dr. Glass' involvement with Avro Corporation and with NASA, and of various aspects of his research.

A number of the slides relate to unidentified lectures. The remainder is arranged by topic, generally in alphabetical order.

Boxes B1994/0033/003P, 009P, and 010P contain material that largely, or in part, belongs to series 9.

Administrative files (University of Toronto)

Dr. Glass held several administrative positions in the Institute for Aerospace Studies. From 1961-1966 he was its chairman and from 1968 to 1974 it’s assistant director of education. Most of the records from both of these positions have remained in the respective administrative jurisdictions.

The files in this series include Dr. Glass' "activity reports" (1975-1993), minutes of the Institute's council meetings (1975-1977) and its advisory committee (1976); proposals for buildings, teaching assignments, and post-doctoral fellowships; correspondence concerning visiting professors and exchange students from the Soviet Union (1962-1988) and China (1981-1982), and correspondence about Pathways to Excellence, the history of UTIAS (1976).

Teaching files and lecture notes

Dr. Glass' teaching career began in the autumn of 1950 when he was appointed a research associate in the then Institute of Aerophysics. His earliest surviving lectures are on boundary layer theory, but he became best known for his fourth year course in gasdynamics (ASE 1048, AER 410S), and his graduate courses: non-stationary gasdynamics and wave interactions (1009); shock waves in continuous media, a reading course (1014); gas flows at high temperature (1302, 1402); hypersonic gasdynamics (2003); and his gasdynamics seminar (2045X). While his career was spent at Institute, he also taught elsewhere, especially during sabbatical leave, and was in much demand as a visiting lecturer.

This series consists largely of lecture notes, mostly by Dr. Glass but including some by other specialists in areas such as boundary layer and wing theory. Included are assignments, problem sets, examination questions, course evaluations by students, and a single file on the Institute's Gasdynamics Group (1975-1984).

This series begins with the surviving lecture files from the year (1957-1958) Dr. Glass taught at the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London while on sabbatical. Next are his teacher and course evaluations at the University of Toronto (1969-1980); general examination files (1955-1967); and lecture notes, problems sets and examinations, grouped by course and arranged, as far as possible, chronologically within each course. The principal courses are: advanced mechanics, aerodynamic measurements, boundary layer theory, dynamics of space flight, wing theory, gasdynamics, and shock waves. The files begin in 1950 and end in 1984, the year of Dr. Glass' retirement.

Course notes

Irvine Glass entered the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering at the University of Toronto as an undergraduate in the fall of 1938. He left at the end of his second year to serve in the Royal Canadian Air Force during the Second World War, where he served as an aeronautical engineer and wireless air gunner. In the fall of 1945, he was back on campus. His principal courses now were in engineering mechanics, aircraft design and heat engines, and he graduated with honours in aeronautical engineering in 1947. He enrolled in graduate studies in the fall, at the same time acting as an instructor at the Subsonic Wind Tunnel at the University of Toronto. He obtained his MASc in the spring of 1948 and in the fall enrolled as a doctoral student under Gordon Patterson in the new Institute of Aerophysics, where he specialized in the study of the effect of shock waves. The title of his doctoral thesis is "The design and development of a wave interaction tube for the study of non-linear waves."

This series contains course notes and laboratory notes; problem sets, including one from his doctoral program on the absorption of shock waves; seminars on the kinetic theory of gases and blast time in supersonic wind tunnels that he conducted in 1950; and a copy of his doctoral thesis. The arrangement is by academic year and alphabetically by course within each year.

Research and research contract files

Dr. Glass kept a number of research files, which he arranged by subject, but most relate to research contracts with Canadian and American government agencies.

The general research files include lab books from the early 1950s, and correspondence, research proposals, notes, research data, and photoprints from 1950 to 1981. Dr. Glass provided titles such as "spherical shock tubes", "spherical explosions", and "sonic boom", the material on the last topic, in particular, being related to the research projects mentioned below. Dr. Glass also maintained files on the following granting agencies: the Canada Council, the National Research Council, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, and the Connaught Research Fund at the University of Toronto.

The greatest volume of material in this series relates to research projects funded by government agencies. They are arranged by the name of the agency and by the contract(s) for each. The Canadian contracts were with AECL, Transport Canada, the Defence Research Establishment (Sheffield, Alberta), and Pratt and Whitney Canada. American contracts were with the Defence Nuclear Agency, NASA, and the research offices of the Air Force, Army and Navy. There are three research proposals, for which funding apparently was not granted, in this series, and two review reports for research projects by others.

Correspondence

This series contains Dr. Glass' extensive correspondence files on a wide variety of personal and professional issues. The arrangement by broad topics (consulting, 1955-1982; "personal" correspondence from his office, 1950-1969), then general correspondence, filed chronologically (1959-1987), and finally by alphabetically by name of organization for the files relating to Dr. Glass' involvement in Jewish issues.

The last category begins with files on Canada-Israel cultural exchange, including the work of the Canada-Israel Chamber of Commerce and Industry (1972-1981). These are followed by files of the University of Toronto chapter of Canadian Professors for Peace in the Middle East (1974-1987), but the greatest volume relates to the conditions of Jews in the Soviet Union. Much of the work on this issue was done through the Canadian Academic Committee for Soviet Jewry and the Committee of Concerned Scientists, including its Canadian branch. Of particular concern was the treatment of the scientist, Benjamin Levich, in whose honour conferences were organized. Dr. Glass played a very active role in these events.

The files on Jewish issues contain, in addition to letters, press coverage, notes, memoranda, and minutes.

Student and related files

Dr. Glass maintained a series of files on his students, mostly those theses he supervised. He maintained a lively correspondence with many who later became significant academics and researchers in their own right. He also kept files on colleagues and visiting professors with which he was engaged directly in research or with whom he exchanged ideas.

The records contain correspondence, biographical data, notes, memoranda, and appraisals of research projects and theses.

Sabbatical leave and trips

Dr. Glass was granted sabbatical leave in 1957-1958, 1970-1971, and 1974-1975. His first leave was spent in England, primarily at the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London. His proposed sabbatical leave for 1966-1967 had to be postponed and he took it in 1970-1971. He arranged a global trip, which took him to the 8th International Shock Tube Symposium in London and the International Symposium on the Dynamics of Ionized Gases in Tokyo.

In 1972 he began planning for his next sabbatical. It began in England, and continued through France, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Denmark. As his book, Shock Waves and Man, had recently appeared, he was much in demand both in academic and research (both military and civilian) circles as a speaker. He then went on to Israel, Iran, India, Thailand, Hong Kong, and Japan. While in Japan as a visiting professor, he attended the 10th International Shock Tube Symposium. He returned to Toronto via Hawaii, San Francisco and Chicago, giving lectures and seminars as he went.

In addition to his sabbatical leaves, Dr. Glass travelled widely. His first major trip was to the USSR in 1961, with a side vacation to Israel. In 1963, he visited a number of universities in the mid and western United States. In 1965, he was back in Europe attending the VII Symposium on Advanced Problems and Methods in Fluid Dynamics in Poland. In 1980, he made another tour of the Far East, visiting China as a guest of the Academy of Sciences, and then going on to Japan. In 1985, he made a return visit, receiving an "honorary professoriate" from the Nanjing Aeronautical Institute.

The files contain correspondence, calendars and diaries, notes, research notes, conference programs, abstracts, drafts of lectures and addresses, and photoprints. There is extensive material on the symposia mentioned above.

Personal files

This small series contains Dr. Glass' curriculum vitae, entries for biographical dictionaries, press clippings and articles; appointment calendars for 1974 and 1976; files from his employment as a stress analysts at Canadair (1945) and in 1947 as an aeronautical engineer with the Canadian Car and Foundry; and a file containing an offer of a position at Technion, the Israel Institute of Technology (1971-1972).

Photographs

This series contains a small number of loose photos, some of which would have been collected, others taken by Dr. Benson. Early snapshots relate to Benson’s summer at Muskoka, the Blake summer residence, La Maison Rouge and La Caprice and her trip(s) to Europe. This series also contain 2 photo albums documenting the Benson/Blake families including trips, summer homes, Terralta, Port Hope.

Other activities

In 1921, Dr. Benson was elected the first president of the Women’s Athletic Association of University of Toronto and was involved from the beginning in the campaign to build an athletic building for women. Among the records relating to this activity are correspondence, notes, financial statements and blueprints of proposed buildings. Also included in this series are correspondence, minutes and reports relating to her work as Chair of the Foreign Committee of the YWCA (Young Women’s Christian Association) focusing primarily on an international survey on leadership (1930-1932). Other documents include two undated and unsigned manuscripts of stories, a collection of cards acquired during a trip to the Chicago World’s Fair in 1893, and a scrapbook of pressed flowers with identification collected by Clara Benson ca 1890’s.

University of Toronto

This series contains predominantly records documenting her academic activities at the University of Toronto. There is correspondence, reports, notes and plans documenting Benson's efforts, along with others, to have a women's athletic building built. The documentation dates from the 1920s through to the 1940s. There is also correspondence and notes relating to other aspects of physical education for women including a proposed affiliation with the Margaret Eaton School as well as a plan for an Ontario College of Physical Education for Women. Finally there is correspondence with colleagues and publication houses relating to the acquisition of off prints of articles as well as a few brochures on events she attended at the University.
Three items were added to this series from B2018-0019: a scrapbook mainly documenting Benson’s career, a Macleans issue from April 1915 describing the graduates of the School of Household Science and a 6oth Anniversary Program for the Faculty of House Hold Science, 1960.

Personal correspondence

This series contains mainly correspondence received by Clara Benson from family and friends. Two files contain correspondence that is undated, but seems to be predominantly created prior to her retirement in 1945. Correspondents include, among others, letters from her parents, her brother Bingley, her sisters Constance, Jessie, and Ethel, cousins, school friends, professors such as A. B. Macallum, and colleagues such as Professor Annie Laird. Subjects discussed include studies at University of Toronto, congratulations on her doctorate in 1903, postcards home to family about her trip to Europe in 1904, and 1910-1913, matters relating to her involvement on the Executive Committee of the Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions (1912), and other professional and academic activities. Also includes file of correspondence about and from French children sponsored by Dr. Benson such as Maryse Deslandes and Madeleine Killian (1958-1964).

Sound recordings

-Talk by Skilling on CBC Radio, recorded 10 September 1945 [3 "78" discs]
-Interview on the BBC, "Czechoslovakia", August 1978 [1 reel]
-"Central Europe", CBC Ideas, n.d. [1 cassette tape]

Photographs

Photos documenting Cyril Ruttkay's injuries following a hit-and-run accident; participants in the 429th Conference of the Bellagio Study and Conference Centre "Canada and the European Security Experience", July 1980.

Moving images

"Human Rights and the Helsinki Process", afternoon session, 2-4 pm, Association for the Advancement of Baltic
studies, 8 November 1986.

Awards and recognition

This series consists of awards, diplomas, certificates, honorary degrees, and medals awarded to Professor Skilling throughout his career—many of which are from the Czech Republic. In May 2012, several items were loaned for an exhibition in Prague (and have been returned).

All items in box /007 are oversize materials and were tightly curled. They are now stored in individual folders within a flat document box.

The medals remain in their original cases and have been indicated below. The boxes have not been numbered individually, however they should be identifiable based on the descriptions below. All medals and other artifacts are boxed together.

When appropriate, the original Czech text has been listed along with approximate English translations in square brackets.

Personal life

This series consists of personal items belonging to Professor Skilling, including address books, photographs and slides, an identification card, and his marriage certificate issued in Czechoslovakia (with corresponding Canadian documentation).

The photographs have been organized according to portraits, personal and family life, early school, professional life, and slides. The majority of the photographs are annotated and dated on the verso, and the slides are numbered and dated. Two photographs in “Professional life” [B2012-0005/001P(04)] that are not annotated or dated show Professor Skilling receiving an honorary degree (LL.D) from the University of Toronto in 1982. He is flanked by President James Ham and Chancellor George Ignatieff.

There are four newspaper clippings related to Professor Skilling. The first is a congratulatory message, possibly published in a newsletter issued by the West United Church, about Skilling having won The Gundy-Doran scholarship [dated between 1929-1934]. The second clipping is a photograph of Skilling and his Harbord Collegiate institute junior basketball team [ca. 1928-29]. The third clipping is an article entitled “Viet Nam situation called threat to unity” [1966]. Skilling is quoted and discussed at length in the article. The final clipping is a profile (in English) on H. Gordon Skilling, published in The Prague Post in 1994.

Academic work

This series consists of Professor Skilling’s academic work, including research notes, materials related to his doctoral thesis (The German-Czech National Conflict in Bohemia, 1879-1893), and materials related to the revision his doctoral thesis (The Czech-German Conflict in Bohemia, 1867-1914). These three kinds of academic material have been identified by headings within the file list. All file titles are provided by Skilling’s own filing system, unless otherwise indicated by square brackets.

The research notes were likely used to support the writing of Skilling’s theses. Some of the notes have been organized by Skilling according to subject, whereas others are organized by date. The notes organized by dates have tabbed subjects inserted into the research notes; however, these subjects have not been listed in the finding aid. All notes refer to Central and Eastern Europe. Although the research notes are not dated, they are assumed to correspond with his theses and have been dated accordingly.

Records relating specifically to Skilling’s doctoral thesis consist of drafts, notes, and research material. The thesis was titled “The German-Czech National Conflict in Bohemia, 1879-1893,” was completed between 1936 and 1940, and was approved in June of 1940.

Records relating to the revised thesis, The Czech-German Conflict in Bohemia, 1867-1914, consist primarily of notes and drafts contributing to the revision. There is also correspondence between Skilling and several other academics and publishers, much of which deals with publication of the finished thesis and requests for research material that would be available in North America [“Thesis Revision 1946,” /005(01)]. There are drafts and correspondence with Henry L. Roberts, the editor of the Slavic Review, regarding the publication of an article by Skilling entitled “Social and Economic Aspects of the Czech-German Conflict in Bohemia in the Late Nineteenth Century.” The subject of this article corresponds to the second chapter of Skilling’s revised thesis. Skilling worked on the revision beginning in 1946 and up to at least the 1970s, when it was rejected for publication by the University of Toronto Press. The records have therefore been dated as such.

Videos

‘After the Velvet Revolution’. Berkeley, CA: Moira Productions, 1992. VHS video. Skilling acted as a consultant on this production.

Graphic records

The photographs in this series document the life of Professor Gordon Skilling and members of his family over most of the 20th century. Included are images to Eastern Europe and specifically Czechoslovakia taken during Skilling's trips over six decades. These are mainly contained in albums and show many of Skilling's colleagues in Eastern Europe, including Vilem Precan and Vaclav Havel, along with many organized meetings and events.
Notebooks with entries about lists of slides taken on trips to England and Europe between 1961 and 1973 are filed in /050(23).

Researchers may wish to look at these albums in conjunction with the journals in series 5 and 7 in Sous-fonds 3.

Research files

Over the years, Professor Skilling assembled a large number of research files which contained a great variety of material, including notes, correspondence, press clippings (especially from Czechoslovak, other Eastern European newspapers, and Canadian newspapers written in Czech), photocopies of articles, pamphlets, and books.

A selection of these research files has been retained in this series; the material not kept was turned over to members of the Skilling Seminar for their use. The files are grouped into several subject areas, following Professor Skilling’s arrangement and, for the most part, his file descriptions. The emphasis in selection was on original notes, heavily annotated items, correspondence, memoranda, drafts of papers and addresses, and material from conferences and seminars.

The first research area is on Czechoslovakia generally (1966-2000), with its files on the country’s political culture and political reform, political activists, and conferences [box 031]. The latter include the International Political Science Association roundtable in Zagreb in 1985, ‘Ten years after’ conference in Prague (1999), and the Forum 2000 conference in the same city. There is also material on the breakup of Czechoslovakia. Accompanying these files are two boxes [036, 037] of index card notes – one on Czech politics and one a bibliography of Czech politics.

The second category of files [boxes 033-034] consists of material gathered by Professor Skilling for his numerous writings about Tomas Masaryk, including his T. G. Masaryk: Against the current, published in English and Czech in 1994. The first part consists primarily of general writings about Masaryk, along with accompanying notes, correspondence, etc. The arrangement in the latter portion is by subject areas, of which the principal ones are: ‘the Slovak questions’, ‘the Jewish question’, ‘religion’, ‘the women’s question’ and ‘foreign policy’. Accompanying these files is a index card box of entries on Masaryk generally, on his writings, on works about him and on searches to be carried out [box 038, 038a and 038b].

The final category [box 035] relates to Vaclav Havel. In it is correspondence between him and Professor Skilling and copies of letters to Vilem Precan, along with files of interviews, addresses, and honours bestowed; Havel’s visits abroad (including the University of Toronto in 1990); his writings (with notes by Skilling), and material documenting his involvement with Charter 77.

Oversized material has been removed from /034(10) and (12) to /003(04), and from box 034(27) to box 003(05).

A poster has been removed from /035(23) to folder .(02).

Photoprints have been removed from /032(04) and (05) to box 009P(12).

Manuscripts and publications

Professor Skilling began writing at an early age; his first attempt at publication, a short story 'Trapping in the Rockies’, was submitted to the Toronto Evening Telegram in 1923. While this series documents his prodigious output over a period of almost 80 years, the focus is on his youth and his early career (before 1960) and from the early 1980s until his death.

The series begins with a file of correspondence regarding offprints (1984-1985), followed by three files of book notices and reviews (1940-1999). Professor Skillings writings are arranged by the title of the manuscript or publication and are filed chronologically. The files contain drafts of manuscripts, sometimes with notes and often with covering correspondence, reviews and offprints. Much material relating to Skilling’s writings may be found in other accessions in this fonds.

The earliest entries were written while a public, high school and university student. Skilling managed one publication from his trip across the United States and Canada in 1933, an article in the local paper in The Danforth region of Toronto where he lived. What may be is his first ‘academic’ article, “The Marxian dips into the future”, was published in University College’s student periodical, The Undergraduate, in March 1933. At Oxford, he really began to find his footing. His reported in the New Statesman on the British Labour Party’s annual conference in 1936; this was followed shortly by a series of articles in the Canadian Forum (1937-1939), most of which discussed the evolving political situation in Czechoslovakia. During World War II, he wrote on a variety of topics, ranging from the political situation in the Balkans to Canadian-American relations.

After his retirement, Professor Skilling had more time to write. Some of his projects, including a selection of essays under the title, ‘The riddle of Communist politics’, and a proposed book on the Velvet Revolution, did not materialize. His observations of the changing political landscape in Czechoslovakia and Eastern Europe, especially on Charter 77 and samizdat, rapidly found their way into print. In the late 1980s and the 1990s Skilling turned his attention to historical figures in Czech history, especially the Masaryks – Tomas, Charlotte, and Alice, and to his own memoirs. His book, T. G. Masaryk: Against the current [see box 042], appeared in English in 1994 and Czech in 1995. He prepared two long articles on Charlotte and Alice for Komas, and Gender Studies in Prague published his Mother and daughter: Charlotte and Alice Masaryk in 2001 [see box 044]. His translation of Alice’s correspondence with Josip Plecnik, the architect of Prague Castle [see boxes 045-047], appeared just before his death.

Professor Skilling’s memoirs, The education of a Canadian, appeared in English and Czech in 2001 [see boxes 047-049], a few weeks before he died. The numerous delays in publication, caused in part by the collapse of Carleton University Press, are well documented.

Oversized material has been removed from /040(25) to folder .(03).

Photoprints relating to Professor Skilling’s research on and writing about Charlotte Masaryk have been removed from /044(03) to /009P(13); from /044(04) to /009P(14), from /044(06) to /009P(15), and from /044(07) to /009P(16).

Slides of the portrait of Gordon Skilling by Maria Gabanhova have been removed from /048(07) to /009P(17).

Addresses

The addresses in this series date from Professor Skilling’s return to Canada in 1959. Most were delivered at conferences, with those from 1986 on dealing primarily with Tomas Masaryk. The principal Masaryk conferences represented are those at the University of London (1986) and in Prague (1994 and 2000). Included also is Skilling’s address on Masaryk given on the occasion of his receiving an honorary degree from Charles University in 1990, and the series of lectures he delivered on Masaryk in Prague in 1992. Other conferences represented include the Conference on the Prague Spring in Paris and the Institute for Slovene Emigration Studies in Ljubljana, Slovenia (both in 1998).

An audiotape of a lecture given by Professor Skilling in Prague in April, 1994 is filed as /06S

Diaries and travel journals

Gordon Skilling began keeping diaries when he was a boy; the earliest includes accounts of trips to New York City and Montreal respectively in February and October 1921. These diaries, which described later trips to the United States and to Muskoka, continued until 1932, the entries between 1928 and 1932 being intermittent.

There is a gap of 36 years before the next journal begins. Between 1958 and the end of his life, Professor Skilling kept travel journals, relating especially to Czechoslovakia and other destinations in Eastern Europe. These are arranged chronologically, are often accompanied by supporting correspondence, programs and other items picked up along the way, and by photographs (see Series XI). The journals are usually described as ‘notebooks’, though many are in diary format. Professor Skilling often combined the diary format, with dated entries, with notes on what he had seen and with whom he had met, either in the same notebook or separately. These journals should be consulted in conjunction with the relevant chapters in his autobiography, The education of a Canadian, which helps put them in perspective.

Correspondence

This series consists of personal correspondence between Professor Skilling and his family, friends and colleagues. Most of it is from the last 20 years of his life and relates primarily to his interest in central and east European affairs. Some of the correspondence is arranged chronologically – especially the letters covering the years 1991-2001. Also arranged chronologically and grouped separately are postcards and greeting cards with extensive messages for the years 1939-2001 (a few of the latter have photoprints attached). There are a few letters from Skilling to his parents and Sally from the 1940s, also correspondence with Derek Paton, a former student, and especially with his old Czech friends, Jelka and Olga Haningerova and Vilem Precan. There are also small files of correspondence on the Jan Hus Fund and the issue of public lending rights.

Journals and appointment books

In August of 1941, as Gordon Skilling left United College in Winnipeg for his first academic appointment in the United States, he began to keep a detailed journal of his activities. This journal was continued for the next fifteen years, until June of 1956, and covers the crucial period during which he established himself academically and became recognized as an authority on the Soviet Union and countries behind the Iron Curtain, especially Czechoslovakia.

It was an exciting and challenging time for him; the University of Wisconsin had a reputation as a dynamic liberal institution of higher learning. He arrived, however, just as the United States’ entered World War II amid a rising fear of communism (in spite of the need for co-operation with the Soviet Union, which Skilling advocated), both of which had an impact on the university and on him. From May 1943 until the end of the War, he was back in Canada as director of the CBC’s European short-wave radio broadcasts in its new International Service. On returning to Madison, he discovered a university in decline and his own position in doubt – he was denied promotion to associate professorship and tenure. So, in 1947 he left to accept an assistant
professorship at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire. He spent the summer of 1948 in Czechoslovakia, his first visit since 1939, where he witnessed first-hand the establishment of communist rule in the country and which he described in detail in his journal. Back in the United States a fellowship enabled him to study and research at Columbia. In 1950 he returned to Czechoslovakia to research the emerging system of communist rule there and to experience it through the new bureaucracy, the political show trials, and the constant stream of propaganda. In 1951 he was promoted to full professor in his department and was also given leave to return to the Russian Institute at Columbia for the 1952-1953 academic year. He found, however, that the anti-communist hysteria of the McCarthy era had an impact on his scholarly activities – two of his books were turned down – and on him personally. In 1955 he was questioned by an agent of the US immigration service, had to appear before a state anti-subversive committee. Shortly after the journal ends, Skilling’s green card was cancelled and he
was not permitted to leave the country, even for his brother Andy’s funeral, until he was issued a new visa in June 1958.

The remainder of the series consists of a broken run of appointment books and calendars for the following years (with number of copies in brackets): 1961, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1989, 1991 (2), 1992 (2), 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999 (2), 2000 (2), and 2001. The entries, though cryptic, provide the researcher with an overview of Professor Skilling’s activities at any one point or over a period of time.

Education

This series covers the Gordon Skilling’s formal education from his attendance at Grace Street Public School through Harbord Collegiate, the University of Toronto (BA 1934), taking his Rhodes Scholarship at the University of Oxford, and the writing of his doctoral thesis at the University of London. The files are arranged chronologically by degree.

For Grace Street Public School, the files include letters from his classmates at Grace Street Public School and certificates. At Harbord Collegiate, in addition to his studies and piano lessons from the Toronto Conservatory of Music, Skilling was very active in extra-curricular activities: he was president of the Literary Society, editor of the Harbord Review, battalion commander of the cadet corps, and played defence on the basketball team which won the city high school championship in 1928-1929. These activities are documented in the form of term papers, examinations, speeches, scholarship essays, and a scrapbook [box 011] that covers his activities at Harbord Collegiate and the University of Toronto, and documents his trip across North America in the summer of 1933 (see also Series I in this sous-fonds). The scrapbook contains correspondence, dance cards, maps, press clippings, programmes, announcements of student activities, pamphlets, and photographs.

At the University of Toronto, Skilling studied British and colonial history and some modern Canadian and American history, standing first in his class in all but his final year. He was very active in campus politics, including the University College Literary and Athletic Society (of which he was elected president), the Students’ Administrative Council. He helped reorganize the Fabius Club in the autumn of 1932 and a year later, following his momentous trip across North America, was a founder of the CCF Club. Other activities included serving as associate editor of the Varsity and as a member of the Hart House Debates Committee.

His academic activities are well documented in the form of term papers for each of his undergraduate years and in his BA thesis. These files and those on the CCF Club and the Hart House debates are of particular interest. They document his movement from an apolitical period in high school to an activist in the social and political ferment of the time and, soon, to accepting the socialist philosophies promoted by many of his professors at the U of T and, later, at Oxford.

In December 1933 Gordon was informed that he had been awarded a Rhodes scholarship to study at Oxford University. He left for Christ Church, Oxford, in September of 1934, where he remained until 1936. While there, he studied under what he described as “outstanding dons, including Michael Foster and A. J. Ayers, in philosophy; Roy Harrod, in economics; Keith Feiling, in British history; and the Hon. Frank Pakenham in politics and international relations. He also, in the summer of 1935, visited Central Europe for the first time and in the autumn met Sally Bright, then a student at the London School of Economics. In the fall of 1936, having received a high second at Oxford, and having had his scholarship extended, Gordon went to London to complete his doctorate under R. W. Seton-Watson, under whom his growing interest in Czech culture and politics flourished, as did his relationship with Sally. At Easter in 1936 he and Sally spent five weeks in Chepstow in Monmouthshire, a time that is preserved in an album that he compiled (see Series XII, Appendix III). In 1940 Gordon successfully defended his thesis, ‘The German-Czech national conflict in Bohemia, 1879-1893’.

The files on his graduate work contain detailed notes on readings and tutorials, especially on political theory, social philosophy and social psychology. There are also exam questions for his courses at Oxford, correspondence relating to the degrees of BA and MA (Oxon.), and a copy of his doctoral dissertation. Accompanying these files is
a scrapbook, containing press clippings, programmes, photographs and memorabilia covering his years at Oxford and the University of London, with additional material for his visit to London in 1948 [see /012].

Skilling’s diploma from Harbord Collegiate is filed in /003(03).

Photographs relating to his basketball team at Harbord Collegiate have been removed from box 008 (08) to box 009P (01) – (03). Loose photographs relating to his activities at the University of Toronto have been removed from the Harbord Collegiate/ University of Toronto scrapbook [box 011] to box 009P(04) – (07).

Skilling’s University College ‘letter’ [badge] is filed as B2001-0017/008(26).

Personal

This series contains biographical information, address books, business cards, correspondence, greeting cards, notes and passports relating primarily to personal activities, including Gordon and Sally’s friendship with many people in Czechoslovakia, and honours bestowed on him over his lifetime. Included are files relating to the Skilling family generally, biographical sketches and curriculum vitae, and files relating to his 70th and 88th birthday parties (1982 and 2000). There is also a scrapbook of greeting cards and postcards received from friends in Czechoslovakia between 1964 and 1982, and files on honours bestowed – including his festschrift, and Czech awards – Order of the White Lion (1992), Czech Academy of Sciences (1994), and the T. G. Masaryk honorary medal (1999).

In 1933 Gordon hitchhiked and rode freight trains across North America, first to the founding convention of the CCF in Regina, writing letters back to his parents along the way and also describing activities at that famous gathering itself, and then on to the West Coast. His correspondence and the pamphlets, brochures and press coverage he collected survive in this series. He later attributed these experiences as being the seminal event that shaped the evolution of his political views.

Other files in this series provide glimpses of his activities late in the 1930s and in the 1940s, and of his return to Toronto in 1959. They also document of his extra-curricular activities, first as a teenager with the West United Church Club (1926-1927), then as an alumnus of Clinton Street Public School and of Harbord Collegiate in Toronto, and finally as a member of the Canadian Association of Rhodes Scholars. The series ends with selected messages of sympathy and other items relating to the death of his beloved wife, Sally, in 1990.

The scrapbook of greeting cards from friends in Czechoslovakia is filed in box 051.

Oversized material has been removed from /007 (11) to file .(01).

Photoprints taken in the 1980s and 1990s of Professor Skilling, Helen Hogg, Czech friends and the Jazz Section, a semi-official agency under the Union of Musicians in Prague, are filed in /009(07)-(11).

An audiotape of the presentation of the Order of the White Lion to Professor Skilling on 8 May 1992 and of the Stefanik medal ceremony is filed as /02S. An audiotape relating to Professor Skilling’s birthday (which one?) is filed as /03S; audiotapes documenting the 75th anniversary celebrations of Harbord Collegiate Institute are filed as /04S and 05S.

University of Toronto and the Living Room Seminar

The records in this series are divided into two sections. The first consists of a few files relating to Professor Skilling’s appointment to the University of Toronto and his activities as an administrator and professor in the Centre for Russian and East European Studies and as professor emeritus. Included are appointment files (1959, 1979-1994); correspondence, notes, and memoranda on various administrative issues, lecture notes (1968-1973), and correspondence with graduate students and other researchers (1985-2001). The files are grouped by type.

The second section contains correspondence files relating to the seminar variously known as the Living Room Seminar, the Flying Seminar, and the Czech Seminar. This seminar, which Skilling described in his autobiography as “the most exciting and stimulating development in my life” in his last years, was conducted informally in his living room, beginning in 1996. Meetings were held every month or so, initially with graduate students in Toronto working on Czech(oslovak) history and politics, but later
including other interested parties, and usually with a guest-speaker on a Czech subject. The seminar continues to take place and is now known as the Skilling Seminar. The files are arranged chronologically and by author.

Photoprints of the retirement party for the secretary of the Department of Political Science are filed as /009P(18).

Family scrapbooks

This series contains three scrapbooks that were assembled by Gordon Skilling to document the history of his family.

The first, titled ‘Dad Skilling (W. W. Skilling) and his father, John Skilling’, documents the history of the family from 1828 until 1927. It includes poems,
correspondence, photographs, telegrams; birth, baptismal and citizenship certificates, and wills documenting the history of the family from the time William Watt Skilling’s grandfather left Leith in Scotland about 1828, through his move to London and, subsequently, the family’s emigration to Canada in 1907 and eventually to Toronto. It ends with correspondence and documents relating to deaths in 1917 of John Skilling and Gordon’s brother, Donald, killed in action at the age of 19, and subsequent correspondence relating to John’s estate.

The second and third scrapbooks were compiled later in life by Gordon Skilling as a memorial to Donald; they also contain material relating to his brother, William, who was seriously wounded in battle but recovered. The second scrapbook contains photographs of Donald’s childhood and youth, and as a member of the 81st Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force; letters and postcards home while training in England and later from France, along with a diary (1916), a copy of the CEF’s Regimental Songs, 1914-1915, press clippings and memorabilia. There are also some letters from William and, finally, telegrams and letters to family from military authorities on Donald’s death.

The third scrapbook contains letters to Donald from his brother, Will, and his comrades, the nurse, commanding officer and chaplain and official letters concerning his grave, personal affects and estate. There are also letters of sympathy from relatives and friends. There are also a number of photographs, including ones of the temporary marker at his gravesite at Aubigny and later photographs of the permanent marker during taken during a family visit in 1919.

Association files

Files contain mainly correspondence, reports and minutes documenting Skilling's involvement in various associations.

Correspondence

Files contain incoming and outgoing correspondence mainly of an academic nature. Some correspondence is personal in nature.

Card indices

These boxes contains card indicies under numerous bibliographic headings on Communism in Czechoslovakia and the history of the Czech Communist party between 1918 and 1958.

Publication projects

This series documents, through correspondence, notes, financial statements, and drafts of manuscripts, three publication projects concerning opposition to communist regimes in eastern Europe, two of which were realized.

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